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Science Vision for European Astronomy

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Title: Science Vision for European Astronomy


1
Science Vision for European Astronomy
16 June 2008
  • A first step in the Building of a European
    Astronomy
  • For the Science Working Group Catherine Turon,
    Observatoire de Paris, GEPI-UMR CNRS 8111

2
Milestones to Science Vision
  • March 2006 start of Science Vision (SV) 4 panels
    SVWG 50 scientists
  • Dec 2006 first draft of the report public
  • 23-25 Jan 2007 Poitiers symposium (228
    participants from 31 countries)
  • Dec 2006 - March 2007 inputs from the community
  • March - Sept 2007 sharpening of the scientific
    requirements improvement of the balance across
    the 4 areas
  • Sept 2007 publication of the report

3
Ambitious Plans
  • European astronomy plans through 2025
  • Would require several GEuro new
    investment/operations
  • EU may fund a modest fraction (cf FP7)
  • Bulk of the support to come from funding agencies
  • Funding agencies request comprehensive plan
  • Covering all of astronomy, ground and space,
    including links with neighbouring fields
  • Founded ASTRONET to develop this plan together
    with entire European astronomical community
  • Prototype for equivalent of US Decadal Surveys

4
Developing the Science Vision
  • Identify a few broad questions
  • Identify recent progress and progress expected
    from already planned facilities
  • Identify open key questions
  • Identify means to solve them
  • Observations, simulations, laboratory
    experiments, interpretation and theory
  • Identify key types of facilities needed to make
    progress
  • Twenty year horizon
  • Make use of available documents
  • National plans, ESAs Cosmic Vision, ESA-ESO
    studies

5
Four broad questions
  • Do we understand the extremes of the Universe?
  • How do galaxies form and evolve?
  • What is the origin and evolution of stars and
    planets?
  • How do we fit in?
  • Set up of a panel per question A to D

6
For each broad question
  • A brief introduction with the science background
    and the recent progress
  • The identification and summary of key science
    questions
  • The description of the most promising approaches
    to make progress
  • The identification of Essential and Complementary
    facilities for key observations

7
Structure of the Report
  • Introduction
  • Astronomy in society, and role of technology, the
    future
  • Four chapters for four broad science questions
  • A Do we understand the extremes of the Universe?
  • B How do galaxies form and evolve?
  • C What is the origin and evolution of stars and
    planets?
  • D How do we fit in?
  • Recommendations
  • List of abbreviations and web-links

8
For each broad question
  • A chapter organised in a similar way
  • Brief introduction
  • Summary of key open questions
  • Most promising approaches and facilities
    described
  • Science vision is input to Roadmap
  • Existing facilities and those under construction
    named
  • Not yet approved projects described (mostly)
    generically
  • Specific proposals/projects to come in or after
    the Roadmap

9
Science Vision Working Group
  • Appointed by the Funding Agencies
  • Four supporting panels (about 50 persons in
    total)
  • Good distribution of expertise, gender,
    nationalities
  • Panel chairs and co-chairs
  • A John Peacock, Claes Fransson
  • B Jacqueline Bergeron, Robert Kennicutt
  • C Leonardo Testi, Rafael Rebolo
  • D Oscar von der Luhe, Therese Encrenaz
  • Members at large
  • Michael Bode, Reinhard Genzel, Michael Perryman,
    Alvio Renzini,
  • Rashid Sunyaev, Catherine Turon, Tim de Zeeuw
    (chair)

10
Astronomical Research - I
  • Ambitious
  • study of everything beyond the Earth
  • Difficult
  • Objects far away, hence small and faint
  • In situ measurements only possible in the Solar
    System
  • Huge numbers of objects, all different
  • Emitting signal at various wavelengths
  • Linked to other sciences
  • Mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer
    science, laboratory experiments, geophysics, and
    biology

11
Astronomical Research - II
  • Combining various types of observations is
    crucial
  • Imaging, spectroscopy, photometry, astrometry
  • Whole range of wavelengths
  • Electromagnetic/neutrinos/gravitational waves
  • Detailed observations with large telescopes
  • Global understanding from large and/or deep
    surveys performed with smaller telescopes

