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Title: Nanotechnology


Pace University School of Computer Science
Information Systems Emerging Information
Technology II Spring 2005
Carl Abrams George
Baker Godfrey
Cheng Michael Homeyer
Agenda - Nanotechnology
  • Introduction / Origins / Status
  • Current State of Technology
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • Commercial Activity
  • The Future

  • Introduction / Origins / Status

NNI Definition of Nanotechnology
  • Research and technology development at the
    atomic, molecular or macromolecular
  • levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 -
    100 nanometer range,
  • to provide a fundamental understanding of
    phenomena and materials at the nanoscale
  • and to create and use structures, devices and
    systems that have novel properties and
  • functions because of their small and/or
    intermediate size.
  • Nanotechnology research and development includes
    manipulation under control of the
  • nanoscale structures and their integration into
    larger material components, systems and
  • architectures.
  • Within these larger scale assemblies, the control
    and construction of their structures
  • and components remains at the nanometer scale.
  • (National Nanotechnology Initiative)

Nano - How big are we talking about?
Nanometers Ten shoulder-to-shoulder hydrogen
atoms span 1 nanometer. DNA molecules are about
2.5 nanometers wide.
A million nanometers The pinhead sized patch of
this thumb is a million nanometers across.
Billions of nanometers A two meter tall male is
two billion nanometers.
Thousands of nanometers Biological cells have
diameters in the range of thousands of nanometers.
Less than a nanometer Individual atoms are up to
a few tenths of a nanometer in diameter.
A human hair is approximately 100,000 nm.
Understanding Effects
  • Physical processes do not scale uniformly
  • gravity
  • friction
  • combustion
  • electrostatic
  • van der Walls
  • brownian
  • quantum

Nano Timeline
  • 1905 Einstein published paper estimating
    diameter of a sugar molecule as 1nanometer
  • 1959 Richard Feynmans famed talk
  • 1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) created
  • 1985 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) invented
  • 1993 Carbon Nanotubes discovered
  • 1998 First Single-Electron Transistor created
  • 2001 Nanowire ZnO laser
  • 2002 Superlattice Nanowires
  • 2004 Single-Electron Transistor with tiny
    mechanical arm

Richard Feynman, 1959
  • The principles of physics, as far as I can see,
    do not speak against the possibility of
    maneuvering atom by atom. It is not an attempt to
    violate any laws it is something, in principle,
    that can be done but in practice, it has not
    been done because we are too big.
  • The problems of chemistry and biology can be
    greatly helped if our ability to see what were
    doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is
    ultimately developed---a development which I
    think cannot be avoided.
  • http//

Nanotechnology - Two Meanings
  • Feynmans vision of factories using nanomachines
    to build complex products, including additional
  • Ability to make large products with atomic
    precision, building them with superior materials,
    cleanly at low cost.
  • Original vision for nanotechnology is termed
    molecular manufacturing.
  • Products which have significant features less
    than 100 nanometers in size.
  • Can describe anything with small features,
    ranging from fine particles to thin coatings to
    large molecules.

K. Eric Drexler
  • Development of the ability to design protein
  • molecules will open a path to the fabrication of
  • devices to complex atomic specifications (1981)
  • Engines of Creation (1985)

Motivation towards Nanotechnology
  • Device miniaturization by reducing their physical
  • Exploiting enhanced surface effects by increased
    surface/volume ratio (e.g. catalysts)
  • Utilization of biological objects in inorganic
    nanostructures for various sensors and novel
  • Novel phenomena in low-dimensional structures
  • Direct observation of physics laws in

So who cares?
  • The worldwide annual industrial production in
  • nanotech sectors is estimated to exceed 1
    trillion in
  • 10 - 15 years from now, which would require about
  • million nanotechnology workers.
  • (M.C. Roco Chair, WH/NSTC/Nanoscale Science,
    Engineering and
  • Technology Subcommittee (NSEC), and Senior
    Advisor, NSF)

Where Are We?
  • Its NOT science fiction its here today
  • Will affect almost everything over time
  • Initial impact will be subtle and gradual
  • RD funding is unprecedented
  • Academic, government and industrial
  • Spread across globe
  • Patent filing exploding worldwide
  • Accelerated pace of development
  • Advances in tools will speed acceleration

