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Facial Expression: Predicting and promoting positive outcomes. Daniel Messinger, Ph.D. ... not by facial expression, or brain activity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Facial%20Expression:%20Predicting%20and%20promoting%20positive%20outcomes


1
Facial Expression Predicting and promoting
positive outcomes
  • Daniel Messinger, Ph.D.

2
New topics
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Positive Psychology
  • Psychobiology of morality
  • Sympathy and empathy
  • Mother-toddler talk
  • Emotion work Flight attendants
  • Averill

3
Tell me their story
4
Questions
  • How might positive emotion and its expression
    affect life outcomes?
  • Describe how expressed emotion relates to
  • Adolescent behavior problems
  • The course of grieving in widows
  • Life outcome in college women
  • What is a functionalist emotion theory?
  • What is emotion regulation?

5
Positive Emotion
  • The Broaden and Build Hypothesis
  • Positive emotion perceptual and cognitive
    expansion
  • Frederickson (1998)
  • positive emotions build personal resources by
    fostering creative thinking, the readiness to
    take advantage of opportunities, the
    strengthening of social bonds, and the undoing of
    negative emotions. Harker et al., 2001

6
Positive Emotions Trigger Upward Spirals
Fredrickson Joiner (2002)
Coping
Positive Affect
5 weeks
7
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8
Happiness Unpacked Positive Emotions Increase
Life Satisfaction by Building Resilience
  • Cohn, Fredrickson, Brown, Mikels Conway (2009)

9
Positive emotion ? ego resilience ? positive
emotion
  • Positive emotion (PE) more implicated in theory
    than life satisfaction
  • People who are happier achieve better life
    outcomes
  • Broaden-and-Build Theory of positive emotion
  • Broaden range of thoughts and actions
  • Build resources for resilience
  • Ego resilience an individuals ability to adapt
    to changing environments
  • 120 students (mean 19 years) followed for 1
    month
  • Daily emotions daily online diary submission
  • 18 emotions 5-point Likert scale
  • Negative (NE) and positive (PE) subscales
  • Ego resilience 14 self-reported Likert-scale
    items
  • Life satisfaction 5 self-reported Likert-scale
    items

10
Findings
  • Positive (but not negative) emotions predict
    increases in ego resilience and life satisfaction
  • Positive emotions (but not life satisfaction)
    partially mediate the relation between initial
    and final ego resilience scores
  • Indirect effect is significant for positive
    emotion not sig for life satisfaction (p gt .15)

11
Findings
  • Increases in ego resilience are responsible for
    the relation between PE and increased life
    satisfaction
  • NE does not reduce the effects of PE
  • When PE is greater, NE is worse predictor of
    resilience
  • When NE is greater, PE is better predictor of
    resilience
  • Are rising levels of PE necessary?
  • No! Absolute levels matter more

ß1 .08, p .22
Negative ß1 .03, p gt .15 no significant
indirect effect Positive ß1 .09, p lt .01
significant indirect effect
12
Importance
  • Support for broaden-and-build theory
  • PE? resilience growth ? life satisfaction
  • PE better predictor than life satisfaction
  • More resource building associated with PE
  • Positive emotion different from lack of negative
    emotion
  • PE predict growth in resilience and satisfaction
  • PE at high levels buffer against effects of NE
  • NE only predict growth in resilience
  • Aggregate levels of PE more important for
    prediction than change in PE
  • B-and-b theory suggests people respond to common
    experiences, not exceptional changes in emotion
  • BUT day-to-day diaries better than global
    satisfaction rating

13
One Mechanism Undoing
14
Facial expressions and outcomes
  • Facial expressions
  • Convey emotion and orientation
  • Elicit emotion and behavior in others
  • Social referencing and the visual cliff
  • Smiling is contagious
  • But so is scowling

15
Data
  • Kindergarten
  • Adolescent behavior
  • Bereavement
  • Year book photos
  • Discussion of intervention strategies

16
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch
  • Differences in emotional expression are
    observable and predictive.
  • Previous research shows personality trait
    relationships between parents and children.