12
Astronomical Research - III
  • Theory and numerical simulations are crucial
  • Maximise the scientific return on data collected
  • Improve models with new observations
  • Formulate incisively the need for new
    observations thanks to models
  • Improve underlying fundamental physics
  • Astronomy is now a leading science astronomical
    discoveries inspire other fields

13
Astronomical Research - IV
  • Requires a variety of tools and expertise
  • Ground-based telescopes and space missions
  • Theory and simulations
  • Computing expertise and high performance
    computing resources
  • Data processing of increasingly large volumes of
    data
  • Techniques to easily access huge archival
    datasets very detailed data for one object or
    data for huge samples of objects (VO techniques)
  • Laboratory experiments to characterise materials
    (solid or gas) analysis of extra-terrestrial
    material

14
Ground-based Telescopes
15
Satellites in Orbit
Integral
Hubble Space Telescope
Rosetta
Mars-Express
CoRoT
XMM-Newton
Venus Express
SOHO
Also Chandra, Spitzer, SWIFT, Akari,
Spirit/Opportunity, MRO, Messenger, …
16
Under Development
Gaia
Sofia
JWST
Herschel
Planck
GTC
ALMA
LBT
BepiColombo
VST
VISTA
VLT(I)
LOFAR
17
Angular Resolution Sensitivity
18
Astronomy and Society
  • Important for society and culture
  • Rotundity of the Earth, the Earth not at the
    centre of the Solar System, Solar System not at
    the centre of the Galaxy
  • Existence of other worlds, development of life
  • Origin and evolution of the Galaxy, of the
    Universe
  • Asteroid impacts
  • Navigation, mobile phones
  • Important for education
  • Requires simultaneously curiosity, imagination
    and rigorous reasoning
  • Attracts young people to physical sciences
  • Many universities opening astronomy departments
  • Many exciting discoveries to come

19
Panel A Do we understand the extremes of the
Universe? (1)
  • Evolution of the dark-energy density with
    cosmological epoch
  • Consistent picture of dark matter and dark energy
  • Now and to-morrow
  • Planck
  • Direct dark matter detection experiment --gt
    ASPERA
  • Future
  • SKA
  • X-ray survey satellite
  • Wide field optical-IR imaging telescope in orbit
  • ELT
  • Cherenkov Telescope Array

20
Panel A Do we understand the extremes of the
Universe? (2)
  • Polarisation of the cosmic microwave background
  • Direct detection of astrophysically-generated
    gravitational waves
  • Now and to-morrow
  • Planck
  • Virgo-Ligo
  • Future
  • CMB polarisation satellite
  • LISA

21
A The extremes of the Universe (3)
  • Studies of regions near the event horizon of
    super-massive black holes
  • Astrophysics of compact objects and their
    progenitors
  • Origin and acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays
    and neutrinos
  • Now and to-morrow
  • XMM-Newton
  • 8-10 m class telescopes interferometers
  • Pierre Auger observatory
  • Future
  • High throughput X-ray satellite X-ray survey
    satellite
  • ELT
  • Cherenkov Telescope Array
  • Sub-mm-VLBI ALMA

22
B How do galaxies form and evolve? (1)
  • Map the growth of matter density fluctuations in
    the early Universe
  • Detect the first stars, black holes, and galaxies
    and discern the first seeds of galaxies
  • Determine the evolution of the galaxy cluster
    mass function and constrain the equation of state
    of the dark energy
  • Now and to-morrow
  • Planck, LOFAR, ALMA,
  • JWST, XMM-Newton
  • Future
  • high throughput X-ray satellite
  • ELT
  • SKA

23
B How do galaxies form and evolve? (2)
  • Make an inventory of the metal content of the
    Universe over cosmic time
  • Measure the metallicity of the warm-hot phase of
    the intergalactic medium
  • Now and to-morrow
  • 8-10m tel., HST
  • JWST, XMM
  • Future
  • High throughput X-ray satellite
  • 4-8 m space UV
  • Detection of gamma-ray bursts

24
B How do galaxies form and evolve? (3)
  • Understand the connection between black hole and
    galaxy growth
  • Obtain a complete history of our Galaxy early
    formation and subsequent evolution
  • Now and to-morrow
  • 8-10m tel., HST
  • ALMA, Herschel
  • Gaia
  • Future
  • High throughput X-ray satellite
  • ELT
  • 4-8 m cooled IR tel. FIR space interferometer
  • SKA
  • Wide-field O-IR imager, Wide-field multi-spectro

