ATTITUDES TO ROAD SAFETY AND THINK ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGNS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: ATTITUDES TO ROAD SAFETY AND THINK ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGNS


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ATTITUDES TO ROAD SAFETY AND THINK! ROAD SAFETY
CAMPAIGNS
Prepared For The Department for Transport
Prepared By Mark Ratcliff and Siobhan
Bouchier-Hayes MURMUR (44) 020 7733 1706
info_at_murmurresearch.com www.murmurresearch.com
Version (v1.0)
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CONTENTS
6 7 8 11 12 14 15 17 22 23 26 28 31 34 41 42 47 49

BACKGROUND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE MAIN FINDINGS TOP 15
POINTS TO THINK ABOUT SECTION A ROAD SAFETY
1. URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC
DISADVANTAGED OVERVIEW 2. ROAD SAFETY AS A
CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND CHILDREN 3. ROAD
SAFETY PEDESTRIANS 3.1 OVERVIEW 3.2 WHAT
THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW 3.3 WHERE
THEY LEARN 3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK 4. ROAD SAFETY AND
CYCLING 4.1 OVERVIEW 4.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR
WHAT THEY DONT KNOW 4.3 CYCLIST RISK
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CONTENTS cont.
52 53 54 55 58 59 63 66 69 73 74 77 78 79 80 83 8
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  • 5. IN CAR ISSUES
  • 5.1 OVERVIEW OF HOW RURAL VS. URBAN, ETHNIC
    VS. DISADVANTAGED VS.
  • MIDDLE CLASS IMPACTS ON IN CAR ISSUES
  • 5.2 OPINION FORMER OVERVIEW OF THE VERY
    BIGGEST ISSUES
  • 5.3 SAFETY IN THE PARENTAL CAR
  • 5.4 IN CAR RISK
  • 5.4.1 WHAT SCARES CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS IN CAR
  • 5.4.2 MORE ON PARENTAL EXAMPLE
  • 5.4.3 RISKY DRIVING BY MATES
  • LEARNING TO DRIVE
  • SECTION B CURRENT CAMPAIGNS
  • CURRENT COMMUNICATIONS WHATS CUTTING THROUGH
  • HEDGEHOGS TV
  • 2.1 HEDGEHOGS TV TEMPERATURE OF RESPONSE
  • 2.2 HEDGEHOGS TV POSITIVES
  • 2.3 HEDGEHOGS TV ISSUES
  • 2.4 HEDGEHOGS TV TARGET
  • 2.5 HEDGEHOGS TV COMPREHENSION AND
    COMMUNICATIONS

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CONTENTS cont.
87 89 90 97 98 99 100 102 103 104 105 106 108
109 110 112 113 115
3. HEDGEHOGS POSTERS 4. HEDGEHOGS
SUPPORTING MATERIALS 5 HEDGEHOGS
LITERATURE 6. HEDGEHOGS CYCLING 7.
CAMERA PHONE TV 7.1 CAMERA PHONE TV
TEMPERATURE OF RESPONSE 7.2 CAMERA PHONE TV
POSITIVES 7.3 CAMERA PHONE TV ISSUES 7.4
CAMERA PHONE TV TARGET 7.5 CAMERA PHONE
TV COMPREHENSION AND COMMUNICATION 7.6 CAMERA
PHONE TV IMPACT 8. CAMERA PHONE
POSTERS 9. SKULLS 10. PREFERENCES RE
WHERE FIND SAFETY MESSAGES SECTION C TOWARDS
OPTIMISATION 1. ALL AGE GROUPS 1.1 ALL
AGE GROUPS CONTENT 1.2 ALL AGE GROUPS
STYLE
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CONTENTS cont.
118 120 121 124 125 126 127 131 133
135 137
1.3 ALL AGE GROUPS OTHER ISSUES 2.
YOUNGER 2.1 YOUNGER CONTENT 2.2 YOUNGER
STYLE 2.3 YOUNGER OTHER ISSUES 3.
OLDER 3.1 OLDER CONTENT 3.2 OLDER
STYLE 4. PARENTS 5. A NOTE ON PRINT
SUMMARY COMMUNICATIONS CHART WHAT
COMMUNICATIONS CAN DO
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BACKGROUND
  • By the year 2010 the government wants to reduce
    road deaths and serious injuries by 40, or 50
    for children. The THINK! Campaign is one of the
    measures that is being utilised to help meet
    these targets
  • The THINK! campaign is an umbrella brand that
    links all road safety messages and has been up
    and running since June 2000
  • The ultimate aim of the THINK! campaign is to
    push people towards recognising that it is often
    the small things they do that causes accidents on
    the roads and that there are simple steps that
    can be taken that will reduce risk
  • Research indicates that the THINK! brand now has
    wide recognition and the challenge is to build on
    the campaign to get across specific messages
    which will engender behavioural change amongst 4
    16 year olds
  • A number of campaigns have run that specifically
    target teenagers and children and research is
    ultimately required to review existing activity
    aimed at these target groups as well as how
    communications with them might best be optimised

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • Research objectives primarily revolve around
  • Reviewing existing road safety communications
    aimed at children (7 10 year olds)
  • Reviewing existing road safety communications
    aimed at teenagers (11 16 year olds) and
    identifying other possible routes for
    communication
  • Exploring the need for a separate marketing
    approach for 10 11 year olds during the
    transition from primary to secondary school
  • To investigate how communications with teens and
    children can be improved
  • To ensure the key messages in current and future
    campaigns appeal and resonate across both
    audiences
  • To explore the possibility of linking cycling and
    pedestrian safety into a single campaign that
    would be flexible enough to work with both
    children and teens and within that males and
    females
  • More specifically to investigate
  • Teenagers and childrens attitudes towards road
    safety and risk taking (including why take risks
    and what the attractions of dangerous games like
    chicken are)
  • The role parents play in road safety education
  • The impact gender, age, attitudes and lifestyle
    have on road safety behaviour
  • The role peers play in road safety behaviour
  • How road safety can compete with the fact that
    other issues such as sex, exams, drugs and
    alcohol are taking a greater share of mind
  • What tone is most appropriate to use when talking
    about road safety

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE
  • Respondent Methodology
  • Groups, paired depths and one-on-one interviews
    were conducted as per below
  • 3 x opinion former interviews
  • Senior police person Annie Mitchener
  • RSO at Milton Keynes Kevin Clinton
  • David Frost at Royal Society for Prevention of
    Accidents
  • Plus a number of road safety experts were spoken
    with over the course of briefing conversations.
    In a couple of cases these mutated into extended
    interviews
  • 30 x groups and 4 x paired depth immersion
    studies

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE cont.
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE cont.
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  • MAIN FINDINGS

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TOP 15 POINTS TO THINK ABOUT
  • 1. In urban environments, for disadvantaged and
    significant numbers of ethnic respondents, the
    scale of violence and crime currently puts issues
    relating to road safety into the shade
  • 2. Significant numbers of ethnic and
    disadvantaged respondents are on their own on the
    streets from the age of 7 and up
  • 3. Rural respondents are much more conscious of
    road safety, both as pedestrians and as cyclists,
    than their suburban and urban counterparts sense
    of it being a real threat
  • 4. The scale of risky/bad behaviour in cars
    among teenagers when they are with their peers is
    not to be underestimated eg put bag over head of
    driver on motorway
  • 5. Children and teenagers pick up bad cues from
    their parents across pedestrian and in car in
    fact parents who drive fast or perform dubious
    manoeuvres can be treated as role models, versus
    a significant number of girls are too scared to
    challenge their parents if they drive dangerously
  • 6. Disadvantaged role models re learning to
    drive are often risk takers e.g. roll a joint
    whilst steering with feet, etc
  • 7. Significant number of 15 16 year olds think
    smoking marijuana when driving is not an issue
    heightens awareness of and sensitivity to road
    conditions
  • 8. Hedgehogs is immensely popular as animation
    but there are big comprehension and communication
    issues which result in its role in road safety
    education being open to question
  • 9. There appears to be merit in encouraging
    parents of under 8 year olds to become more
    actively involved in road training significant
    numbers of parents think that the bulk of the
    work in this area should be undertaken by
    schools opinion formers beg to differ in fact
    road safety education appears sporadic across
    schools
  • 10. Research indicates that 10 and 11 year olds
    need to be targeted with a variation on the
    current teen strategy they are clearly too old
    for Hedgehogs, as indeed are the majority of 8
    and 9 year olds key age break may not be 10
    11, more 8/9 11

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TOP 15 POINTS TO THINK ABOUT
  • 11. Camera Phone is a very successful piece of
    road safety advertising when viewed in the
    context of other relevant communications it
    feels real, elicits enormous empathy with its
    depiction of teenage life and delivers a genuine
    and visceral shock which stays with respondents,
    especially under 15s
  • 12. Teens (especially, though not exclusively,
    15) tend to live moment to moment, they are not
    future focussed that which impacts on them today
    may well be forgotten tomorrow unless something
    about personal consequences is driven home this
    is only effective if there is a strong point of
    empathy that leads up to depiction of
    consequences
  • 13. Dont Die Before Youve Lived is too
    future focussed for teenagers to truly engage
    its far more resonant among parents, addressing
    a primal fear about losing a child prematurely
  • 14. Graphic illustration of catastrophe should
    not be shied away from when depicting the impact
    and consequences of road accidents significant
    numbers from 8 11 and the vast majority of
    those over 11 can cope with it
  • 15. There is a huge job involved in presenting
    cycle helmets as acceptable, you cant just run a
    safety message, need to address major image
    issues