Context Nanotechnology in the WorldGovernment
investments 1997-2004
  • U.S. begins FY in October, six month before EU
    Japan in March/April
  • U.S. does not have a commanding lead as it was
    for other ST megatrends(such as BIO, IT, space
    exploration, nuclear)

(Senate Briefing, May 24, 2001 (M.C. Roco),
updated on October, 12, 2002)
National Nanotechnology Initiative - Intentions
(Source AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC
NNI - Where the Money Goes
  • Biosystems at the Nanoscale 14
  • Biostructures, mimicry, bio-chips
  • Nanostructure by Design, Novel Phenomena 45
  • Physical, biological, electronic, optical,
  • Device and System Architecture 20
  • Interconnect, system integration, pathways
  • Environmental Processes 6
  • Filtering, absorption, low energy, low waste
  • Multiscale and Multiphenomena Modeling 9
  • Manufacturing at the nanoscale 6
  • Education and Social Implications (distributed)

Key Technologies
  • Nanomaterial
  • Nanopowder
  • Nanotubes
  • Fullerenes
  • Detection and diagnosis devices
  • Nanopores
  • Quantum Dot
  • Dendrimers
  • Soft Lithography (Nano-imprinting, Dip-pen

Patent Landscape
  • Current State of Technology

  • Highlights of major accomplishments in past 15-20
  • Metrology Measurements images motion can be
    controlled to 10 pico-meters. We can see what
    were doing.
  • Modeling Software can now successfully model the
    dynamics of most molecular interactions under
    numerous static and dynamic conditions. We can
    simulate what we want to build.
  • Manufacturing Certain processes exist to
    actually fabricate nanostructures. We can build
    some of what we want to build.
  • MEMS Fabrication of micro-meter scale devices is
    routine. We can build much of what we want at
    larger scales.
  • Policy There is a growing consensus of what
    nanotechnology is. We almost what were talking

Tools Techniques
  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Microscopy
  • Any technique for producing visible images of
    structures or details too small to otherwise be
    seen by the human eye. In classical light
    microscopy, this involves passing light
    transmitted through or reflected from the subject
    through a series of lenses, to be detected
    directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic
    plate or captured digitally. Electron
    microscopes are used to magnify very small
    details using electrons instead of light.
    Magnification levels of 500,000 times can be
    achieved with this technology.
  • Simulation
  • Environments must be developed that can
    accommodate the corresponding problem complexity
    and non-traditional device characteristics to be
    explored in the nanotechnolgy space. 1
  • (1) Le, J., Pileggi, L., Devgan, A., Circuit
    Simulation of Nanotechnology Devices with
    Non-monotonic I-V Characteristics, IEEE, 2003

Tools Techniques (contd)
  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Metrology
  • Simply put, metrology is the measurement of
    something, be it large or be it small.
  • Interferometry
  • The applied science of combining two or more
    input points of a particular data type, such as
    optical measurements, to form a greater picture
    based on the combination of the two sources. 1
  • Crystallography
  • The experimental science of determining the
    arrangement of atoms in solids. Crystallographic
    methods all rely on the analysis of the
    diffraction patterns that emerge from a sample
    that is targeted by a beam of some type. 2
  • (1) http//
  • (2) http//

  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Microscopy
  • Acoustic / Ultrasonic
  • Sound waves are used to image samples, permitting
    a view beneath the surface
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  • Produces a 3D-type image. This is useful for
    judging the surface of a structure.
  • Scanning Probe / Atomic Force (SPM / AFM)
  • Generally used to sample the surface height of a
    specimen at discrete positions and forming a grid
    based upon the readings. The grid can be
    reviewed off-line as a 3D surface. The AFM can
    actually be pushed down on the surface of the
    specimen and modify it.
  • Transmission Electron Microcope (TEM)
  • Electrons are used to produce a specimen image on
    a fluorescent screen or on film.

