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Raw materials used to create a product and the finished products themselves are ... common range of process piping is from 4' to 24' in diameter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Overview Piping and Processes Process Piping
Drafting Lines Print Reading Techniques
Chapter 1
Industrial piping demands large diameter pipe
(4-48 diameter or larger) Industrial piping
systems are designed using strict specifications
based on production requirements, construction
codes environmental restrictions Individuals
(pipe drafters designers) who draw the piping
systems designed by engineers MUST be trained in
the field of process pipe drafting Pipe
drafters/designers MUST have a working knowledge
of pipe, fittings, valves, pumps other
equipment related to specific processes.
Basic standards and requirements will be given
for use within the class. The information in the
text relates all the sources and references you
will need for work in a general process
environment and will be a basis for building your
knowledge in the course of your job in a working
process plant. Know that each company for which
you might work has their own standards and that
those are formulated on nationally observed
standards within the process piping industries.
Piping and Processes
  • Process method of doing something to achieve a
    finished product
  • Raw materials used to create a product and the
    finished products themselves are moved from one
    point to another and this is typically done with
    pipeslarge diameter pipes
  • Large diameter pipe is normally anything 2 ½ in
    diameter and above
  • common range of process piping is from 4 to 24
    in diameter
  • pipes must be large enough to accommodate the
    volume of production

Industries that rely on piping processes
  • Petroleum petrochemical
  • Food processing
  • Breweries and bottling facilities
  • Power plant
  • Pulp paper

Process Piping Drafting
A piping system isnt just drawn it starts
out as an idea and goes through a process of
steps to where it is actually implemented as a
living, breathing and working process system.
The basic formula for expanding an existing
process system or developing a new system
  • Starts off with idea or need for expansion,
    change or new process system.
  • If the in-house engineering department isnt
    equipped for the project an outside engineering
    consulting firm may be hired to do a study of the
    potential project and provide a cost-estimate
    timeframe for installation with this
    information the decision is made either to go
    ahead with the work as is or make changes work
    begins when the client is satisfied with the
  • In any Engineering firm there are 4 basic groups
    that make up its infrastructure
  • Administrative
  • Clerical
  • Engineering
  • Drafting

Includes chief engineer, project engineers,
technicians, designers drafters
Engineering Department
The drafting department can be further divided as
well Chief drafter is responsible for Lead
drafters (group leaders) who, in turn, supervise
the senior, intermediate junior drafters.
A typical Organization Chart can be seen on page
9 of your text.
  • Engineers get the ball rolling with the design of
    the system the drafting department then
    transforms the ideas and designs into working
    drawings or models
  • A team of drafters, directed by a group leader,
    coordinate and construct necessary drawings for
  • Drafter may be required to communicate ideas and
    designs to engineers, designers, clients
    contractors (in person or over the phoneand even
    emails) being able to utilize freehand
    sketching is essential if you have trouble with
    words, the sketch may be able to provide the
  • Drafter may be required to travel to construction
    site and perform field work such as field
    measurements (do you know how to read a tape
    measure???), locate equipment, piping, make
    freehand sketches or even crawl into a tank to
    determine the inner-workings or down into a sewer
    to check the direction of flow a drafters job
    description is wide open as to varied duties,
    challenges and problems that need to be solved
    sitting at a computer screen or a drafting table
    may be only part of your job
  • The first drawing created is a site plan a
    large-scale map of the construction site, showing
    building outlines, major pipe racks possibly
    large underground pipes
  • If its an existing facility, the new expansion
    area will be shown in a way to as to distinguish
    it from the rest of the site
  • Using the site plan layout, the client can then
    decide on any changes in the location of the new

  • Even though executives may be busy changing
    locations for the system, drafters begin working
    on the flow diagram for the system
  • The flow diagram is a schematic of the system and
    is NOT drawn to scale
  • The flow diagram uses symbols to represent
    equipment, piping instrumentation of the entire
  • Piping Instrumentation Diagram (PID) is like a
    flow diagram as it uses symbols and isnt drawn
    to scale. BUT, the PID contains more detailed
    information about the equipment such as pipe
    fittings and all instrumentation

  • New buildings are designed and engineered by the
    structural department
  • Piping drafters use those drawing as background
    for the general arrangement plan
  • The plan sections provide the building outline,
    steel columns, equipment location centerline
  • Its useful in locating equipment, major piping
    runs, electrical conduit racks heating and
    ventilating ducts

Plan View piping arrangement
Plan view shows walls, foundations, structural
steel, equipment outlines location dimensions
Section/elevation view shows elevation of
equipment structural steel. It also shows
vertical dimensions as elevations
Section/Elevation View piping arrangement
  • Once all the equipment locations are determined
    the drafter is ready to begin on piping drawings.
  • Piping drawings composed of plans and sections
  • Plan view from above
  • Sections basically side view of the piping
  • Greatest amount of pipe drafting time is spent
    creating these drawings

