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What the Research Says about the Effectiveness of Career and Technical Education

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97% of high school students take at least one CTE course ... or more SLMP courses. 1 in 4 students 'major' in CTE by taking 3 or more courses in a single SLMP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What the Research Says about the Effectiveness of Career and Technical Education


1
What the Research Says about the Effectiveness of
Career and Technical Education
  • John Mulcahy
  • Administrator for Career and Technical Education
  • Peoria Unified School District

2
What do we knowCTE in High School Today
  • CTE programs in over 15,200 comprehensive high
    schools, several hundred technical high schools,
    1,400 area vo-tech centers, and 900 Voc/Tech HS
  • 97 of high school students take at
    least one CTE course
  • More than 40 invest in 3 or more
    SLMP courses
  • 1 in 4 students major in CTE by
    taking 3 or more courses in a single
    SLMP
  • Source MPR, 2000 Lynch, 2000

3
What we know CTE in High Schools Today
  • According to the U.S. Department of Education,
    enrollment in CTE has shot up in the past decade
    by 57 from 9.6 million students in 1999 to 15.1
    million in 2004.

4
Engagement
5
Percent of 9th Graders who complete High School
68
Source One-Third of a Nation (ETS, 2005)
6
National Graduation Rates for the Class of 2001
Urban Institute, 2002
7
Why do they leave?
The silent epidemic Perspectives of high school
dropouts Civic Enterprises, 2006
8
Carnegie Units
  • Is more the answer?

9
Carnegie Grows!
10
Reading Performance17 year olds
A Nation At Risk
NAEP Scores cited in Stringfield, Castellano,
Stone, 2001
11
Math Performance of American Youth
NAEP Scores for 17 Year olds
12
Science Performance
A Nation At Risk
13
Is more the answer?
14
Student Transition
15
Transition to college the Challenge
100 Start 9th Grade
68 Graduate HS in 4 Years
31 Leave with 0 Credits
40 Start College
27 Start Sophomore Year
18 Graduate College in 4 Years
Source Education Weekly March 2005
31
16
College for All The Reality
Percentages by Race and Ethnicity
  • By age 29
  • 34 of white
  • 18 of African Americans
  • 10 of Hispanic
  • Have bachelors degrees

Venezia, A., M. W. Kirst, et al. (2003) -
Hoffman, N. (2003)
17
Finishing college The Reality
  • After 10 years, 37 had obtained degree (14 of
    lower academic half)1
  • 43 of graduates report underemployment two years
    later2

Rosenbaum, 2002
18
(No Transcript)
19
Associate Degree
  • There will be a 35 increase in the number of
    jobs requiring an associate degree between 2000
    and 2010.
  • Compensation for graduates with technical degrees
    is rising faster than that for graduates of four
    year programs.


U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
20
Four Year Degrees
  • On average, workers with associate degrees earn
    less than those with bachelors degrees, but 83
    percent of workers with associated degrees earn
    the same as workers with bachelor's degrees.
  • Camevale and Desrochers,
    Standards for What?, 2003

21
So, why not CTE?
22
Earnings - CTE Works!
  • CTE leads to higher short term and medium term
    earnings for students who complete CTE programs
    (Castellano, Stone, Stringfield, Farley and
    Wayman, 2004).
  • Each high school CTE course taken is associated
    with an almost two percent increase in annual
    earnings (Silverberg, Warner, Goodwin and Fong,
    2004).

23
Earnings - CTE Works!
  • A literature review conducted by Harvey in 2001
    concluded that students with disabilities showed
    significant improvement in post school employment
    as a result of their involvement in CTE (2001).

24
Student Engagement
  • Can we do better?

25
Total CTE Program Includes
Integration
Academic
Business Advisory Council
Classroom Instruction
Laboratory Instruction
Personal and Leadership Development (CTSO)
Work-Based Learning
26
Strategies CTE Based
  • Students with Career Majors are 16 more likely
    to graduate from high school.
  • Students in Tech Prep are 30 more
    likely to complete high school.
  • Students who participated in
    specific STW activities are 18
    more likely to complete high school

Stone Aliaga, in press
27
Predicted Probability of Dropping Out, as
CTE/Academic Course-Taking Ratio Varies, for
a White Male of Average Family SES
Probability of dropping out
CTE/Academic course-taking ratio
28
Dropout Reduction
  • Plank found that the risk of dropping out was
    four times higher when students were not involved
    in CTE than when students completed three
    Carnegie units of CTE courses for every four
    units of academic subjects (2001).

29
The Research Says
  • Casual vocational exploration is not enough
  • