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Rapid Prototyping Operations


Technology which considerably speeds the iterative product ... the Rapid Prototyping process directly to fabricate a tool for a limited volume of prototypes. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rapid Prototyping Operations

Rapid Prototyping Operations
  • CHAPTER 19

Rapid prototyping
  • Introduction
  • Subtractive processes
  • Additive process
  • Virtual Prototyping
  • Applications

Rapid prototyping
  • Technology which considerably speeds the
    iterative product development process

Fig a) Examples of parts made by rapid
prototyping b) Stereolithography model of
cellular phone
  • CAD data files can be manufactured in hours.
  • Tool for visualization and concept verification.
  • Prototype used in subsequent manufacturing
    operations to obtain final part
  • Tooling for manufacturing operations can be

Classification of Rapid Prototyping
  • Rapid prototyping is classified to 3-major groups
  • Subtractive ( Removal of material )
  • Additive ( Adding of material )
  • Virtual ( Advanced computer base

Subtractive Process
  • Subtractive process use computer based Prototype
    technology to speed the process
  • Essential Technologies for subtractive
  • Computer based drafting packages ( 3-D
    representation of parts)
  • Interpretation software (Translation of cad file
    to manufacturing software)
  • Manufacturing Software (Planning Machining
  • Computer-Numerical Control Machinery

Additive Process
  • Build parts in layer by layer (slice by slice as
    stacking a loaf of bread)

Fig The computational steps in producing a
stereolithography file a) Three dimensional
description of part b)The part is divides into
slices (only one in 10 is shown) c)support
material is planned d)A set of tool directions is
determined to manufacture each slice. Shown is
the extruder path at section A-A from c) For a
fused-deposition-modeling operation
Additive Process
  • Require elaborate software
  • 1 Obtain cad file
  • 2 Computer then constructs slices of a
    3-dimensional part
  • 3 slice analyzed and compiled to provide the
    rapid prototyping machine
  • 4 setup of the proper unattended and provide
    rough part after few hours
  • 5 Finishing operations and sanding and painting
  • 6labor intensive and production time varies from
    few minutes to few hours

Fused Deposition Modeling
  • A gantry robot controlled extruder head moves in
    two principle directions over a table
  • Table can be raised or lowered as needed
  • Thermo plastic or wax filament is extruded
    through the small orifice of heated die
  • Initial layer placed on a foam foundation with a
    constant rate
  • Extruder head follows a predetermined path from
    the file
  • After first layer the table is lowered and
    subsequent layers are formed

Fig (a)Fused-deposition-modeling process.
(b)The FDM 5000, a fused-decomposition-modeling-ma
Fused Deposition Modeling
Fig a)A part with protruding section which
requires support material b) Common support
structures used in rapid-prototyping machines
  • Works based on the principle of curing liquid
    photomer into specific shape
  • A vat which can be lowered and raised filled with
    photocurable liquid acrylate polymer
  • Laser generating U-V beam is focused in x-y
  • The beam cures the portion of photo polymer and
    produces a solid body
  • This process is repeated till the level b is
    reached as shown in the figure
  • Now the plat form is lowered by distance ab
  • Then another portion of the cylinder is shaped
    till the portion is reached

Fig Stereolithiography Process
Selective laser sintering (SLS)
Fig The selective laser sintering process
Selective laser sintering
  • SLS based on sintering of nonmetallic powders
    onto a selective individual objects
  • Basic elements in this process are bottom of
    processing chambers equipped with 2 cylinders
  • Powder feed cylinder which is raised
    incrementally to supply powder to part-build
    cylinder through a roller mechanism
  • Part-build cylinder which is lowered
    incrementally to where the sintered part is

Selective laser sintering
  • Set of the proper computer files and the
    initiation of the production processes
  • Machine operate unattended and provide rough part
    after few hours
  • Finishing operations as sanding and painting
  • Labor intensive production time varies from few
    minutes to few hours

Selective laser sintering
  • Layer of powder is first deposited on part build
  • A laser beam controlled by instruction from 3-D
    file is focused on that layer tracing sintering
    a particular cross-section into a solid mass
    dust is taken off.
  • Another layer of powder is now deposited this
    cycle is repeated again and dust is shaken off

Solid Base curing
  • Also called Solid ground curing
  • Entire slices of part are manufactured at one
  • So large throughput is achieved
  • Most expensive time consuming
  • The entire process is shown

FigThe solid based curing process
Ballistic Particle Manufacturing
  • Ballistic particle manufacturing
  • Stream of material , such as plastic ,ceramic,
    metal or wax ejected through small orifice at a
  • Mechanism similar to inkjet mechanism (
    piezo-electric pump)
  • Operation repeats similar to other process to
    form a part with layers of wax deposited on top
    of each other
  • Ink jet heat guided by three-axis robot

3-D Printing process
Similar to ballistic particle manufacturing
FigThree dimensional printing process
3-D Printing process
  • Print head deposits an inorganic binder material
  • Binder directed onto a layer of ceramic metal
  • A piston supporting the powder bed is lower
    incrementally with each step a layer is
    deposited and unified by binder
  • Commonly used materials Aluminum oxide, silicon
    carbide,silica and zirconium.
  • Common part produced by 3-D printing is a ceramic
    casting shall
  • Curing around 150 C 300 F
  • Firing 1000 C 1500 C

Laminated object manufacturing (LOM )
  • Laminated implies laying down of layers which are
    adhesively bonded to one another
  • Uses layer of paper or plastic sheets with heat
    activated glue on one side of the product parts
  • Excess material to be removed manually
  • Simplified by preparing the laser to burn
    perforations in cross-sectional pattern
  • LOM uses sheets as thin as 0.05mm
  • Compressed paper has appearance and strength of
    soft wood , and often mistaken for elaborate wood

Laminated Object Material (LOM)
Fig (a) Laminated object-manufacturing process
(b)Crankshaft-part example made by LOM
Virtual prototyping
  • Virtual prototyping (modeling and simulation of
    all aspects of a prototype, i.e. mechanical
    design, kinematics, dynamics, and controls
    accompanied by a realistic visualization).
  • Realizing the best design in the shortest
    lead-time of complex products/processes
  • Allows the exotic, unconventional designs be
    prototyped, rapidly and cost-effectively

Applications of Rapid Prototyping
  • Production of individual parts
  • Production of tooling by Rapid Prototyping (Rapid

Fig Manufacturing steps for investment casting
that uses rapid prototyped wax parts as blanks.
Rapid Tooling
  • The term Rapid Tooling (RT) is typically used to
    describe a process which either uses a Rapid
    Prototyping (RP) model as a pattern to create a
    mold quickly or uses the Rapid Prototyping
    process directly to fabricate a tool for a
    limited volume of prototypes .
  • a)Tooling time is much shorter than for a
    conventional tool. Typically, time to first
    articles is below one-fifth that of conventional
  • b) Tooling cost is much less than for a
    conventional tool. Cost can be below five percent
    of conventional tooling cost.
  • c) Tool life is considerably less than for a
    conventional tool.
  • d) Tolerances are wider than for a conventional

Rapid Tooling
Fig Manufacturing steps in sand casting that
causes that uses rapid-prototyped patterns
Rapid Tooling
Fig Manufacturing steps in sand casting that
causes that uses rapid-prototyped patterns
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