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Freshwater Forum Drinking Water Can We Make It Safer

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Owner, designers and builders of water infrastructure will have to respond; ... Continued research to identify and address emerging issues. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Freshwater Forum Drinking Water Can We Make It Safer


1
Freshwater Forum -Drinking Water - Can We
Make It Safer?
  • Don Rocan, P. Eng.

Office of Drinking Water
2
Events at Walkerton raise concerns across Canada
over the safety of our water supplies
Legislation Education
Research
3
The Drinking Water Advisory Committee (DWAC)-2000
  • Our task was to make recommendations on sampling
    and bacterial testing of drinking water as well
    as reporting and appropriate follow-up action.
    Dr. Joel Kettner, Chief
    Medical Officer of Health

4
The Drinking Water Advisory Committee Report
produced some 29 recommendations on the Bacterial
Safety of Manitobas water supplies including
  • Sampling of water (frequency Quality Assurance)
  • Accessibility of bacteriological testing for
    private and semi-public water systems
  • Reporting Requirements
  • Response and Follow-up
  • Legislative Changes
  • Education

5
RECENT LEGISLATIVE DEVELOPMENTSThe Drinking
Water Safety Act, S.M. 2002, c.36(Royal Assent
August 9, 2002, but not in force)
6
Intent
  • To set out a more comprehensive legislative
    scheme for the protection of drinking water in
    Manitoba.
  • The Act will replace existing regulations found
    under The Public Health Act, C.C.S.M. which deal
    with Water Supplies (MR 330/88R and 331/88R).

7
Intent (continued)
  • Act expands the scope of the current regulatory
    scheme by requiring semi-pubic systems to be
    licensed in addition to public water systems
  • A semi-public system by definition is a system
    with more than one service connection but has
    less than 15 service connections.
  • It is estimated there are in excess of 1500
    semi-public systems in the province.
  • The department plans to phase in the requirements
    of the Act.

8
Education
Good Risk Management Practices to Reduce Human
Enteric Disease
9
(No Transcript)
10
The Multi-Barrier ApproachA different Philosophy
for the Provision of Safe Drinking Water
11
The Multi-Barrier Approach
An integrated system of procedures, processes and
tools that collectively prevent or reduce the
contamination of drinking water from source to
tap in order to reduce risks to public health
  • is the most effective way to ensure Canada's
    drinking water supplies are safe and of the
    highest possible quality
  • recognizes the inter-relationship of health and
    environmental issues
  • encourages the integration of efforts to improve
    public health with those that protect the natural
    environment

12
From Source to Tap The Multi-Barrier Approach to
Safe Drinking Water
  • Contains three major elements
  • source water protection
  • drinking water treatment
  • drinking water distribution system

13
Element 1Source Water Protection
  • Source water protection include the four
    following basic elements
  • Watershed delineation
  • Inventory of land use and contamination
  • Vulnerability assessment
  • Watershed plan
  • Working towards a common quality objective

14
Element 2Drinking Water Treatment
  • Treatment systems must be designed based on
    source water assessments and must consider
  • treatment processes required, treatment
    components, equipment design, chemicals used,
    treatment efficiency, monitoring procedures
  • Need to develop criteria for design and operation
    of treatment system
  • Key to protecting public health remains
    disinfection

15
Element 3Drinking Water Distribution System
  • Must maintain quality of the treated water
    throughout the distribution system
  • Design and construction must take into account
  • local or provincial bylaws, best management
    practices, and regulations
  • prevention of access by wildlife and unauthorized
    personnel
  • system capacity
  • emergency water storage
  • contact time required for disinfection
  • minimization or elimination of dead ends
  • cross-connection controls and
  • drinking water materials

16
The Multi-Barrier Approach
17
Valuing Water
  • How much should we pay?

18
TYPICAL MONTHLYUTILITY COST
  • Telephone 26.00 excludes long distance
  • CATV 35.00 mid range cable package
  • Gas 80.00 (low side of average)
  • Electricity 50.00
  • BC Tap Water 18.00
  • Canadian Tap Water 26.00

(courtesy EarthTech)
19
WATER PRICECOMPARISON

(courtesy EarthTech)
20
(courtesy EarthTech)
21
Summary of Ont. Reg. 459/00 Costs
22
REINVESTMENT
  • Based on Total Replacement Value, . not
    Annual Revenue
  • Average of 20 Canadian Utilities 0.30 rate of
    reinvestment (231 years)
  • Safe rate 1.4 on general infrastructure
    ( 50 yrs) 2.8 on plant mechanical items ( 25
    yrs)

(courtesy EarthTech)
23
CONSIDERATIONS
  • Price of water is disproportionately low in
    comparison with other services
  • Consumer is willing to pay more
  • Water like Health Care is an emotional issue
  • Financial step is not large, mental change is
    more difficult

24
Research
25
  • Emerging Pathogens
  • -E. coli 0157
  • -Giardia
  • -Cryptosporidium
  • -Microsporidium
  • -Cyclospora
  • -Toxoplasma

Giardia
26
Giardia and Crypto were the primary pathogens in
the 1980s and 1990s altering drinking water
policies and practices.
Emerging pathogens may produce even more
significant alterations in policy and practice.
27
What are Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)?
  • They are synthetic and naturally occurring
    chemicals that affect the balance of normal
    hormone functions in animals (including humans).
  • They may be estrogen or androgen modulators.
  • These are sex hormones! As modulators
    EDCs may either mimic these sex hormones or else
    block their activities (blocking chemicals are
    called anti-estrogens and anti-androgens). Either
    way, the effects are bad.

28
What are Pharmaceutically Active Compounds
(PhACs)?
  • Recent interest in these is partially due to the
    ability of technology to detect them.
  • Chemicals used for diagnosis, treatment,
    alteration, or prevention of disease, health
    condition.!
  • Includes products for veterinary care
  • introduced into the environment via municipal
    wastewater discharges, improper disposal,
    industrial/retail
  • runoff or spread sludge

29
In closing
  • Regulatory framework in Manitoba is changing
    rapidly
  • Owner, designers and builders of water
    infrastructure will have to respond
  • Public must understand the need for tougher
    regulations and higher water rates
  • A multi-barrier approach will become an integral
    part of providing a safe supply of drinking
    water.
  • Continued research to identify and address
    emerging issues.
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