17
Kindergartener Photo Thin-slice Study (Oveis et
al., 2009)
  • Thin-slice of nonverbal behavior reveals valid
    info about personality, IQ, sexual orientation,
    etc.
  • Family expressivity in photos
  • 91 kindergarteners
  • Parent rating of temperament
  • Extraversion, negative affect, effortful control
  • Say cheese photo at school
  • Positive affect (smile intensity mouth corners
    lid compression)
  • Negative affect
  • Family photo at home
  • Amount of tactile contact
  • Warmth of tactile contact

18
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch
  • What is the relationship between smiling and warm
    touch?
  • Do parents and children resemble each other in
    facial displays of emotion posed pictures?
  • Does extraversion/surgency covary with the
    intensity of positive emotional displays?

19
Kindergarteners Family School Photos
  • Cross-modality emotional communication
  • ? Smile intensity in classroom home
  • ? Warm family touch smile intensity
  • in classroom home
  • ? Total family touch smile intensity, parents
    affect
  • Child-parent expressive similarity
  • ? Father and child smile intensity
  • Facial emotion display as thin slice of
    temperament?
  • ? Smile intensity in classroom (not home)
    extraversion
  • Girls warm family touch extraversion

Mother Father
Child ? ?
Girl ? ?
Boy ? ?
- No significant rs for effortful control or
negative affect
20
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch
  • Warmth of touch more important than quantity.
  • Mixed results for the relationship between smile
    intensity and parents report of
    extraversion/surgency.

21
Conclusions
  • Supports validity of thin-slice approach
  • Magnitude of correlation similar to self-report
    studies
  • Importance of warm touch
  • Correlation with increased smiling and decreased
    negativity of child
  • Observed across contexts
  • Underlying positive emotion for both D-smiles
    touch
  • Quality more important than quantity
  • Differences in expressivity with family and at
    school?
  • Extraversion only related to school smiling
  • More direct link with extraversion than effortful
    control?
  • Limitations
  • Correlational
  • Effect of posing (but D-smiles still seen in
    school photos)

22
Something about photos
  • Crystallized self-representation to imagined/real
    other
  • Role of mock negative emotions

23
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24
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25
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26
Adolescents
  • Take an interactive IQ test
  • Show embarrassment, anger, fear with examiner
  • Related to teacher ratings of
  • Externalizing (aggression)
  • Internalizing (anxiety, withdrawal, somaticizing)

27
Expressions by behavior rating
Expression Ratio Internalize (n9) Externalize (n9) Well-adjusted (n40)
Anger 0.10 0.23 0.07
Fear 0.15 0.05 0.17
Sadness 0.10 0.04 0.15
Embarrassment 0.14 0.16 0.22
28
Expressions by behavior rating
Why?
Keltner et al., 1999
29
Recently bereaved
  • Talk about their loss at 6, 14, 25 months
  • Angry facial expressions ? Later grief
  • Duchenne (cheek-raise) laughers ? Later
  • Higher emotional dissociation
  • Report better association with significant other
  • Viewed more positively by naïve observers
  • Why?

30
Duchenne laughter and recovering from bereavement
Keltner et al., 1999
31
Yearbook pictures
and life
32
Smile intensity self-reported personality
33
Smile intensity other-reported personality
34
Smile intensity and Observer Expected
Interactions (n114)
Observer Expectations Positive emotional expression
Expected positive emotions .70
Expected negative emotions -.57
Approach-acceptance .52
35
Smile intensity and Life Outcomes
Life Outcome Positive expression Controlling for Attract./Social Desirability
Married by age 27 .19 .18/.16
Single into adulthood -.20 -.18/.20
Ever divorced .15 .15/.15
Personal Well-being
Age 21 (n112) .20 .20/.11
Age 27 (n86) .25 .26./.23
Age 43 (n105) .18 .19/12
Age 52 (n101) .27 .28/.24
36
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37
Intervening with childrens emotions
  • Izard Structural model and intervention

