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High Bandwidth, Improved Quantum Efficiency Detector Development for MultiGHz Class QKD Throughput

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JPL has capability to design and fabricate better SSPDs than anyone else. Motivation ... Improve coupling with E-beam fabricated diffractive optical element ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: High Bandwidth, Improved Quantum Efficiency Detector Development for MultiGHz Class QKD Throughput


1
High Bandwidth, Improved Quantum Efficiency
Detector Development for Multi-GHz Class QKD
Throughput
  • Deborah Jackson
  • Jeff Stern
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute
    of Technology
  • deborah.j.jackson_at_jpl.nasa.gov, ph (818)
    354-1877, fax (818) 393-3302

2
Motivation
  • JPL Goal Demonstrate an improved Detector that
    will allow QKDcommunity to move from current
  • 1 MHz BW 10
    GHz BW and
  • 70 QE Max 20
    QE Max
  • QKD QE Max -bandwidth product
  • 700 KHz 2 GHz

Si APD
NbN SSPD
3
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Improved QKD Detector Development Program
  • Performance objectives
  • Design approaches
  • JPL Capabilities
  • Summary

4
Motivation
Superconducting Single photon detectors (SSPDs)
are key components in NASA and DoD
devices Current detectors too slow, too
inefficient for desired performance JPL has
capability to design and fabricate better SSPDs
than anyone else
  • Interferometric Sensors
  • Gyroscopes
  • Magnetometers
  • Gravity-Wave Detectors
  • Communications Systems
  • Power Efficient, High Data Rate Optical
    Communications
  • Secure Cryptographic Key Distribution
  • Quantum Repeaters
  • Authentication Protocols
  • Beyond-Shannon Data Compression
  • Computers
  • Optical Quantum Computers
  • True Random Number Generators

Sample Niobium Nitride Single Photon Detector
SSPDs Enabling Across Wide JPL Application
Spectrum
5
QKD Network Vision
  • Channel Requirements
  • Future secure satellite key updates (0.770 mm)
  • Key distribution using existing fiber networks
    (1.55 mm)
  • 4 orders of magnitude throughput BW improvement
    (1MHz -10GHz)
  • Factor of 10 higher maximum QE (3 vs 20)
  • Inter-SATCOM
  • Point-to-point Gnd Fiber
  • SATCOM-Fiber node

6
30 ps Response NbN Detector Technology
Breakthrough
QEMAX 3_at_ 400 nm QEMAX 10-4_at_ 1.55 mm
G. N. Goltsman, et.al., Picosecond
superconducting single-photon optical detector,
Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (6) 705-707 AUG 6 2001).
7
Issues Affecting Meander Detection Architecture
Performance F( l )
  • Small sm spacing of meander lines limits
    bandwidth
  • 1.5um l gt smaller wm and smwm lt l
  • Meander QE is impacted by
  • Surface Reflections (wo/ AR coating)
  • film width and thickness non-uniformities

8
Improved Quantum Efficiency (QE) via Index
Matched, Field Nulled substrates w/ Backside AR
coating
Incoming
Metal reflector
NbN
meander
photon

film

film
SiO


1.5
n
l
/4
2
NbN
meander
1.8
Sapphire with
n

Quartz
n
  
1.5
film
AR coating
Incoming
photon
(a)
(b)
Z1 2k ohm/sq Z2 Z0/n Z0 Free space impedance
377 W n refractive index
9
Light trap concept
Jessica Faust, et. al. Quantum Efficient
Detectors for use in Absolute Calibration
10
Optimally Matched Waveguide Coupling
Architecture Approach
  • Benefits
  • Relaxes spacing requirement between meander
    lines.
  • Design eases impedance matching requirements
  • Potential for very high photon capture

11
Custom Focusing Optics for QKD Waveguide Detector
  • Improve coupling with E-beam fabricated
    diffractive optical element
  • Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) permits
    compact, efficient coupling into waveguide
    detector.
  • D. W. Wilson, et. al., Binary optic reflection
    grating for an imaging spectrometer," Diffractive
    and Holographic Optics Technology III, SPIE
    Proceedings vol. 2689, Jan. 1996.

12
JPL Micro Devices Lab
  • Has a proven fabrication facilities for
  • optimizing QKD photodetector
  • development with
  • State-of-the-Art Fabrication Lab
  • End-to-End Device Development
  • Nb, NbN and NbTiN Expertise
  • Can provide in-house Multi-Gigahertz RF circuitry
    design experience
  • Experience
  • Fabricated Delivered a 800 GHz NbTiN
    Hot-Electron Bolometer based mixer to the SMT
    Observatory
  • Currently delivering superconducting flight
    circuits to Herschel Space Observatory (ESA)

13
Summary
  • JPL Goal Demonstrate an improved Detector that
    will allow community to move from current
  • 1 MHz BW 10
    GHz BW and
  • 70 QE Max 20
    QE Max
  • QKD QE Max -bandwidth product
  • 700 kHz 2 GHz

Si APD
NbN SSPD
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