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  • SECTION A ROAD SAFETY

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URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC DISADVANTAGED
OVERVIEW
  • There are significant differences between urban
    and rural respondents, and their priorities
  • Rural respondents
  • Parents much more concerned about road safety as
    an issue, many urban parents have more pressing
    things to think about
  • No pavements to walk on, no safe crossings,
    children are less street-wise
  • Rural kids ferried by car, in urban areas
    children on the street much earlier
  • In the most rural areas hard to send your
    children to the shops as part of a controlled
    independence exercise, whereas in a city or
    suburbs its not such a problem
  • A sense in some rural areas that inhabitants are
    more middle class increasingly need money to
    live in the countryside
  • Rural kids seem to get much more hands-on
    training eg cycle proficiency much more
    prevalent a function of being more middle class?
  • Road safety and rural versus urban
  • For rural, road safety revolves around issues
    like narrow roads, heavy agricultural traffic,
    concealed entrances, blind bends, no street
    lights and drink driving
  • For urban, revolves around street crime, weight
    of traffic, pack behaviour among children
    overtaking individual common sense
  • Disadvantaged
  • In many respects not so different to bulk of
    sample in terms of concerns
  • Significant differences revolve around
  • On the streets, on their own, eg going to school,
    at much younger age, often 7/8

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1. URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC
DISADVANTAGED OVERVIEW cont.
  • Male parental role models sometimes offering bad
    example eg driving car with feet, driving under
    the influence of drugs, more resolutely macho in
    attitudes to driving, etc
  • Much closer to perpetrators and victims of street
    crime/violence eg in London gang members part of
    their milieu
  • More likely to aspire to what others might
    perceive as dangerous driving
  • More likely to have role models for whom
    machismo, respect, peer acceptance are a very,
    very big deal
  • More likely to be territorial about where they
    live
  • If youre going to see mates in another area
    youve got to keep on your toes for the boys in
    that area. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • If you walk into a different area, boys come
    after you, theyve normally got tools because
    its their area, so youve just got to keep on
    your toes. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • More likely to listen to underground music more
    likely to generate content in music
  • Ethnic
  • Significant cross over between ethnic and
    disadvantaged typically Afro-Caribbean
  • Muslim female respondents markedly different to
    disadvantaged
  • Conservative, more closeted, less freedom
  • A lot of concerns relate to sex eg fear of rape
    on the street, underage pregnancy
  • Asian males oscillate between more urban and more
    conservative, depending on their class and,
    sometimes, whether they are of Pakistani or
    Indian origin sometimes can oscillate between
    the two positions depending on issues eg liberal
    about drugs, conservative about sexual issues

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ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN
  • More of a concern for rural respondents and the
    parents of younger children than for older
    children and their parents
  • Disadvantaged parents and their children
    sometimes flag it as a concern, but in terms of
    theft, violence and shootings on the street
    rather than crossing between parked cars or
    against the red man on a pedestrian crossing
  • You have to make sure you put all your sick
    things in your pocket so you dont get jacked.
    10 11 boy
  • People can steal stuff from you, you can get
    kidnapped, you can get into fights, you can get
    arrested, you can get hurt, you can get shot or
    you can get stabbed or you can get poisoned with
    sweets or you can get run over. 10 11 boy
  • Rural concerns hugely salient
  • Step out of the house and road safety is a live
    issue, a real threat. For example children in
    rural areas much more likely to wear fluorescent
    clothing, in urban areas only wear fluorescent
    clothing by mistake, as part of fashion design
    likely to be picked on and ridiculed, otherwise
  • Its a real concern for me, we live down a dirt
    track but at the back is a really busy road on a
    bend and you cant see a thing. I have to run
    across the road on my own and leave the kids on
    the other side so I can see clearly and usher
    them across. 4 6 parent
  • As noted
  • Blind bends
  • No pavements
  • No street lights
  • Drink driving more reckless driving because lack
    of police presence

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ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN cont.
  • Large lorries and agricultural traffic
  • Traffic more sporadic so children less used to it
  • Cycling more hazardous eg on a narrow road, fears
    re get sucked under lorry in its wake
  • Suburban
  • Generally not so far from urban with one proviso,
    that is outer suburbs sometimes exhibit distinct
    concerns about traffic density and speed eg in
    Cheshire lots of big A roads heading to
    Manchester which traffic barrels down at 40 or 45
    miles per hour rather than within the speed
    limit, and with few obvious pedestrian crossings
  • Urban
  • Confronted with busy roads and traffic more often
    than other children/parents, a sense they are
    more inured to it
  • And as noted a sense that there are other, more
    pressing concerns eg crime, drugs
  • More supposed safe crossings in urban
    environments, so children more regimented about
    where they cross expect to find zebra crossings,
    pedestrian crossings on major roads with
    attendant issue that may make children lazier or
    think less about road safety
  • More specifically, concerns of children and
    teenagers
  • Across all age groups peer pressure and bullying
    emerge as key concern
  • It is difficult to say no to things, and if
    youre being picked on and tell your mum and dad
    they might shout at them, but that makes it worse
    because theyre in my class. 7 9 boy
  • My friend hasnt got much money and he goes to
    steal things from a shop and he wants me to steal
    too. When I told him I didnt want to, he hit me
    on the head. 7 9 boy

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2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS
AND CHILDREN cont.
  • 7 9 concerns dominated by more amorphous or
    conceptual fears re the dark, ghosts, death at
    secondary level worry about friends, sick
    relatives, grandparents can also get upset about
    disruptions to their routine eg miss football or
    dancing lesson
  • Parents of 7 9s worry about letting their
    children off the leash, running free perception
    is that abductions, child sex, violence on the
    ascendancy all agree that they had much more
    freedom when they were 7 9
  • 10 11 year old concerns start to be a little
    more concrete moving up to bigger school, exams,
    fitting in with friends, bullying cyber bullying
    a big trend in addition some evidence that more
    global issues resonate, they worry about
    terrorism being blown up in a bus on London,
    theyre becoming aware of poverty via horrific
    media imagery, seem to be environmentally
    conscious compared to youngest and oldest
    counterparts these concerns are all quite
    apocalyptic
  • I think I get upset if I hadnt done my homework
    or somebody sends me a horrible email or somebody
    threatens me at school, Im scared to go back.
    10 11 boy, ethnic
  • Teenage concerns much more local about friends,
    fitting in very concerned about themselves and
    how they look, what the opposite sex think of
    them, creating a niche for themselves among their
    peers that doesnt jar etc. The one worry that
    extends beyond their immediate circle is of
    internet predators, stranger danger sometimes
    echoed by 10 11 year olds significant numbers
    talk of receiving strange and unusual messages
  • Urban disadvantaged teenage concerns revolve
    around violence and crime, being robbed on the
    street when talking about cars and road safety,
    more than one respondent talks of being anxious
    when cars pull up by the curb near them, waiting
    for the window to come down and a gun to appear
    disadvantaged parents hugely concerned

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2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN cont.
  • We live across the road from Geoffrey Chaucer
    school I talk to my daughter, I say you beware
    and take care, these friends of yours are bad,
    dont do this, dont do that she is still
    scared, there is so much trouble around here,
    boys are shooting each other. 12 14 parent,
    disadvantaged
  • Somebody close to us was murdered by the Peckham
    boys in Deptford, near the Albany, a couple of
    months agoyou have to be worried if you have
    boys of that age right now. 12 14 parent,
    disadvantaged
  • On my birthday, innit, the other day, yeah, I
    went to Wood Green cinema, innit, like, so I got
    on the bus and I was with my wifey and that boy
    and then there was about 10/15 boys chilling at
    the back of the bus and they had two young kids
    with them 3 boys got on the bus, yeah, and the
    black boys were saying to the young kidsthey
    were probably in year 7, not even thatabout
    11/12with kids my age, yeah, older than thatand
    they was like see that boy there, go and take
    his hatso the little boy went up to the boy and
    he took his hat and the boy obviously took his
    hat back and then the little kid threw his
    barbecue sauce in the boys face, so the boy
    obviously got up, innit like, to hit the boy and
    then all the boys came down and they were like
    were going to bang you in and the boy couldnt
    do nothing, they were taking his phone, slapping
    his face, the boy was getting slapped in the face
    by one kid, he was like sit down!, so the boy
    sat down so the kid could slap him in the face
    took his phone and the younger one, the boy goes
    to him yeah, spud him, so he spudded him and
    the little man goes thanks for your phone and
    just got off the bus boy. He said thanks for
    giving me your phone, in other words youre a
    dick head. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • Not one child or teenage respondent spontaneously
    mentioned road safety as a concern, though when
    prompted, its clearly more of an issue for rural
    children and teenagers

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2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS
AND CHILDREN cont.
  • More specifically parental hierarchy

Urban
CRIME
INEQUALITY/POVERTY
ROAD SAFETY (urban disadvantaged)
TERRORISM/WAR
ENVIRONMENT (white, middle class)
ENVIRONMENT (ethnic, disadvantaged)
EDUCATION
EMPLOYMENT
HEALTH
Less Concern
More Concern
INTERNET/MEDIA