  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Simulation
  • Molecular modeling
  • Varies from building and visualizing molecules to
    performing complex calculations on molecular
    systems. Using molecular modeling scientists will
    be better able to design new and more potent
    drugs. Molecular modeling not only has the
    potential to bring new drugs to the market, but a
    vast array of new materials.
  • Quantum effect modeling
  • The paradoxical influence of quantum mechanics
    dominates at the nano-level. In the weird world
    of quantum mechanics, objects can exist
    simultaneously in mutually exclusive states, but
    with a certain probability that one state or
    another will apply at a given moment. Measuring
    quantum effects in real-world objects is an
    important steppingstone toward building quantum
    computers. The ability for information to exist
    in multiple states at once is what would make a
    quantum computer so powerful. 1
  • (1) http//

  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Metrology
  • Film Thickness Testers
  • The thickness of films can be routinely measured
    down to about 2 nm. A full spectrum of
    instruments is marketed for thin film analysis.
  • Thin file is important in micro and nano-scale
    electronics and nonlinear optics devices. Its
    characteristic properties are high thermal
    stability, reliable mechanical strength, and low
    dielectric constant.
  • Wafer Inspection Tools
  • Wafers must be inspected for level of
    contamination. Process improvement techniques
    have been introduced to identify exactly where in
    the manufacturing process defects over acceptable
    limits are being introduced. 1
  • (1) http//

  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Interferometry
  • Optical
  • Some optical phenomena depend on the quantum
    nature of light and as such some areas of optics
    are also related to quantum mechanics. 1
  • X-ray
  • uses the interference of two x-ray beams to
    precisely measure optical constants, or (by
    moving components of the interferometer) to
    measure displacement with picometer precision. 2
  • (1) http//
  • (2) http//

  • Current foundation of research tools and
  • Crystallography
  • X-ray
  • An experimental technique that exploits the fact
    that X-rays are diffracted by crystals. It is not
    an imaging technique. X-rays have the proper
    wavelength to be scattered by the electron cloud
    of an atom of comparable size. 1
  • X-ray crystallography remains the "gold standard"
    for structure determination. 2
  • (1) http//
  • (2) http//

Recent Accomplishments
  • Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid
  • Superfine Ink-Jet Printing
  • Drug Delivery

Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid
  • Recent Accomplishments
  • Nano devices less reliable than CMOS devices
  • Parallel computer system design
  • High accuracy rates
  • Low FIT (failure in time) rates
  • KleinOsowski, A.J., KleinOsowski, K., Rangarajan,
    V., The RecursiveBox Processor Grid A Reliable
    System Architecture for Unreliable Nano Devices,
    IEEE, 2004

Superfine Ink-Jet Printing
  • Recent Accomplishments
  • Produces dots less than 1 micron in size
  • Uses metal nano-particle paste
  • Printing of metallic wires a few microns in width
  • Pre-patterning of the substrate not necessary
  • Murata, K. Super-fine ink-jet printing for
    nanotechnology, IEEE, 2003

Drug Delivery
  • Recent Accomplishments
  • Side effects of conventional drugs
  • Nanoparticles are the ideal vehicle
  • AZT nanoparticle drug delivery system
  • Lobenberg, R., Smart Materials Applications of
    Nanotechnolgy in Drug Delivery and Drug
    Targeting, IEEE, 2003

  • Manufacturing Processes

The NNI Vision
  • The essence of nanotechnolgoy is the ability to
    work at the molecular levelto create large
    structures with fundamentally new molecular
  • Ref National Nanotechnology Initiative The
    Initiative and its Implementation Plan

The NNI Goals
  • First Generation passive nanostructures in
    coatings, nanoparticles, bulk materials
    (nano-structured metals, polymers, ceramics)
  • Second Generation active nanostructures such as
    transistors, amplifiers, actuators, adaptive
    structures 2005
  • Third Generation 3D nanosystems with
    heterogeneous nano-components and various
    assembling techniques 2010
  • Fourth Generation molecular nano-systems with
    heterogeneous molecules, based on bio-mimetics
    and new design 2020 (?)
  • Source AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC Roco