25
C Origin and evolution of stars and planets (1)
  • Determine the initial physical conditions of star
    formation. Evolution of molecular clouds.
    Formation and mass distributions of single,
    binary or multiple stellar systems and stellar
    clusters.
  • Unveil the mysteries of stellar structure and
    evolution, also probing stellar interiors
  • Now and to-morrow
  • 8-10 m tel., HST, XMM, Herschel, JWST
  • Gaia
  • ALMA, large mm single dish telescope
  • Future
  • ELT, IR space interferometer
  • Next-generation UV-X mission, SKA
  • High precision space photometry long-term
    monitoring

26
C Origin and evolution of stars and planets (2)
  • Understand the life cycle of matter
  • Determine the process of planet formation
  • Now and to-morrow
  • 8-10 m tel., HST, XMM
  • Herschel, JWST
  • ALMA, large mm single dish telescope
  • Future
  • ELT
  • Space NIR interferometer
  • Next-generation UV-X mission
  • SKA

27
C Origin and evolution of stars and planets (3)
  • Explore the diversity of exo-planets, in relation
    with the characteristics of their host stars
  • Determine the frequency of Earth-like planets in
    habitable zones --gt direct imaging with the
    long-term goal of spectroscopic characterisation
    and the detection of biomarkers in their
    atmospheres
  • Now and to-morrow
  • 8-10 m telescopes, HST, JWST
  • Gaia
  • Future
  • High precision space photometry long-term
    monitoring
  • Next-generation high precision RV instrument
  • Space NIR interferometer
  • ELT

28
Panel D How do we fit in? (1)
  • Understand the physical processes in Solar System
    plasmas
  • Develop a unified picture of the Sun and the
    heliosphere
  • Understand the mechanisms for Solar variability
    and transient activity impacts on the Earth
  • Now and to-morrow
  • SOHO, Stereo, Hinode, ACE, Cluster, SDO, Ulysses
  • One metre-class solar telescopes (THEMIS, SST,
    GREGOR)
  • Future
  • High ecliptic Solar space mission
  • Radio spectral imaging at centimetre to metre
    wavelengths
  • Large-aperture (3-5m) g-b solar telescope with
    AO
  • Medium-aperture (1-2m) EUV-X satellite
  • Fleet of spacecrafts for 3-scale study of the
    magnetosphere
  • Next-generation g-b radars

29
Panel D How do we fit in? (2)
  • Understand the role of turbulence and magnetic
    fields in the evolution of the primordial nebula
  • Determine the dynamical history and the
    composition of trans-Neptunian objects, asteroids
    and comets
  • Now and to-morrow
  • Genesis and Rosetta
  • ALMA, LOFAR
  • Future
  • Exploration of minor bodies, NEO

30
Panel D How do we fit in? (3)
  • Constrain the models of internal structure of
    planets and satellites surface-atmosphere
    interactions
  • Understand the origin and evolution of Titans
    atmosphere
  • Searches for liquid water at the surface and
    subsurface of Mars and liquid water oceans below
    the surface of Europa and other outer satellites
  • Now and to-morrow
  • Mars and Venus Express, other Mars missions
    ExoMars
  • Cassini, Bepi Colombo
  • Future
  • Space missions to the outer Solar System --gt
    Jovian system, in particular Europa, --gt
    Saturnian system, in particular Titan and
    Enceladus
  • Mars sample return mission exploration of other
    terrestrial planets
  • JWST ELT

31
Science Vision is input to Roadmap
  • Answering key science questions requires
  • Optimal use of existing facilities those being
    constructed!
  • Next generation optical and radio telescopes
  • Specific space observatories/missions (cf Cosmic
    Vision)
  • Targeted surveys, and investigation of
    time-domain
  • Supported by theoretical program, numerical
    simulations and laboratory experiments
  • Integrated vision is part of a world-wide
    endeavour
  • Involves other communities and (space) agencies
  • Opportunity for Europe to take leading role

32
Europes Quest for the Universe
  • The Science Vision report is the result of inputs
    from the whole community
  • It has been a key input for the Infrastructure
    Roadmap
  • The goal is to enable Europe to have a leading
    role in astronomy

33
Merci pour votre attention
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