ROAD SAFETY (rural)
Rural
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  • 3. ROAD SAFETY PEDESTRIANS

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3.1 OVERVIEW
  • All parents and children over the age of 7 claim
    they know about road safety
  • However on probing gaps in their knowledge become
    readily apparent
  • Parrot information rather than understand it eg
    they may be aware that crossing between parked
    cars is dangerous but they are less certain as to
    why see below
  • Its bad because there could be people in the
    cars and they could start the engine and crush
    you. 7 9 boy
  • reality for many in urban sample, crossing
    between parked cars is inevitable
  • With the exception of under 7s, vast majority all
    knowingly take risks to one degree or another
  • Under 7s risk taking more likely to be
    inadvertent eg parent having to pull back from
    the road
  • Significant number of children think they could
    teach their parents a thing or two about road
    safety. Occasionally pull them up on their
    behaviour
  • Parents themselves admit that on occasion they
    are probably not the best role models eg in a
    rush or in the company of another adult focus
    more on occasion than safety issues
  • My parents dont look at all, they are always
    talking when they cross the road but when my mum
    is just with me she is quite good. 7 9 boy
  • What DfT considers risk-taking not always viewed
    as such by respondents their normality is such
    that they have to cross between parked cars, or
    have to wait in the middle of the road while
    traffic passes either side of them, or cant walk
    on well-lit streets because there arent any near
    them
  • For younger, especially disadvantaged and some
    ethnic, crossing the road is an opportunity to
    assert themselves, to garner respect hence will
    just walk out bringing traffic to a screeching
    halt. Taking a risk, in this context, is about
    bravado, in other contexts, for young people more
    generally, it is about having a laugh or being in
    a rush or being in a hermetically sealed world of
    their own

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3.1 OVERVIEW cont.
  • When Im in a bad mood sometimes I just walk out
    even if I see a car coming because I think
    theyre going to stop. Say if I walked slowly
    and the car beeps at me then I will turn around
    and tell them to fuck off. 12 14 boy,
    disadvantaged
  • Yeah, I know exactly what youre saying. To be
    honest with you, yeah, sometimes when I am
    angryit kind of depends, if the cars far away
    and the car blatantly sees you, youd expect them
    to have the decency to stop but if you know
    theyre speeding up then you obviously get out
    the way but youll proper screw them and if they
    stop youll be like what a prickdrive on man!
    do you know what Im saying? at the end of
    the day its very unlikely on Bay Road that
    theyre going to run you over and get away with
    it. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • Yeah. Also, as well, yeah, like I know like
    youre taking it out on the wrong people, yeah,
    but whos ever walked on a zebra crossing and a
    car dont stop for you!? That zebra crossing
    youre supposed to stop the car that makes me
    mad the next time a car dont stopI dont even
    walk on the zebra crossing I walk next to the
    zebra crossing and if they dont stop Im like
    youre supposed to stop this is a zebra
    crossing and then theyll be like well get on
    the zebra crossingjust shut up man, get in
    your car! 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • In terms of how they get to school and with whom
    clear demarcation between some ethnic and most
    disadvantaged sample and others between the ages
    of 7 10
  • Very few non-ethnic/non-disadvantaged making
    their own way to school under the age of 11
    still at primary
  • Evidence of some ethnic and disadvantaged making
    their own way to school from the age of 7
    upwards majority of disadvantaged 9 10 year
    olds making their way to school without adult
    supervision
  • Tower Hamlets RSO affirms that this is a huge
    issue in her borough, 7 10 year old Bengalis
    who cant speak English making their own way to
    school
  • Rural under 11s almost invariably taken by an
    adult to school or taken by an adult to school
    bus stop

25
3.1 OVERVIEW cont.
  • Urban children utilising mix of public transport
    and walking
  • Urban buses perceived as potential flash point
    for danger disadvantaged parents strongly
    advising children not to sit on the top deck
  • Im not letting them go on the bus because its
    just horrendous. My son actually leaves home
    almost 45 minutes earlier than he has to to avoid
    it he leaves home at 715 in the morning. 10
    11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Teenagers typically going to school with siblings
    or friends again mix of transport modes, though
    all recognise that when they are not on their own
    travelling time increases significantly,
    sometimes doubles, as they talk, muck around, get
    up to mischief etc
  • Yeah, weve got this thing weve been doing, we
    all take loads of eggs to school and then throw
    them at each other on the way, sometimes youll
    hit somebody you dont mean to, its a laugh.
    15 16 boy

26
3.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW
  • Green Cross Code
  • Minority of children across sample spontaneously
    refer to Green Cross Code other respondents in
    group are quick to question what it is
  • Awareness far more common among parents though
    significant number think it no longer exists
    still can recall detail from learning as a child
  • Parental view is that they were raised on Green
    Cross Code, and thats what they try to instill
    in their children albeit it on an ad hoc rather
    than structured basis
  • Safety and Children/Teenagers
  • Seems like most children know the fundamentals of
    road safety at some level, whether they practice
    them is another issue their notion of what
    constitutes risk is different to the DFTs
  • Youngest children most likely to obey traffic
    signals
  • No teenagers think they have anything to learn
    about road safety
  • Significant number of 6 10s can recite Stop,
    Look, Listen and Live line
  • First port of call when asked what they know
    about road safety and where line not quoted in
    its entirety, will often answer Look, Stop,
    Listen, or variations thereof, when asked what
    they know about road safety
  • Otherwise, when asked about road safety 6
    10s/11s most likely to comment on
  • Excluding rural, where possible cross the road at
    pedestrian crossing, zebra crossing
  • At pedestrian crossing wait until the man is
    green
  • Younger with parents tend to wait, others will
    make a judgement on how far away traffic is and
    then cross if light isnt green
  • Dont run into the road without looking

27
3.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW
cont.
  • Dont play too close to the main road
  • Use ears as well as eyes when crossing the road
  • Be careful of large vehicles such as lorries and
    buses, dont stand too close to the edge of the
    pavement because may be hit by them or be
    destabilised in their wake
  • For 4 8s, hold mummys hand or an adults hand,
    especially when crossing the road
  • Teenagers do not consider anything other than
    overt risks as issues eg playing chicken, pushing
    each other into the road, being wrapped up in
    your own concerns or dreams or music and
    wandering into the road etc
  • Having said that, where pushed will give
    moderator variations on what children know eg
    dont lark about near the road

28
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN
  • Less sense of structured learning these days
    according to parents in some instances parents
    talk as if their children learn almost via
    osmosis
  • Practice/ad hoc learning tends to be imparted by
    parents, typically mother
  • Prompted by 1 of 2 things either immediate
    circumstances eg come to a crossing with child,
    or by seeing something which is being perceived
    as stupid Did you see that?
  • When they are in the car, you point out the
    prats on the road or on the pavement. 10 11
    parent
  • More theoretical less practical
  • NB feeling that more structured teaching re road
    safety in rural schools than urban counterparts
  • Sometimes imparted at school, either by teacher
    or older students, typically year 6 teaching
    reception younger more likely to listen to their
    older peers, versus a sign of how little
    importance schools place on road safety, that
    they pawn it off on pupils and helpers
  • Some children talk of citizenship days where
    schools take them to various institutions such as
    police and fire service, where they are lectured
    on and shown things about various aspects of
    safety
  • We had a trip with my class, this man showed us
    about roads, these children were playing, these
    boys were throwing a ball at the side of the
    road, one of the boys pushed a girl into the road
    and she got run over by a bus, thats stayed in
    my head, I thought it was sad. 10 11 boy,
    ethnic
  • Significant recall across younger sample of
    Hedgehog stickers re Be Bright At Night
    learning
  • We were taught our Green Cross Code by our
    middle school and we were given Hedgehog
    stickers. 7 9 girl
  • Occasional recall by children of work books
    relating to road safety being handed out for them
    to write and draw on in many instances
    unsupervised, left to their own devices
    consequently book not engaged with

29
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN cont.
  • However, some parents talk of schools dropping it
    from their curriculum eg half of the Suffolk
    parent sample complained about it having recently
    been dropped
  • Some disadvantaged and ethnic, particularly first
    generation migrant parents, think television
    advertising is a valuable source of information
    for their children in this area
  • Other parents and children talk of Hedgehog
    posters around school underscoring safety
    messages
  • A sense among disadvantaged and ethnic parents,
    particularly though not always exclusively, that
    it is the schools job to educate about road
    safety
  • Opinion former view is that the parental role is
    the most important, that children learn via
    practice and example rather than theory
  • Childrens view is that both parents and schools
    have roles to play, former showing, latter
    teaching
  • Some anecdotal evidence that children learn in
    the short term from witnessing accidents or
    hearing about them in their immediate locality eg
    saw a boy cycle into a lamppost, saw the residue
    on the road of a bad motorcycle accident or even
    have been in pedestrian accidents themselves
  • Without wishing to belabour the obvious, the more
    serious the accident, the more long term the
    behavioural change eg teenager in car accident
    wasnt wearing a seatbelt, now always does less
    serious accidents engender more short term
    behavioural change eg one respondent had been
    knocked over twice yet still admitted that he
    would run into the middle of the road and dodge
    traffic to catch the bus rather than walk an
    extra 10 yards and use the crossing
  • NB relevant for communications goes towards
    substantiating the view that the more graphic or
    more hard-hitting the communications, the more
    impactful they are
  • I think if they got more vicious adsIm not
    saying like really violent but something more,
    then people will (little kids as well) be more
    carefullike them proper car crashes where they
    hit someone, then their arm comes off or
    something or their leg or whatever, that would be
    good. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged

30
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN cont.
  • As noted teenagers think they have learnt all
    that they need to know
  • Ad hoc learning is by example of their peers and
    friends rather than via anything parents or
    teachers say
  • eg whether its playing chicken or running across
    the road through oncoming traffic or playing
    football in the road, they follow their peers
    lead

31
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY
  • Parents of 4 6 year olds
  • All parents of 4 6 year olds claim to
    explicitly teach their children about road safety
  • In all cases its ad hoc and dependent on being
    out in the real world
  • Teaching things like
  • Stop and look before crossing the road
  • Look left and right twice, even when the green
    man is indicating you can go
  • Get off your bike before crossing the road
  • Hold a grown ups hand when crossing the road
  • Repeat the Hedgehogs strap line when crossing
    the road, Stop, Look, Listen
  • In rural areas
  • Walking in single file
  • Walking on inside of mother/adult
  • But as noted, and as will be covered in an
    upcoming section, all parents including parents
    of 4 6 year olds take risks in front of their
    children
  • Parents of 7 9 year olds
  • Still some degree of tutoring when out with your
    child eg insisting before crossing the road look
    first
  • But also a sense of children beginning to go out
    on their own
  • parents warning their children before they go
    out eg be careful near the main road, only cross
    at a zebra crossing, etc
  • Some evidence that parents setting children tasks
    which involve exercising gumption on roads eg
    going to get newspapers involves crossing a road

32
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY cont.
  • One or two cases of role play where parent gets
    child to take the lead and make decisions
  • Parents of 10 11 year olds
  • Urban parents, disadvantaged parents and some
    ethnic parents beginning to back off from
    instructive role, only intervene when see what
    they perceive as gross stupidity
  • Rural middle class parents switch in educative
    role from pedestrian to cycling eg encourage
    cycle helmets, warn them about hanging PE kit on
    their bike handles, ensure that children keep
    their bikes safe in three cases, mothers
    actively campaigning to bring back cycle
    proficiency at school see Cycling for more
    detail
  • Some parents of the opinion that this represents
    the most dangerous age for their children,
    increasingly off the leash, heady with scent of
    freedom
  • And they say its the 9, 10 and 11 year olds
    that are most at risk because they want a bit
    more freedom and they can think they know it all
    and they can do it all and they cant. So it is
    definitely this age group that are more at risk.
    10 11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Again some sense that children going out is a
    prompt for parents to remind them to be careful
  • I always say, Dont talk to anybody, stand back
    because if anybody is mucking about, you might
    get pushed, dont get on the busses, stay
    downstairs, dont go upstairs, keep your phone in
    your pocket even if it rings and check it later
    on. 10 11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Parents of 12 14 year olds
  • Among ethnic and disadvantaged parents 2 views
    often prevail
  • One is belief that their children are mature and
    sensible and would never do the kind of things
    stereotypical early teens get up to
  • Oh no, mine would never do things like that,
    shes on the mature side, she behaves like an
    adult, like a lady, shes really okay. 12 14
    parent, disadvantaged

33
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY cont.
  • The other is a sense that their children might be
    getting up to all sorts of mischief that is
    increasingly difficult to track or control talk
    of their early teens exhibiting lots of
    attitude, wont listen to parents
  • Either way dont bother with road safety chats
    any more where counsel caution before teens go
    out, they mean it in relation to substance abuse
    or violence or theft or rape
  • Parents of 15 16 year olds
  • Some ethnic and disadvantaged 15 16 year olds
    clearly barely on speaking terms with their
    parents though still respect and have a lot of
    time for grandparents
  • In other households, road safety much lower
    priority when children are going out unless they
    will be getting lifts with mates in their cars
    significant number of parents discourage this,
    versus teenagers not informing their parents
  • A general sense that wary of proffering any
    advice
  • Its hard to know what to say sometimes its
    better to say nothing at all. You tell them one
    thing, and theyll do the other. 15 16
    parent, ethnic

34
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK
  • As already noted perceptions of risk differ
    across urban and rural divide
  • Rural risk revolves around
  • Lack of street lights, no pavements, blind bends,
    narrow roads with traffic hurtling down it, lots
    of going over the speed limit because of lack of
    police presence/knowledge where speed cameras
    are, T junctions where theres no pavements, no
    formalised pedestrian crossings, people messing
    about on unlit roads late at night on weekends
    etc
  • Its difficult sometimes, you cant see whats
    coming, you just have to run out and hope. 12
    14 girl
  • Having said that, rural respondents talk of
    taking similar risks to their urban counterparts
    eg
  • Walking across the road in groups talking to each
    other rather than looking
  • People absorbed in mobile phone or music drifting
    across the road
  • Messing around by the road
  • Run out in front of cars, either because in a
    rush or out of bravado
  • 4 6 year olds
  • 4 6 can barely conceive of risky behaviour by
    the road
  • 1 recalls playing with friends on pavement in
    front of his house, while his mother chatted,
    tripping and falling into the road while traffic
    was passing
  • Parents of 4 6 year olds have no problems
    recalling examples of their own risky behaviour
    in relation to their children risk taking
    prompted by being in a rush, typically
  • Crossing a wide main road and having to hang in
    the middle and wait for cars to pass
  • Crossing between parked cars

35
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • More risky behaviour includes
  • Getting children out of the car on road side
  • Running across the road with a child
  • Dropping something and pausing to pick it up
  • Crossing in front of buses and vans
  • Using push chair with younger sibling in it to
    slow down the traffic
  • Crossing a relatively busy road when the
    pedestrian light is green
  • I will cross the road when the red sign is
    on, contrary to everything I taught my
    childrenthis morning we both got caught in
    the filter lane crossing the road. 4 6
    parent, ethnic
  • 7 9 year olds
  • Rural risks already noted we spoke with 7 9
    year old parents in Suffolk and 7 9 year old
    children in Somerset
  • Two parents of 7 9 year olds in Cheshire have
    children with ADHD, makes road safety a nightmare
    when children are driven by impulse for example,
    if boys ball goes out into the road, he runs
    after it without lookingbehaviour kicks in
    before thinking
  • You have a young, impulsive child who cant read
    properly. Its a nightmare around the roads. 7
    9 parent, disadvantaged
  • 7 9 year old respondents are generally fairly
    well-behaved on the roads, traffic can still
    scare them, words of their parents or teachers
    still ringing in their ears wrongdoing tends to
    be of the crossing the road when the pedestrian
    light is red variety
  • Parental risk in front of children
  • Some adamant they try not to take risk in front
    of children, at worst may jay walk

36
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • Interestingly some children claim that their
    parents only very occasionally will take an overt
    risk, for example crossing when the pedestrian
    light is red, but in the main, will do things
    like always look before crossing or always wait
    until road is empty before crossing
  • Having said that plenty of parents of 7 9 year
    olds claim they will cross between parked cars,
    they dont necessarily wait until the man is
    green etc
  • I dont even consider these as risks, I know I
    can judge it, I know I shouldnt, but I do. 7
    9 parent
  • Significant number claim that everyone has to
    break rules when they live in urban or suburban
    areas many claim they wont walk several yards
    out of their way to walk across a zebra crossing
  • 10 11 year olds
  • Risk taking on the roads steps up a level
  • Going out on their own and with groups of friends
    more regularly not as often as their teenage
    counterparts, but often enough to be away from
    adult supervision for extended periods of time
  • In rural areas talk of playing chicken on the
    roads, and on rail tracks
  • Increasing tendency to walk out into road without
    looking, engrossed in mobile phone conversation
    or friends conversation
  • Cross between parked cars without even thinking
    it an issue
  • Increasingly make judgements about cars and
    distance, willing to take a punt
  • A couple of days ago me and my friend were
    crossing the road and do you know when it was
    like hailing in the morning and it was really
    pouring with rain none of the cars could see us
    and we could see that they couldnt see and we
    were in the middle of the road and there was an
    island near by but we didnt take it because it
    was quite far away and we were in the middle of
    the road just like trying to get our blazers over
    our heads and no cars would see us and I was
    really scared because I thought oh, no cars
    cant see us, so we just ran straight across.
    10 11 girl

37
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • I think the most important thing for me is if
    Im with a big group of people and like a few of
    them will cross, Ill just go along with them but
    when they cross a carll be further away but by
    the time Im crossing it would be closer but Ill
    still do it. 10 11 girl
  • More horseplay by the side of the road, lots of
    talk about people being pushed into the road, off
    the pavement more games being played at the side
    of the road eg football
  • We were playing football by the road and the
    ball fell into the road and my friend ran out
    after it but a car ran over the ball and it
    sounded like a gunshot. 10 11 boy, ethnic
  • Taking minor risks as a matter of course eg will
    cross on red man if dont see any cars, will
    cross if see a car in the distance etc
  • Not every 10 year old behaving like this, some
    still claim that they will seek out pedestrian
    crossing or w
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Title: ATTITUDES TO ROAD SAFETY AND THINK ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGNS


