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Lecture 3 Introduction to Knowledge Management

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... give the right answer', but to create a framework for people and organisations ... Data is raw. It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 3 Introduction to Knowledge Management


1
Lecture 3 Introduction to Knowledge
Management
2
Learning Outcomes
  • Introduce Knowledge Management concept
  • Disentangle some of the ambiguity surrounding
    Knowledge Management terminology
  • Define terminology relevant to KM field

3
The Evolution of Knowledge
  • Knowledge focus not new - Greek philosophers
    Plato, Socrates and Aristole
  • Hunter-gatherer
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution - Division of Labour Adam
    Smith, 1776
  • Knowledge Revolution - Process and Knowledge

4
Why Focus on Knowledge
  • The modern world is swept by change. New
    technologies are emerging constantly, new markets
    are opening up. There are new competitors but
    also great new opportunities. Our success
    depends on how well we exploit our most valuable
    assets knowledge, skills and creativity. These
    are the key to designing high value goods and
    services and advanced business practices. They
    are at the heart of a modern knowledge driven
    economy
  • Tony Blair, PM

5
  • The emergence of the Knowledge economy means that
    companies can no longer expect the products and
    services which made them successful in the past
    to keep them viable in the future … companies now
    require quality, value, service, innovation, and
    speed to market for business success these
    factors will become more crucial in the future
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998

6
  • in an economy where the only certainty is
    uncertainty the one source of competitive
    advantage is knowledge
  • Nonaka, 1994
  • Knowledge is now the main cost, the main
    investment, the main employer and the main
    product of the knowledge economy
  • Skyrme Amidon, 1997

7
Why Knowledge Management?
  • Most organisations do not manage their knowledge
    well
  • They lose knowledge through downsizing and staff
    turnover
  • They buy in expertise they already possess
  • They do not know what they know

8
Fad or Fundamental?
  • To a growing number of companies, KM is more
    than just a buzzword or a sales pitch, it is an
    approach to adding or creating value by more
    actively leveraging the know-how, experience and
    judgment resident within, and in many cases,
    outside of an organisation
  • Ruggles, 1998

9
  • The central premise behind Knowledge Management
    is that all factors that lead to superior
    performance - organisational creativity,
    operational effectiveness and quality of services
    and products - are improved when better knowledge
    is made available and used competently
  • Karl Wiig, Knowledge Research Institute

10
The KM Journey
  • Knowledge Management is a journey. It is not
    new. Managing knowledge has taken place ever
    since a cave person passed a tool to their
    partner.
  • Whats different today is that were starting to
    develop a language to talk about this fuzzy and
    intangible stuff. We need to develop visual
    frameworks to help people build this language.
    If we can visualize, we can measure and if we can
    measure, we can manage
  • Gordon Petrash, Dow Chemical

11
Emergence of Knowledge Management
  • 1994 Stewart, Drucker, Romer
  • 1995 Nonaka Takeuchi, The Knowledge Creating
    Company
  • 1995 - Leonard-Barton, Wellsprings of Knowledge
  • 1995 - Knowledge The Strategic Imperative,
    Houston, USA
  • 1997 Knowledge Inc., Knowledge Management
    Review, Journal of Knowledge Management
  • 1997 Skyrme Amidon, Creating the
    Knowledge-based Business

12
Why the confusion?!?!
  • Difficult to define due to heterogeneous range of
    interests, perspectives and issues connected to
    the field.
  • KM has received contributions from Computer
    Science (AI, Software Engineering), Business and
    Management (BPR, TQM, Continuous Improvement),
    Sociology, Psychology, Human Resource Management,
    Organisation Behaviour, Accountancy, etc.

13
Roots of a knowledge focus
Business transformation
Learning organisation
Innovation
Knowledge
Information Management
Intellectual assets
Knowledge-based systems
14
Is not to...
  • The idea is not to give the right answer, but
    to create a framework for people and
    organisations to start the process of finding
    their own questions and answers to understand
    how they learn, how they share and how they use
    their knowledge
  • Cope, 1998

15
Elements of Knowledge
  • Timetable Example

16
Knowledge Hierarchy
  • Wisdom
  • Knowledge
  • Information
  • Data

17
Data
  • Data is a set of discrete, objective facts about
    events that are usually stored in some form of
    information technology system
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998
  • Data is raw. It simply exists and has no
    significance beyond its existence. It can exist
    in any form, usable or not. It does not have
    meaning of itself
  • Bellinger et al., 2000