Nano Fabrication Approaches
Top-down Method(Today) Creates nanostructures
out of macrostructures by breaking down matter
into more basic building blocks. Frequently uses
chemical or thermal methods.
Bottom-up Method(Tomorrow) Building complex
systems by combining simple atomic level
components through self assembly of atoms or
molecules into nanostructures
A Timeline for Molecular Manufacturing
Molecular Traditional
DNA Templated Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect
Transistor Science vol 32 21 Nov 2003
First Generation Nano Fabrication Example
Single Walled NanoTube SWNT are grown by CO
decomposition into C and CO2 at 700-950C in a
flow of pure CO at between 1-10atm of pressure
Other Contemporary Production Processes
  • Vapor Deposition
  • Evaporization
  • Combustion
  • Thermal Plasma
  • Milling
  • Cavitation
  • Milling (Spin or Dip)
  • Thermal Spray
  • Electrodeposition

Other Contemporary Production Processes
Other Contemporary Production Processes
The 3rd/4th Generation Nanofactory
  • Integrate large numbers of nanoscale chemical
    fabrication units
  • Combine nanoscale pieces into large-scale
  • General-purpose manufacturing in a tabletop
  • Extremely advanced products with compact
  • Produce its own weight in hours produce copies
    of itself

How Might it Work??
  • mass lt 1 kg (with a less hefty design than
    suggested by the above illustration)
  • volume 50 liters
  • raw material input 2.5 kg/hr (chiefly acetone,
    oxygen from air)
  • waste heat output 1.3 kW (air cooled)
  • surplus power output 3.3 kW (from oxidation of
    surplus hydrogen)
  • waste material output 1.5 kg/hr (chiefly water)
  • product output 1 kg/hr (chiefly diamond)

How Might it Work??
  • a casing to protect its interior from air,
    moisture, and dirt
  • inlets for liquid feedstocks to supply molecules
    for processing
  • molecular sorting mechanisms to purify inputs
  • alignment and binding mechanisms to organize
    streams of molecules
  • mechanosynthetic devices to process inputs into
    reactive tools
  • mechanosynthetic devices to apply tools to
  • mill-style mechanisms to join workpieces into
    larger blocks
  • programmable mechanisms to join blocks into
    complex products
  • a port to deliver finished products while
    protecting the interior space
  • motors to drive moving parts
  • computers to control material flows and assembly
  • stored data and programs to direct the computers
  • data communication channels to coordination
  • electrical systems to distribute power
  • a cooling system to dissipate waste heat
  • a structural framework to support the casing and
    internal components

A Path to Implementation
  • The key concept is that of a Fabricator
  • A Fabricator is a nano-scale device that can
    combine individual molecules into useful shapes
  • Fabricators build pieces that are passed to
    other fabricators to be made into larger pieces
    (convergent assembly)
  • Fabricators would make a small nano factories
    with a few fabricators in it and then build a
    bigger one etc etc.
  • By simple scaling a nano factory could make a
    factory twice its size in a day. In 60 days a
    desk top model would exist

A Path to Implementation (continued)
  • Inside the factory, each fabricator would make a
    nano block (200 nm on a side)
  • Assembly of nano-blocks by robotics through
    commands and fasteners on the surface of the
  • Continue until done
  • Output e.g. rolls of tough, flexible, high
    efficiency solar cells to laptops with billions
    of processors

  • Commercial Activity

Timeline for beginning of industrialprototyping
and commercialization
  • 1st Generation Passive nanostructures 2001
  • Ex coatings, nanoparticles, nanostructured
    metals, polymers, ceramics
  • 2nd Generation Active nanostructures 2005
  • Ex transistors, amplifiers, targeted drugs,
    actuators, adaptive structures
  • 3rd Generation Systems of nanosystems 2010
  • Ex guided molecular assembling 3D networking
    and new system architectures, robotics,
  • 4th Generation Molecular nanosystems 2020
  • Ex molecules as devices/components by design,
    based on atomic design, hierarchical emerging
    functions, evolutionary systems
  • Source AIChE Journal, 2004, Vol. 50 (5), MC Roco

Industry Surveys
Major Corporations in Nanotechnology
How nanotechnology enable new applications
  • As things approach the nanoscale, new properties
    emerge due to size confinement, quantum
    phenomena, and coulomb blockage. These new
    properties can be controlled to give us materials
    with new applications. Specifically,
    nanotechnology will permit control of the
  • Structural properties (e.g. strength and
  • Electrical properties
  • Magnetic properties
  • Catalytic properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Optical properties
  • Biocompatibility