1
ATTITUDES TO ROAD SAFETY AND THINK! ROAD SAFETY
CAMPAIGNS
Prepared For The Department for Transport
Prepared By Mark Ratcliff and Siobhan
Bouchier-Hayes MURMUR (44) 020 7733 1706
info_at_murmurresearch.com www.murmurresearch.com
Version (v1.0)
2
CONTENTS
6 7 8 11 12 14 15 17 22 23 26 28 31 34 41 42 47 49

BACKGROUND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE MAIN FINDINGS TOP 15
POINTS TO THINK ABOUT SECTION A ROAD SAFETY
1. URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC
DISADVANTAGED OVERVIEW 2. ROAD SAFETY AS A
CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND CHILDREN 3. ROAD
SAFETY PEDESTRIANS 3.1 OVERVIEW 3.2 WHAT
THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW 3.3 WHERE
THEY LEARN 3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK 4. ROAD SAFETY AND
CYCLING 4.1 OVERVIEW 4.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR
WHAT THEY DONT KNOW 4.3 CYCLIST RISK
3
CONTENTS cont.
52 53 54 55 58 59 63 66 69 73 74 77 78 79 80 83 8
5
  • 5. IN CAR ISSUES
  • 5.1 OVERVIEW OF HOW RURAL VS. URBAN, ETHNIC
    VS. DISADVANTAGED VS.
  • MIDDLE CLASS IMPACTS ON IN CAR ISSUES
  • 5.2 OPINION FORMER OVERVIEW OF THE VERY
    BIGGEST ISSUES
  • 5.3 SAFETY IN THE PARENTAL CAR
  • 5.4 IN CAR RISK
  • 5.4.1 WHAT SCARES CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS IN CAR
  • 5.4.2 MORE ON PARENTAL EXAMPLE
  • 5.4.3 RISKY DRIVING BY MATES
  • LEARNING TO DRIVE
  • SECTION B CURRENT CAMPAIGNS
  • CURRENT COMMUNICATIONS WHATS CUTTING THROUGH
  • HEDGEHOGS TV
  • 2.1 HEDGEHOGS TV TEMPERATURE OF RESPONSE
  • 2.2 HEDGEHOGS TV POSITIVES
  • 2.3 HEDGEHOGS TV ISSUES
  • 2.4 HEDGEHOGS TV TARGET
  • 2.5 HEDGEHOGS TV COMPREHENSION AND
    COMMUNICATIONS

4
CONTENTS cont.
87 89 90 97 98 99 100 102 103 104 105 106 108
109 110 112 113 115
3. HEDGEHOGS POSTERS 4. HEDGEHOGS
SUPPORTING MATERIALS 5 HEDGEHOGS
LITERATURE 6. HEDGEHOGS CYCLING 7.
CAMERA PHONE TV 7.1 CAMERA PHONE TV
TEMPERATURE OF RESPONSE 7.2 CAMERA PHONE TV
POSITIVES 7.3 CAMERA PHONE TV ISSUES 7.4
CAMERA PHONE TV TARGET 7.5 CAMERA PHONE
TV COMPREHENSION AND COMMUNICATION 7.6 CAMERA
PHONE TV IMPACT 8. CAMERA PHONE
POSTERS 9. SKULLS 10. PREFERENCES RE
WHERE FIND SAFETY MESSAGES SECTION C TOWARDS
OPTIMISATION 1. ALL AGE GROUPS 1.1 ALL
AGE GROUPS CONTENT 1.2 ALL AGE GROUPS
STYLE
5
CONTENTS cont.
118 120 121 124 125 126 127 131 133
135 137
1.3 ALL AGE GROUPS OTHER ISSUES 2.
YOUNGER 2.1 YOUNGER CONTENT 2.2 YOUNGER
STYLE 2.3 YOUNGER OTHER ISSUES 3.
OLDER 3.1 OLDER CONTENT 3.2 OLDER
STYLE 4. PARENTS 5. A NOTE ON PRINT
SUMMARY COMMUNICATIONS CHART WHAT
COMMUNICATIONS CAN DO
6
BACKGROUND
  • By the year 2010 the government wants to reduce
    road deaths and serious injuries by 40, or 50
    for children. The THINK! Campaign is one of the
    measures that is being utilised to help meet
    these targets
  • The THINK! campaign is an umbrella brand that
    links all road safety messages and has been up
    and running since June 2000
  • The ultimate aim of the THINK! campaign is to
    push people towards recognising that it is often
    the small things they do that causes accidents on
    the roads and that there are simple steps that
    can be taken that will reduce risk
  • Research indicates that the THINK! brand now has
    wide recognition and the challenge is to build on
    the campaign to get across specific messages
    which will engender behavioural change amongst 4
    16 year olds
  • A number of campaigns have run that specifically
    target teenagers and children and research is
    ultimately required to review existing activity
    aimed at these target groups as well as how
    communications with them might best be optimised

7
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • Research objectives primarily revolve around
  • Reviewing existing road safety communications
    aimed at children (7 10 year olds)
  • Reviewing existing road safety communications
    aimed at teenagers (11 16 year olds) and
    identifying other possible routes for
    communication
  • Exploring the need for a separate marketing
    approach for 10 11 year olds during the
    transition from primary to secondary school
  • To investigate how communications with teens and
    children can be improved
  • To ensure the key messages in current and future
    campaigns appeal and resonate across both
    audiences
  • To explore the possibility of linking cycling and
    pedestrian safety into a single campaign that
    would be flexible enough to work with both
    children and teens and within that males and
    females
  • More specifically to investigate
  • Teenagers and childrens attitudes towards road
    safety and risk taking (including why take risks
    and what the attractions of dangerous games like
    chicken are)
  • The role parents play in road safety education
  • The impact gender, age, attitudes and lifestyle
    have on road safety behaviour
  • The role peers play in road safety behaviour
  • How road safety can compete with the fact that
    other issues such as sex, exams, drugs and
    alcohol are taking a greater share of mind
  • What tone is most appropriate to use when talking
    about road safety

8
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE
  • Respondent Methodology
  • Groups, paired depths and one-on-one interviews
    were conducted as per below
  • 3 x opinion former interviews
  • Senior police person Annie Mitchener
  • RSO at Milton Keynes Kevin Clinton
  • David Frost at Royal Society for Prevention of
    Accidents
  • Plus a number of road safety experts were spoken
    with over the course of briefing conversations.
    In a couple of cases these mutated into extended
    interviews
  • 30 x groups and 4 x paired depth immersion
    studies

9
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE cont.
10
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE cont.
11
  • MAIN FINDINGS

12
TOP 15 POINTS TO THINK ABOUT
  • 1. In urban environments, for disadvantaged and
    significant numbers of ethnic respondents, the
    scale of violence and crime currently puts issues
    relating to road safety into the shade
  • 2. Significant numbers of ethnic and
    disadvantaged respondents are on their own on the
    streets from the age of 7 and up
  • 3. Rural respondents are much more conscious of
    road safety, both as pedestrians and as cyclists,
    than their suburban and urban counterparts sense
    of it being a real threat
  • 4. The scale of risky/bad behaviour in cars
    among teenagers when they are with their peers is
    not to be underestimated eg put bag over head of
    driver on motorway
  • 5. Children and teenagers pick up bad cues from
    their parents across pedestrian and in car in
    fact parents who drive fast or perform dubious
    manoeuvres can be treated as role models, versus
    a significant number of girls are too scared to
    challenge their parents if they drive dangerously
  • 6. Disadvantaged role models re learning to
    drive are often risk takers e.g. roll a joint
    whilst steering with feet, etc
  • 7. Significant number of 15 16 year olds think
    smoking marijuana when driving is not an issue
    heightens awareness of and sensitivity to road
    conditions
  • 8. Hedgehogs is immensely popular as animation
    but there are big comprehension and communication
    issues which result in its role in road safety
    education being open to question
  • 9. There appears to be merit in encouraging
    parents of under 8 year olds to become more
    actively involved in road training significant
    numbers of parents think that the bulk of the
    work in this area should be undertaken by
    schools opinion formers beg to differ in fact
    road safety education appears sporadic across
    schools
  • 10. Research indicates that 10 and 11 year olds
    need to be targeted with a variation on the
    current teen strategy they are clearly too old
    for Hedgehogs, as indeed are the majority of 8
    and 9 year olds key age break may not be 10
    11, more 8/9 11

13
TOP 15 POINTS TO THINK ABOUT
  • 11. Camera Phone is a very successful piece of
    road safety advertising when viewed in the
    context of other relevant communications it
    feels real, elicits enormous empathy with its
    depiction of teenage life and delivers a genuine
    and visceral shock which stays with respondents,
    especially under 15s
  • 12. Teens (especially, though not exclusively,
    15) tend to live moment to moment, they are not
    future focussed that which impacts on them today
    may well be forgotten tomorrow unless something
    about personal consequences is driven home this
    is only effective if there is a strong point of
    empathy that leads up to depiction of
    consequences
  • 13. Dont Die Before Youve Lived is too
    future focussed for teenagers to truly engage
    its far more resonant among parents, addressing
    a primal fear about losing a child prematurely
  • 14. Graphic illustration of catastrophe should
    not be shied away from when depicting the impact
    and consequences of road accidents significant
    numbers from 8 11 and the vast majority of
    those over 11 can cope with it
  • 15. There is a huge job involved in presenting
    cycle helmets as acceptable, you cant just run a
    safety message, need to address major image
    issues