Notice the Section arrows and the direction
theyre pointing in this determines the view for
the Section/elevation view
  • Piping isometrics and spools are done of each
    piece of pipe involved in the process system
  • Piping isometric
  • Pictorial representation of a single run of pipe
  • Spool drawing
  • Orthographic subassembly of a portion of the pipe

Piping Isometric
Piping Spool
Depending on your company, you may use either one
of these types of drawings or both. For this
class when referring to a piping spool, we will
be talking about an isometric drawing
  • Dont think that just because you have finished
    your drawings that your are throughthe client
    can always change his mindand he more than
    likely will once he starts seeing how the pipe
    looks in your drawings. The changes that you
    will make to the drawings are called revisions.
  • Revisions
  • Include changes, deletions corrections to the
  • Changes or need for changes is more visual once
    the system can be seen or touched (as in a model)
  • Revisions may be required because
  • The client changed
  • Equipment might have changed
  • Drafter or engineer might have made an error
    (this is one reason you definitely dont want
  • Revisions can be to a sizable portion of the
    original work
  • As the piping drafter, you will be required to
    make any such revisions changes

  • Lines
  • Descriptions definitions
  • Centerline thinnest line you will use,
    represents center of equipment and pipe is used
    on all drawings EXCEPT flow diagrams
  • Phantom thin line resembling a centerline but
    has an extra dash, typically outlines movable
    parts or future pipes or equipment
  • Section thin lines used to indicate an object
    or material that has been cut through, typically
    drawn at an angle and are used on piping sections
  • Hidden thin dashed line indicating features
    hidden from view
  • Extension dimension thin lines used to extend
    features and give dimensions to those features
  • Long Break thin line with a Z or squiggle that
    indicates a break

  • Descriptions definitions (contd)
  • Short Break line should be as thick as an
    object line, indicates a broken part and is used
    for clarity on drawings often used on piping
    details, sections tank drawings
  • Object medium to thick line used for the
    visible lines of equipment, pipe, structural
  • Flow secondary flow line is similar to a object
    line in thickness and represents minor flow
    pathsthe primary flow line is thicker than an
    object line, is used for major flow lines both
    flow lines are used on piping and instrumentation
    diagrams and flow diagrams
  • Cutting Plane thicker than primary flow line,
    indicates a plane at which the piping can be
    viewed in elevation, used on general arrangements
    and plans
  • Match very thick line, resembles a phantom
    line, used as a reference for aligning two

Drawing quality
Thought care and neatness should be applied to
any drawing you work on that also includes
paying close attention to company standards In
most instances several people may work on the
same drawing, unless standards and general
drawing techniques are adhered to, the resulting
drawing will be an assortment of styles and
Drawing clarity
  • applies to both manual and CAD drafting
  • dont crowd information on the drawing make
    sure its easy to read and the terminology is
    understandable is it located in a good place on
    the drawing?
  • developing the ability to produce a balanced,
    easily understood drawing takes time and practice

Print Reading Techniques
One last thing that you need to be able to do in
working with a process system, is understand
how to interpret the drawings you will encounter.
General and basic items that will aid you in
interpreting prints
  • look at the title block (lower-right corner of
    most drawings)
  • read the drawing name
  • Examine all information in the title block
    drawing number, date , scale, sheet size,
    revision number, project name or number and
    number of sheets in the set
  • scan the entire drawing
  • Read the general notes or legend information
  • Look at the names or titles of any separate
    views on the drawing
  • Check under view name to see if there is a
    drawing reference on which the view or section
    was identified check overall dimensions
  • study relationship and location of equipment

Example of Title Block
Interpreting general arrangement drawings
  • check the title and scale
  • check for info on elevation drawing
  • determine drawing orientation, which ways NORTH
  • where and what are the buildings and equipment
    in the drawing
  • look for cutting plane lines that indicate
    sections find the reference numbers for
    sections to determine location of those views
  • identify specific pieces of equipment and
    relationship on the drawing
  • work with both plan and elevation views to gain
    better understanding of layouts
  • do comparison between the plan and the elevation
  • are there any extraneous details located on the
    drawing and what are they

Thanks for viewing this Tutorial. Any questions,
comments or complaints can be registered at the
next class meeting, via email or drop by my
Parisher, Roy A. Robert A. Rhea. 2002. Pipe
Drafting and Design. 2nd Ed. Gulf Professional
Shumaker, Terence M. 2004. Process Pipe Drafting.
The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Tinley Park,
Weaver, Rip. 1986. Process Pipe Drafting, 3rd Ed.
Gulf Publishing Company. Houston, Texas.