18
Information
  • Information is data with meaning
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998
  • Information is data that has been given meaning
    by way of relational connection
  • Bellinger et al., 2000
  • Information is data that are processed to be
    useful provides answers to who, what,
    where and when questions
  • Ackoff, 1998

19
Knowledge
  • Knowledge is justified, true belief
    Plato
  • Knowledge is power Francis Bacon
  • Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience,
    values, contextual information, and expert
    insight that provides a framework for evaluating
    and incorporating new experiences and
    information. It originates and is applied in the
    mind of knowers. In organizations, it often
    becomes embedded not only in documents and
    repositories but also in organizational routines,
    processes, practices and norms
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998

20
Dimensions of Knowledge
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge in the
    form of skills, know-how experience, intuition,
    insights, feelings and beliefs
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998
  • tacit knowledge cannot be put into words … we
    know more than we can tell
  • Polanyi, 1966

21
Dimensions of Knowledge (2)
  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Explicit Knowledge is knowledge contained in
    oral or written language intended for consumption
    or access by others. It is knowledge that has
    been formulated and formalised, and is typically
    found in books, documents, manuals, formulae,
    presentations, lectures, etc.
  • Davenport Prusak, 1998

22
Wisdom
  • Wisdom is knowledge with insight. The
    combination of experience and knowledge with the
    ability to apply them
  • The Antidote, 1998
  • the ability to use knowledge sound judgement
  • English Dictionary, 1999

23
Definitions of Knowledge Management
  • Knowledge Management is … knowledge creation,
    which is followed by knowledge interpretation,
    knowledge dissemination and use, and knowledge
    retention and refinement
  • De Jarnett, 1996
  • Knowledge Management is the process of
    critically managing knowledge to meet existing
    needs, to identify and exploit existing and
    acquired knowledge assets and to develop new
    opportunities
  • Quintas et al., 1997

24
  • Knowledge Management caters to the critical
    issues of organisation adaption, survival and
    competence in face of increasingly discontinuous
    change. Essentially, it embodies organisational
    processes that seek synergistic combination of
    data and information processing capacity of
    information technologies, and the creative and
    innovative capacity of human beings
  • Malholtra, 1997

25
  • Knowledge Management is the process of creating
    new mindsets, models, skills and technologies
    that capture, organise and employ information,
    experience and knowledge application, to gain
    collective expertise across the organisation,
    which in turn facilitates competitive advantage
  • Moffett, 2000

26
Knowledge Management Models
  • 3 broad categories of KM models
  • Knowledge Category Models
  • Social Constructionist Model
  • Intellectual Capital Models

27
Knowledge Category Models
28
Knowledge Category Models
29
Knowledge Category Models
Figure No 3 - Knowledge Category Model (Boisot,
1998)
30
Intellectual Capital Models
Figure No 5 Intellectual Capital Model of KM
(Chase, 1997)
31
Social Constructionist Models
Figure No 6 - Knowledge Management Model
Demerest, (1997)
32
Social Constructionist Models
Figure No 7 - Modified Version of Demerests
Knowledge Management Model (McAdam and McCreedy,
1998)
33
MeCTIP Model (Moffett, 2001)
External
Internal
Process
P3
Orgnal Climate
Technical
P1
P4
Macro Environment
P5
P6
Internal Technical Climate
Informational
P2
P7
P8
Personal
Organisation Environment
P9
34
Components of Model
  • Macro-Environment - economic, technical, social
    agents of change. These include globalisation,
    technological development, Partnerships and
    Alliances, Customer-focused markets, rise of
    e-economy
  • Organisational Climate - structure, strategy,
    goals, culture, employee emancipation, reward
    systems, change management business improvement
    initiatives
  • Internal Technical Climate - technological
    infrastructure, response to technical change

35
Components of Model 2
  • Technical - system standardisation, capability,
    technical usability, technological tools for KM
  • Informational - information fatique, infofamine,
    infoglut, knowledge silos, power-bases,
    information auditing
  • Personal - knowledge roles, skills, trust,
    motivation, empowerment, self-reflection,
    learning networks, communities of practice,
    dialogue, collaboration, innovation

36
Task
  • 1 page summary
  • What is Knowledge Management?
  • Include at least 5 academic references
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