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Lifting I

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... evaluation of five lifting techniques', Applied Ergonomics, 17(1):2-8, 1986. ... factors on the lumbar spine moment in lifting', Ergonomics, 31(2):211-216, 1988. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lifting I


1
Lifting I
Rad Zdero, Ph.D. zradovan_at_uoguelph.ca University
of Guelph
2
Outline
  • Back Anatomy
  • Lifting Workplace Issues
  • Lifting Experimental Forces

3
Back Anatomy
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Combined Loading
  • Actual stresses experienced by discs and other
    musculoskeletal joints during real world
    activities in the workplace are caused by a
    combination of ….
  • Weight of various body segments
  • Weight of objects being lifted or carried
  • Push/Pull forces
  • Bending the back forward/backward/sideways
  • Twisting motions of the back
  • Back muscles, especially Erector Spinae

14
Typical Load Levels
  • Facet Joints
  • provide about 40 of spines ability to resist
    rotational torsion and shear
  • sustain about 30 of vertical compressive loads
    on the spine
  • 15-30 of low back pain emanates from facet
    joints
  • L5/S1 facet joint
  • sustain largest contact forces and, hence,
    long-term degeneration
  • Discs
  • provide about 40 of spines ability to resist
    rotational torsion and shear
  • 1-5 of back pain is a herniated disc, which is
    a posterior or posterior-lateral protrusion of
    the nucleus pulposus (usually at C5/C6, C6/C7,
    L4/L5, or L5/S1).

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Lifting Workplace Issues
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Lifting Training
  • LIFTING Training Should Specifically Cover …
  • Risks to health of unskilled lifting
  • Basic biomechanics of lifting
  • Effects of lifting on the body
  • Individuals awareness of their strengths and
    weaknesses using trials from moderate to heavy
  • How to avoid the unexpected shifting loads
  • Lifting skills posture, leverage, timing
  • Lifting aids back belts, dollies, hoists,
    gloves, pads
  • Warnings when to have individual vs. team
    lifting

source NIOSH, 1981
19
Lifting Tips
  • Decrease weight of objects (e.g. order supplies
    in smaller quantity containers)
  • Use team lifting for large or heavy objects
  • Change activity (e.g. pull or push rather than
    carry)
  • Minimize horizontal distances between start and
    end of lift (e.g. several shorter carrying
    distances rather than one long one)
  • Stacking material no higher than shoulder
  • Heavy objects at knuckle height
  • Reduce frequency of lifting
  • Use rest periods
  • Job rotation to less strenuous jobs
  • Handles on containers

source Ayoub and Mital, 1980
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Lifting Experimental Forces
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Sources
  • Anderson and Chaffin, A biomechanical evaluation
    of five lifting techniques, Applied Ergonomics,
    17(1)2-8, 1986.
  • Ayoub and Mital, Manual materials handling, 1989.
  • Bartelink, The role of abdominal pressure in
    relieving the pressure on the lumbar
    intervertebral discs, J.Bone Joint Surgery,
    39B718-725, 1957.
  • Bush-Joseph, et al., Influence of dynamic
    factors on the lumbar spine moment in lifting,
    Ergonomics, 31(2)211-216, 1988.
  • Chaffin et al., Occupational Biomechanics, 1999.
  • Fisher, Analysis of Spinal Stresses During
    Lifting, 1967.
  • Hall, Basic Biomechanics, 1999.
  • NIOSH, Work practices for guide for manual
    lifting, 1981.
  • Phillips, Human Factors Engineering, 2000.
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