14
  • SECTION A ROAD SAFETY

15
URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC DISADVANTAGED
OVERVIEW
  • There are significant differences between urban
    and rural respondents, and their priorities
  • Rural respondents
  • Parents much more concerned about road safety as
    an issue, many urban parents have more pressing
    things to think about
  • No pavements to walk on, no safe crossings,
    children are less street-wise
  • Rural kids ferried by car, in urban areas
    children on the street much earlier
  • In the most rural areas hard to send your
    children to the shops as part of a controlled
    independence exercise, whereas in a city or
    suburbs its not such a problem
  • A sense in some rural areas that inhabitants are
    more middle class increasingly need money to
    live in the countryside
  • Rural kids seem to get much more hands-on
    training eg cycle proficiency much more
    prevalent a function of being more middle class?
  • Road safety and rural versus urban
  • For rural, road safety revolves around issues
    like narrow roads, heavy agricultural traffic,
    concealed entrances, blind bends, no street
    lights and drink driving
  • For urban, revolves around street crime, weight
    of traffic, pack behaviour among children
    overtaking individual common sense
  • Disadvantaged
  • In many respects not so different to bulk of
    sample in terms of concerns
  • Significant differences revolve around
  • On the streets, on their own, eg going to school,
    at much younger age, often 7/8

16
1. URBAN VERSUS RURAL AND ETHNIC
DISADVANTAGED OVERVIEW cont.
  • Male parental role models sometimes offering bad
    example eg driving car with feet, driving under
    the influence of drugs, more resolutely macho in
    attitudes to driving, etc
  • Much closer to perpetrators and victims of street
    crime/violence eg in London gang members part of
    their milieu
  • More likely to aspire to what others might
    perceive as dangerous driving
  • More likely to have role models for whom
    machismo, respect, peer acceptance are a very,
    very big deal
  • More likely to be territorial about where they
    live
  • If youre going to see mates in another area
    youve got to keep on your toes for the boys in
    that area. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • If you walk into a different area, boys come
    after you, theyve normally got tools because
    its their area, so youve just got to keep on
    your toes. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • More likely to listen to underground music more
    likely to generate content in music
  • Ethnic
  • Significant cross over between ethnic and
    disadvantaged typically Afro-Caribbean
  • Muslim female respondents markedly different to
    disadvantaged
  • Conservative, more closeted, less freedom
  • A lot of concerns relate to sex eg fear of rape
    on the street, underage pregnancy
  • Asian males oscillate between more urban and more
    conservative, depending on their class and,
    sometimes, whether they are of Pakistani or
    Indian origin sometimes can oscillate between
    the two positions depending on issues eg liberal
    about drugs, conservative about sexual issues

17
ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN
  • More of a concern for rural respondents and the
    parents of younger children than for older
    children and their parents
  • Disadvantaged parents and their children
    sometimes flag it as a concern, but in terms of
    theft, violence and shootings on the street
    rather than crossing between parked cars or
    against the red man on a pedestrian crossing
  • You have to make sure you put all your sick
    things in your pocket so you dont get jacked.
    10 11 boy
  • People can steal stuff from you, you can get
    kidnapped, you can get into fights, you can get
    arrested, you can get hurt, you can get shot or
    you can get stabbed or you can get poisoned with
    sweets or you can get run over. 10 11 boy
  • Rural concerns hugely salient
  • Step out of the house and road safety is a live
    issue, a real threat. For example children in
    rural areas much more likely to wear fluorescent
    clothing, in urban areas only wear fluorescent
    clothing by mistake, as part of fashion design
    likely to be picked on and ridiculed, otherwise
  • Its a real concern for me, we live down a dirt
    track but at the back is a really busy road on a
    bend and you cant see a thing. I have to run
    across the road on my own and leave the kids on
    the other side so I can see clearly and usher
    them across. 4 6 parent
  • As noted
  • Blind bends
  • No pavements
  • No street lights
  • Drink driving more reckless driving because lack
    of police presence

18
ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN cont.
  • Large lorries and agricultural traffic
  • Traffic more sporadic so children less used to it
  • Cycling more hazardous eg on a narrow road, fears
    re get sucked under lorry in its wake
  • Suburban
  • Generally not so far from urban with one proviso,
    that is outer suburbs sometimes exhibit distinct
    concerns about traffic density and speed eg in
    Cheshire lots of big A roads heading to
    Manchester which traffic barrels down at 40 or 45
    miles per hour rather than within the speed
    limit, and with few obvious pedestrian crossings
  • Urban
  • Confronted with busy roads and traffic more often
    than other children/parents, a sense they are
    more inured to it
  • And as noted a sense that there are other, more
    pressing concerns eg crime, drugs
  • More supposed safe crossings in urban
    environments, so children more regimented about
    where they cross expect to find zebra crossings,
    pedestrian crossings on major roads with
    attendant issue that may make children lazier or
    think less about road safety
  • More specifically, concerns of children and
    teenagers
  • Across all age groups peer pressure and bullying
    emerge as key concern
  • It is difficult to say no to things, and if
    youre being picked on and tell your mum and dad
    they might shout at them, but that makes it worse
    because theyre in my class. 7 9 boy
  • My friend hasnt got much money and he goes to
    steal things from a shop and he wants me to steal
    too. When I told him I didnt want to, he hit me
    on the head. 7 9 boy

19
2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS
AND CHILDREN cont.
  • 7 9 concerns dominated by more amorphous or
    conceptual fears re the dark, ghosts, death at
    secondary level worry about friends, sick
    relatives, grandparents can also get upset about
    disruptions to their routine eg miss football or
    dancing lesson
  • Parents of 7 9s worry about letting their
    children off the leash, running free perception
    is that abductions, child sex, violence on the
    ascendancy all agree that they had much more
    freedom when they were 7 9
  • 10 11 year old concerns start to be a little
    more concrete moving up to bigger school, exams,
    fitting in with friends, bullying cyber bullying
    a big trend in addition some evidence that more
    global issues resonate, they worry about
    terrorism being blown up in a bus on London,
    theyre becoming aware of poverty via horrific
    media imagery, seem to be environmentally
    conscious compared to youngest and oldest
    counterparts these concerns are all quite
    apocalyptic
  • I think I get upset if I hadnt done my homework
    or somebody sends me a horrible email or somebody
    threatens me at school, Im scared to go back.
    10 11 boy, ethnic
  • Teenage concerns much more local about friends,
    fitting in very concerned about themselves and
    how they look, what the opposite sex think of
    them, creating a niche for themselves among their
    peers that doesnt jar etc. The one worry that
    extends beyond their immediate circle is of
    internet predators, stranger danger sometimes
    echoed by 10 11 year olds significant numbers
    talk of receiving strange and unusual messages
  • Urban disadvantaged teenage concerns revolve
    around violence and crime, being robbed on the
    street when talking about cars and road safety,
    more than one respondent talks of being anxious
    when cars pull up by the curb near them, waiting
    for the window to come down and a gun to appear
    disadvantaged parents hugely concerned

20
2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS AND
CHILDREN cont.
  • We live across the road from Geoffrey Chaucer
    school I talk to my daughter, I say you beware
    and take care, these friends of yours are bad,
    dont do this, dont do that she is still
    scared, there is so much trouble around here,
    boys are shooting each other. 12 14 parent,
    disadvantaged
  • Somebody close to us was murdered by the Peckham
    boys in Deptford, near the Albany, a couple of
    months agoyou have to be worried if you have
    boys of that age right now. 12 14 parent,
    disadvantaged
  • On my birthday, innit, the other day, yeah, I
    went to Wood Green cinema, innit, like, so I got
    on the bus and I was with my wifey and that boy
    and then there was about 10/15 boys chilling at
    the back of the bus and they had two young kids
    with them 3 boys got on the bus, yeah, and the
    black boys were saying to the young kidsthey
    were probably in year 7, not even thatabout
    11/12with kids my age, yeah, older than thatand
    they was like see that boy there, go and take
    his hatso the little boy went up to the boy and
    he took his hat and the boy obviously took his
    hat back and then the little kid threw his
    barbecue sauce in the boys face, so the boy
    obviously got up, innit like, to hit the boy and
    then all the boys came down and they were like
    were going to bang you in and the boy couldnt
    do nothing, they were taking his phone, slapping
    his face, the boy was getting slapped in the face
    by one kid, he was like sit down!, so the boy
    sat down so the kid could slap him in the face
    took his phone and the younger one, the boy goes
    to him yeah, spud him, so he spudded him and
    the little man goes thanks for your phone and
    just got off the bus boy. He said thanks for
    giving me your phone, in other words youre a
    dick head. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • Not one child or teenage respondent spontaneously
    mentioned road safety as a concern, though when
    prompted, its clearly more of an issue for rural
    children and teenagers

21
2. ROAD SAFETY AS A CONCERN FOR PARENTS
AND CHILDREN cont.
  • More specifically parental hierarchy

Urban
CRIME
INEQUALITY/POVERTY
ROAD SAFETY (urban disadvantaged)
TERRORISM/WAR
ENVIRONMENT (white, middle class)
ENVIRONMENT (ethnic, disadvantaged)
EDUCATION
EMPLOYMENT
HEALTH
Less Concern
More Concern
INTERNET/MEDIA