The Nanotechnology Space
Smart Drugs
Information Technology
Life Sciences
Smart Materials
Nanoparticles enabled Applications
Richard Brotzman Nanophase Technologies
Materials and Industrial Chemistry
  • Nanocomposites
  • Nanocrystals
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanostructured Materials
  • Nanocatalysts
  • Nanofilters

  • Nanomaterials often have different properties
    than their bulk-scale counterparts
  • - nanocrystalline copper is five times harder
    than ordinary copper
  • Nanocomposites are materials where the
    constituents are mixed on a nanometer scale
  • A nanoscale dispersion of sheet-like inorganic
    silicate particles in a polymer matrix is
    superior to either constituent in such properties
    as optical clarity, strength, stiffness, thermal
    stability, reduced permeability, and flame
  • Types
  • plastics
  • foams
  • aerogels
  • powders
  • membranes
  • coatings
  • films
  • catalysts
  • semiconductors
  • magnets
  • etc.

  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed
    process to make sponge-like silica latch onto
    toxic metals in water. Used for lead or mercury
    removal containment.
  • Plastic nanocomposite is used by GM and Toyota.
    It is scratch-resistant, light-weight, rust-proof
    and strong.
  • Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite
    material used to build military and commercial
    aerospace components. It is highly electrically
    conductive, yet remarkably flexible.

Nanocomposite Coatings
  • Wilsons Double Core tennis balls have
    nanocomposite coating for higher durability.
  • Nanoledge uses carbon nanotubes to make tennis
    racket for strength.

  • Nanocrystals of various metals 2 to 4 times
    harder than their bulk form. Metal nanocrystals
    might be incorporated into car bumpers, making
    the parts stronger, or into aluminum, making it
    more wear resistant. Metal nanocrystals might be
    used to produce bearings that last longer than
    their conventional counterparts, new types of
    sensors and components for computers and
    electronic hardware.
  • http//

Nanocrystals (cont.)
  • Nanocrystals absorb and re-emit the light in
    different color.
  • Nanocrystals absorb sunlight more strongly than
    dye molecules.
  • Fluroescent nanocrystals are incredibly bright
    and do not photodegrade.
  • Drug-conjugated nanocrystals attach to protein
    which enable protein tracking.

  • Nano fibers used as stain-repellent on clothing.
  • Polymer dispersion products containing nano
    polymer particles used in exterior paints,
    coatings and adhesives.
  • Many vitamins and their precursors, such as
    carotinoids, are insoluble in water. Formulated
    as nanoparticles make them easily mixed with
    water and increase their bio-availability in
    human body.

Nanoparticles (cont.)
  • UV absorbers based on nanoparticulate zinc oxide
    used in sun creams.
  • Aluminum nanoparticles are used in rocket
    propellants that burn at double the rate.
  • Copper nanoparticles used in automotive lubricant
    to reduce engine wear.
  • Nanoparticulate-based synthetic bone (calcium and
    phoshpate nanoparticles) produced by

Nanostructured Materials
  • Nanodyne makes a tungsten-carbide-cobalt
    composite powder that is used to make a sintered
    alloy as hard as diamond. Used to make cutting
    tools, drill bits, armor plate and jet engine
    parts, etc.
  • Kodak produced organic light emitting diodes
    (OLED) color screens made of nanostructured
    plymer films for thin, flexible and low power
    consuming dislplays on cameras, PDAs, laptops,
    TV, etc.

  • Gel-based nanoscale catalyst is used to improve
    efficiency and reduces the cost in the process of
    liquifying coal and turning it into gas.
    (Hydrocarbon Technologies)
  • Used in catalytic converters. Nano particle has
    high surface to mass ratio.