38
Overview
  • Emotion centrality
  • Noncognitive and nonconscious processes
  • Socio-Emotional milestones
  • Face-to-face interaction and attachment formation

39
Social emotion tasks
  • Infancy FTF interaction, nurturing
  • Toddlers Embedding language description
  • Early childhood Awareness of others
  • Late childhood Anger modulation

40
Pre-school tasks
  • Awareness of others emotions
  • What do you think Sally is feeling now?
  • Distinguish and regulate negative emotions
  • Shame vs. guilt vs. sad

41
Intervention issues
  • Cognitive versus Emotion based
  • Are socio-emotional competencies a form of
    emotion or a form of intelligence
  • Modulated expression
  • Emotion modulation as a mediator or emotion
    expression
  • Specific emotion versus General theme
  • Happiness vs. Caring community
  • Integration?

42
Problems
  • Low-road, automatic anger elicitation
  • How to handle?
  • Representativeness
  • Head-start

43
In children
  • Emotion knowledge ? Social skills
  • Unidirectional, .12,
  • Effect on social preference of others is through
    social skills
  • (Mostow et al)
  • What is emotional intelligence

44
Patterns
  • Of emotions Shame anger
  • Of qualities Anger and high impulsivity
  • Different interventions for different kids

45
Emotion communication and understanding in
childhood A real-life problem
  • Saarni

46
Alternative views
  • Functional
  • Insight Recognition of function of emotions and
    their flexibility in functioning
  • Regulating emotion to achieve goals
  • Difficulty Use goals to interpret behavior but
    use behavior to infer goals
  • Dynamic
  • Insight Recognition of interfacing role of
    multiple components in emotional process
  • Difficulty Specifying process

47
Functionalist theory
  • Emotion is the persons attempt or readiness to
    establish, maintain, or change the relation
    between the person and the environment on
    matters of significance to that person (Saarni et
    al., 1998).
  • Emotion is associated with goal-attainment,
    social relationships, situational appraisals,
    action tendencies, self-understanding, self
    regulation, etc.

48
Halloween Candy
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWOlpdd7y8MI

49
Critique of functionalism
  • Definition is overly broad
  • Circular reasoning
  • How do you measure goals?
  • What is a functionalist analysis of emotion in
    face-to-face play?
  • Measurement of impact of emotional signal
  • Similar to ethology

50
Functionalist views
  • Emotions come in families defined by these goals
  • not by facial expression, or brain activity
  • Messingers research is based on families of
    expressions and emotions
  • Functional research focus
  • socialization of emotional experience
  • acquisition of emotional competence (Saarni),
  • secondary emotions such as pride.

51
Emotion regulation
  • Modifying emotions to attain goals
  • Sees emotions as
  • flexible not stereotypical
  • functional not disruptive
  • responsive not rigid
  • E.g., Impulse control, anger modulation,
    embarrassment, gift receipt.
  • Flows from functional perspective
  • See Thompson

52
Critique of emotion regulation
  • Inhibition or maintenance/intensification?
  • Self or other regulation?
  • Whats emotion and whats its regulation?
  • Does functionalism wish to unite concepts?
  • Is a regulated emotion the same emotion?
  • Avoid premature judgements of good emotion
    regulation before we know its normative
    development and how to measure its adequacy

53
Emotion regulation
  • Understanding emotions
  • Gender socialization
  • Cultural emotion scripts
  • Regulation and coping
  • Empathy vs. sympathy
  • Dissembling

54
Themes
  • Understanding emotions
  • Developing complex accounts
  • Symbolizing internal experience
  • Self-awareness in guilt and shame
  • Multiple emotions sequential and simultaneous

55
Socialization and scripts
  • Family rules
  • High frequency emotion talk
  • Dysregulation caused by others anger and abuse
  • Boys anger girls distress
  • Empathy vs. sympathy
  • Dissembling
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