ROAD SAFETY (rural)
Rural
22
  • 3. ROAD SAFETY PEDESTRIANS

23
3.1 OVERVIEW
  • All parents and children over the age of 7 claim
    they know about road safety
  • However on probing gaps in their knowledge become
    readily apparent
  • Parrot information rather than understand it eg
    they may be aware that crossing between parked
    cars is dangerous but they are less certain as to
    why see below
  • Its bad because there could be people in the
    cars and they could start the engine and crush
    you. 7 9 boy
  • reality for many in urban sample, crossing
    between parked cars is inevitable
  • With the exception of under 7s, vast majority all
    knowingly take risks to one degree or another
  • Under 7s risk taking more likely to be
    inadvertent eg parent having to pull back from
    the road
  • Significant number of children think they could
    teach their parents a thing or two about road
    safety. Occasionally pull them up on their
    behaviour
  • Parents themselves admit that on occasion they
    are probably not the best role models eg in a
    rush or in the company of another adult focus
    more on occasion than safety issues
  • My parents dont look at all, they are always
    talking when they cross the road but when my mum
    is just with me she is quite good. 7 9 boy
  • What DfT considers risk-taking not always viewed
    as such by respondents their normality is such
    that they have to cross between parked cars, or
    have to wait in the middle of the road while
    traffic passes either side of them, or cant walk
    on well-lit streets because there arent any near
    them
  • For younger, especially disadvantaged and some
    ethnic, crossing the road is an opportunity to
    assert themselves, to garner respect hence will
    just walk out bringing traffic to a screeching
    halt. Taking a risk, in this context, is about
    bravado, in other contexts, for young people more
    generally, it is about having a laugh or being in
    a rush or being in a hermetically sealed world of
    their own

24
3.1 OVERVIEW cont.
  • When Im in a bad mood sometimes I just walk out
    even if I see a car coming because I think
    theyre going to stop. Say if I walked slowly
    and the car beeps at me then I will turn around
    and tell them to fuck off. 12 14 boy,
    disadvantaged
  • Yeah, I know exactly what youre saying. To be
    honest with you, yeah, sometimes when I am
    angryit kind of depends, if the cars far away
    and the car blatantly sees you, youd expect them
    to have the decency to stop but if you know
    theyre speeding up then you obviously get out
    the way but youll proper screw them and if they
    stop youll be like what a prickdrive on man!
    do you know what Im saying? at the end of
    the day its very unlikely on Bay Road that
    theyre going to run you over and get away with
    it. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • Yeah. Also, as well, yeah, like I know like
    youre taking it out on the wrong people, yeah,
    but whos ever walked on a zebra crossing and a
    car dont stop for you!? That zebra crossing
    youre supposed to stop the car that makes me
    mad the next time a car dont stopI dont even
    walk on the zebra crossing I walk next to the
    zebra crossing and if they dont stop Im like
    youre supposed to stop this is a zebra
    crossing and then theyll be like well get on
    the zebra crossingjust shut up man, get in
    your car! 15 16 boy, disadvantaged
  • In terms of how they get to school and with whom
    clear demarcation between some ethnic and most
    disadvantaged sample and others between the ages
    of 7 10
  • Very few non-ethnic/non-disadvantaged making
    their own way to school under the age of 11
    still at primary
  • Evidence of some ethnic and disadvantaged making
    their own way to school from the age of 7
    upwards majority of disadvantaged 9 10 year
    olds making their way to school without adult
    supervision
  • Tower Hamlets RSO affirms that this is a huge
    issue in her borough, 7 10 year old Bengalis
    who cant speak English making their own way to
    school
  • Rural under 11s almost invariably taken by an
    adult to school or taken by an adult to school
    bus stop

25
3.1 OVERVIEW cont.
  • Urban children utilising mix of public transport
    and walking
  • Urban buses perceived as potential flash point
    for danger disadvantaged parents strongly
    advising children not to sit on the top deck
  • Im not letting them go on the bus because its
    just horrendous. My son actually leaves home
    almost 45 minutes earlier than he has to to avoid
    it he leaves home at 715 in the morning. 10
    11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Teenagers typically going to school with siblings
    or friends again mix of transport modes, though
    all recognise that when they are not on their own
    travelling time increases significantly,
    sometimes doubles, as they talk, muck around, get
    up to mischief etc
  • Yeah, weve got this thing weve been doing, we
    all take loads of eggs to school and then throw
    them at each other on the way, sometimes youll
    hit somebody you dont mean to, its a laugh.
    15 16 boy

26
3.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW
  • Green Cross Code
  • Minority of children across sample spontaneously
    refer to Green Cross Code other respondents in
    group are quick to question what it is
  • Awareness far more common among parents though
    significant number think it no longer exists
    still can recall detail from learning as a child
  • Parental view is that they were raised on Green
    Cross Code, and thats what they try to instill
    in their children albeit it on an ad hoc rather
    than structured basis
  • Safety and Children/Teenagers
  • Seems like most children know the fundamentals of
    road safety at some level, whether they practice
    them is another issue their notion of what
    constitutes risk is different to the DFTs
  • Youngest children most likely to obey traffic
    signals
  • No teenagers think they have anything to learn
    about road safety
  • Significant number of 6 10s can recite Stop,
    Look, Listen and Live line
  • First port of call when asked what they know
    about road safety and where line not quoted in
    its entirety, will often answer Look, Stop,
    Listen, or variations thereof, when asked what
    they know about road safety
  • Otherwise, when asked about road safety 6
    10s/11s most likely to comment on
  • Excluding rural, where possible cross the road at
    pedestrian crossing, zebra crossing
  • At pedestrian crossing wait until the man is
    green
  • Younger with parents tend to wait, others will
    make a judgement on how far away traffic is and
    then cross if light isnt green
  • Dont run into the road without looking

27
3.2 WHAT THEY KNOW OR WHAT THEY DONT KNOW
cont.
  • Dont play too close to the main road
  • Use ears as well as eyes when crossing the road
  • Be careful of large vehicles such as lorries and
    buses, dont stand too close to the edge of the
    pavement because may be hit by them or be
    destabilised in their wake
  • For 4 8s, hold mummys hand or an adults hand,
    especially when crossing the road
  • Teenagers do not consider anything other than
    overt risks as issues eg playing chicken, pushing
    each other into the road, being wrapped up in
    your own concerns or dreams or music and
    wandering into the road etc
  • Having said that, where pushed will give
    moderator variations on what children know eg
    dont lark about near the road

28
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN
  • Less sense of structured learning these days
    according to parents in some instances parents
    talk as if their children learn almost via
    osmosis
  • Practice/ad hoc learning tends to be imparted by
    parents, typically mother
  • Prompted by 1 of 2 things either immediate
    circumstances eg come to a crossing with child,
    or by seeing something which is being perceived
    as stupid Did you see that?
  • When they are in the car, you point out the
    prats on the road or on the pavement. 10 11
    parent
  • More theoretical less practical
  • NB feeling that more structured teaching re road
    safety in rural schools than urban counterparts
  • Sometimes imparted at school, either by teacher
    or older students, typically year 6 teaching
    reception younger more likely to listen to their
    older peers, versus a sign of how little
    importance schools place on road safety, that
    they pawn it off on pupils and helpers
  • Some children talk of citizenship days where
    schools take them to various institutions such as
    police and fire service, where they are lectured
    on and shown things about various aspects of
    safety
  • We had a trip with my class, this man showed us
    about roads, these children were playing, these
    boys were throwing a ball at the side of the
    road, one of the boys pushed a girl into the road
    and she got run over by a bus, thats stayed in
    my head, I thought it was sad. 10 11 boy,
    ethnic
  • Significant recall across younger sample of
    Hedgehog stickers re Be Bright At Night
    learning
  • We were taught our Green Cross Code by our
    middle school and we were given Hedgehog
    stickers. 7 9 girl
  • Occasional recall by children of work books
    relating to road safety being handed out for them
    to write and draw on in many instances
    unsupervised, left to their own devices
    consequently book not engaged with

29
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN cont.
  • However, some parents talk of schools dropping it
    from their curriculum eg half of the Suffolk
    parent sample complained about it having recently
    been dropped
  • Some disadvantaged and ethnic, particularly first
    generation migrant parents, think television
    advertising is a valuable source of information
    for their children in this area
  • Other parents and children talk of Hedgehog
    posters around school underscoring safety
    messages
  • A sense among disadvantaged and ethnic parents,
    particularly though not always exclusively, that
    it is the schools job to educate about road
    safety
  • Opinion former view is that the parental role is
    the most important, that children learn via
    practice and example rather than theory
  • Childrens view is that both parents and schools
    have roles to play, former showing, latter
    teaching
  • Some anecdotal evidence that children learn in
    the short term from witnessing accidents or
    hearing about them in their immediate locality eg
    saw a boy cycle into a lamppost, saw the residue
    on the road of a bad motorcycle accident or even
    have been in pedestrian accidents themselves
  • Without wishing to belabour the obvious, the more
    serious the accident, the more long term the
    behavioural change eg teenager in car accident
    wasnt wearing a seatbelt, now always does less
    serious accidents engender more short term
    behavioural change eg one respondent had been
    knocked over twice yet still admitted that he
    would run into the middle of the road and dodge
    traffic to catch the bus rather than walk an
    extra 10 yards and use the crossing
  • NB relevant for communications goes towards
    substantiating the view that the more graphic or
    more hard-hitting the communications, the more
    impactful they are
  • I think if they got more vicious adsIm not
    saying like really violent but something more,
    then people will (little kids as well) be more
    carefullike them proper car crashes where they
    hit someone, then their arm comes off or
    something or their leg or whatever, that would be
    good. 15 16 boy, disadvantaged