  • Nanofiltration products made of nano size alumia
    fiber is capable of filtering the smallest of
    particles. Useful for sterilization of
    biological, pharmaceutical and medical serum,
  • Air filters for NASA space flight that screen
    viruses like SARS built by US Global Nanospace,
    Inc. - TX

Nano products in IT
  • Nanotubes tiny cylinders. In the presence of an
    electrical current, nanotubes can be made to fire
    off electrons. E.g. Samsung plans to use
    nanotubes to build LCD display that would cost
    less and use less power.
  • Nanoscale Dip-pen Nanolithography, a new
    approach for the fabrication of patterned
    nanostructures such as electronic circuits.
  • Molecular Electronics Nanowire interconnects.

IBM Millipede
200,000,000,000 bits/inch2
10 nm
IBM Millipede
  • Nanomechanical approach for data storage
  • Built out of silicon with legs a few nanometers
    across, rest on a polymer surface. When
    stimulated with a pulse of electricity, it makes
    a tiny dent. The device could record or read
    information at 1 Gbps

All Microchips Will Be Nanoscale Devices
CONCLUSION The semiconductor industry already
has a large effort underway for producing devices
whose minimum design features are 100nm. It is
only a matter of time before nearly all chips are
nanotech devices. Hence, there is substantial
value in synchronizing the large research effort
already funded by industry driven by the
International Technology Roadmap for
Semiconductors (ITRS), with the large research
effort expected to be funded worldwide.
Semiconductor Research Corporation
  • The Future

The Future
  • Intel will be manufacturing devices by 2007 with
    feature sizes about 20 nanometers across.
  • A red blood cell is on the order of 10,000
    nanometers across.
  • In 2 dimensions we could stack about 250,000
    components in the same space as a red blood cell.
  • If the trends continue as far as 2017, which may
    be the end-point of Moores Law we could be
    looking at
  • a manufactured device the size of a red blood
    cell with 256,000,000 components.
  • If we add the third dimension, that could
    translate into 65,536,000,000,000,000
  • components.
  • Somewhere along the way, were talking about the
    raw technical capability to produce a rather
  • sophisticated robot small enough to wander around
    through your body doing whatever it has been
  • programmed to do.
  • If we make the robot 1/10,000th the volume of a
    red blood cell, were still talking about
  • components, which is arguably perhaps enough to
    embody this machine with the ability to think,
  • and do whatever we have programmed it to do.

The Future Fundamental Technologies Need
  • Power Systems allow machine to do something
  • Locomotion Systems provide mobility
  • Control Systems where to go, when to stop
  • Sensor Systems where is it, how its going to
    get from where it is to where it wants to be
  • Actuator Systems something that actually does
  • Disposal Systems if machine ever breaks, to get
    rid of it

The Future Macro World Examples
  • Power Systems - batteries, thermoelectric, solar,
    steam, adenosine triphosphate, brownian motors
    (dramatic reduction in size and power
    consumption, 60)
  • Locomotion Systems legs, wings, rockets, tails
  • Control Systems micro processor, analog
    control, qubit
  • Sensor Systems vision, chemical gradient,
    atomic force
  • Actuator Systems erosion, genetic, assembler
  • Disposal Systems taggant, biodegradation,

The Future
  • Computing (Kurzweil/Moore)
  • Life Sciences (Human vs. machine distinction?)
  • Manufacturing (Cost, Grey Goo/Blue Goo)
  • Aerospace and Defense (Smart Dust)

BIG Future For NANO
  • If nano research is the Mt. Everest, we have
  • barely reached the base camp! (Charles Lieber)
  • If Einstein were looking for a career path
  • His advisor would tell him to think small
  • Albert, nanotech (Gary Stix)
  • Any sufficiently advanced technology is
  • from magic. (Arthur Clark)

  • Is nanotechnology a natural evolution of
  • technology or a disruptive technology (e.g.
  • Industrial revolution and computer revolution)?

Nanotechnology Class Readings
  • Feyman, Richard P., Theres Plenty of room at the
    Bottom, American Physical Society Annual
    Meeting, Caltech, December 1959,
  • Drexler, Eric, Engines of Creation The Coming
    Era of Nanotechnology, Chapter 1, Anchor
  • Storrs Hall, J., Overview of Nanotechnology
    Overview Foresight Institute, 2001,
  • Keiper,Adam,The Nanotechnology Revolution, The
    New Atlantis A Journal of Technology Society,
    Number 2, Summer 2003, pp. 17-34,