30
3.3 WHERE THEY LEARN cont.
  • As noted teenagers think they have learnt all
    that they need to know
  • Ad hoc learning is by example of their peers and
    friends rather than via anything parents or
    teachers say
  • eg whether its playing chicken or running across
    the road through oncoming traffic or playing
    football in the road, they follow their peers
    lead

31
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY
  • Parents of 4 6 year olds
  • All parents of 4 6 year olds claim to
    explicitly teach their children about road safety
  • In all cases its ad hoc and dependent on being
    out in the real world
  • Teaching things like
  • Stop and look before crossing the road
  • Look left and right twice, even when the green
    man is indicating you can go
  • Get off your bike before crossing the road
  • Hold a grown ups hand when crossing the road
  • Repeat the Hedgehogs strap line when crossing
    the road, Stop, Look, Listen
  • In rural areas
  • Walking in single file
  • Walking on inside of mother/adult
  • But as noted, and as will be covered in an
    upcoming section, all parents including parents
    of 4 6 year olds take risks in front of their
    children
  • Parents of 7 9 year olds
  • Still some degree of tutoring when out with your
    child eg insisting before crossing the road look
    first
  • But also a sense of children beginning to go out
    on their own
  • parents warning their children before they go
    out eg be careful near the main road, only cross
    at a zebra crossing, etc
  • Some evidence that parents setting children tasks
    which involve exercising gumption on roads eg
    going to get newspapers involves crossing a road

32
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY cont.
  • One or two cases of role play where parent gets
    child to take the lead and make decisions
  • Parents of 10 11 year olds
  • Urban parents, disadvantaged parents and some
    ethnic parents beginning to back off from
    instructive role, only intervene when see what
    they perceive as gross stupidity
  • Rural middle class parents switch in educative
    role from pedestrian to cycling eg encourage
    cycle helmets, warn them about hanging PE kit on
    their bike handles, ensure that children keep
    their bikes safe in three cases, mothers
    actively campaigning to bring back cycle
    proficiency at school see Cycling for more
    detail
  • Some parents of the opinion that this represents
    the most dangerous age for their children,
    increasingly off the leash, heady with scent of
    freedom
  • And they say its the 9, 10 and 11 year olds
    that are most at risk because they want a bit
    more freedom and they can think they know it all
    and they can do it all and they cant. So it is
    definitely this age group that are more at risk.
    10 11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Again some sense that children going out is a
    prompt for parents to remind them to be careful
  • I always say, Dont talk to anybody, stand back
    because if anybody is mucking about, you might
    get pushed, dont get on the busses, stay
    downstairs, dont go upstairs, keep your phone in
    your pocket even if it rings and check it later
    on. 10 11 parent, disadvantaged
  • Parents of 12 14 year olds
  • Among ethnic and disadvantaged parents 2 views
    often prevail
  • One is belief that their children are mature and
    sensible and would never do the kind of things
    stereotypical early teens get up to
  • Oh no, mine would never do things like that,
    shes on the mature side, she behaves like an
    adult, like a lady, shes really okay. 12 14
    parent, disadvantaged

33
3.4 WHAT PARENTS TEACH ABOUT SAFETY cont.
  • The other is a sense that their children might be
    getting up to all sorts of mischief that is
    increasingly difficult to track or control talk
    of their early teens exhibiting lots of
    attitude, wont listen to parents
  • Either way dont bother with road safety chats
    any more where counsel caution before teens go
    out, they mean it in relation to substance abuse
    or violence or theft or rape
  • Parents of 15 16 year olds
  • Some ethnic and disadvantaged 15 16 year olds
    clearly barely on speaking terms with their
    parents though still respect and have a lot of
    time for grandparents
  • In other households, road safety much lower
    priority when children are going out unless they
    will be getting lifts with mates in their cars
    significant number of parents discourage this,
    versus teenagers not informing their parents
  • A general sense that wary of proffering any
    advice
  • Its hard to know what to say sometimes its
    better to say nothing at all. You tell them one
    thing, and theyll do the other. 15 16
    parent, ethnic

34
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK
  • As already noted perceptions of risk differ
    across urban and rural divide
  • Rural risk revolves around
  • Lack of street lights, no pavements, blind bends,
    narrow roads with traffic hurtling down it, lots
    of going over the speed limit because of lack of
    police presence/knowledge where speed cameras
    are, T junctions where theres no pavements, no
    formalised pedestrian crossings, people messing
    about on unlit roads late at night on weekends
    etc
  • Its difficult sometimes, you cant see whats
    coming, you just have to run out and hope. 12
    14 girl
  • Having said that, rural respondents talk of
    taking similar risks to their urban counterparts
    eg
  • Walking across the road in groups talking to each
    other rather than looking
  • People absorbed in mobile phone or music drifting
    across the road
  • Messing around by the road
  • Run out in front of cars, either because in a
    rush or out of bravado
  • 4 6 year olds
  • 4 6 can barely conceive of risky behaviour by
    the road
  • 1 recalls playing with friends on pavement in
    front of his house, while his mother chatted,
    tripping and falling into the road while traffic
    was passing
  • Parents of 4 6 year olds have no problems
    recalling examples of their own risky behaviour
    in relation to their children risk taking
    prompted by being in a rush, typically
  • Crossing a wide main road and having to hang in
    the middle and wait for cars to pass
  • Crossing between parked cars

35
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • More risky behaviour includes
  • Getting children out of the car on road side
  • Running across the road with a child
  • Dropping something and pausing to pick it up
  • Crossing in front of buses and vans
  • Using push chair with younger sibling in it to
    slow down the traffic
  • Crossing a relatively busy road when the
    pedestrian light is green
  • I will cross the road when the red sign is
    on, contrary to everything I taught my
    childrenthis morning we both got caught in
    the filter lane crossing the road. 4 6
    parent, ethnic
  • 7 9 year olds
  • Rural risks already noted we spoke with 7 9
    year old parents in Suffolk and 7 9 year old
    children in Somerset
  • Two parents of 7 9 year olds in Cheshire have
    children with ADHD, makes road safety a nightmare
    when children are driven by impulse for example,
    if boys ball goes out into the road, he runs
    after it without lookingbehaviour kicks in
    before thinking
  • You have a young, impulsive child who cant read
    properly. Its a nightmare around the roads. 7
    9 parent, disadvantaged
  • 7 9 year old respondents are generally fairly
    well-behaved on the roads, traffic can still
    scare them, words of their parents or teachers
    still ringing in their ears wrongdoing tends to
    be of the crossing the road when the pedestrian
    light is red variety
  • Parental risk in front of children
  • Some adamant they try not to take risk in front
    of children, at worst may jay walk

36
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • Interestingly some children claim that their
    parents only very occasionally will take an overt
    risk, for example crossing when the pedestrian
    light is red, but in the main, will do things
    like always look before crossing or always wait
    until road is empty before crossing
  • Having said that plenty of parents of 7 9 year
    olds claim they will cross between parked cars,
    they dont necessarily wait until the man is
    green etc
  • I dont even consider these as risks, I know I
    can judge it, I know I shouldnt, but I do. 7
    9 parent
  • Significant number claim that everyone has to
    break rules when they live in urban or suburban
    areas many claim they wont walk several yards
    out of their way to walk across a zebra crossing
  • 10 11 year olds
  • Risk taking on the roads steps up a level
  • Going out on their own and with groups of friends
    more regularly not as often as their teenage
    counterparts, but often enough to be away from
    adult supervision for extended periods of time
  • In rural areas talk of playing chicken on the
    roads, and on rail tracks
  • Increasing tendency to walk out into road without
    looking, engrossed in mobile phone conversation
    or friends conversation
  • Cross between parked cars without even thinking
    it an issue
  • Increasingly make judgements about cars and
    distance, willing to take a punt
  • A couple of days ago me and my friend were
    crossing the road and do you know when it was
    like hailing in the morning and it was really
    pouring with rain none of the cars could see us
    and we could see that they couldnt see and we
    were in the middle of the road and there was an
    island near by but we didnt take it because it
    was quite far away and we were in the middle of
    the road just like trying to get our blazers over
    our heads and no cars would see us and I was
    really scared because I thought oh, no cars
    cant see us, so we just ran straight across.
    10 11 girl

37
3.5 PEDESTRIAN RISK cont.
  • I think the most important thing for me is if
    Im with a big group of people and like a few of
    them will cross, Ill just go along with them but
    when they cross a carll be further away but by
    the time Im crossing it would be closer but Ill
    still do it. 10 11 girl
  • More horseplay by the side of the road, lots of
    talk about people being pushed into the road, off
    the pavement more games being played at the side
    of the road eg football
  • We were playing football by the road and the
    ball fell into the road and my friend ran out
    after it but a car ran over the ball and it
    sounded like a gunshot. 10 11 boy, ethnic
  • Taking minor risks as a matter of course eg will
    cross on red man if dont see any cars, will
    cross if see a car in the distance etc
  • Not every 10 year old behaving like this, some
    still claim that they will seek out pedestrian
    crossing or w
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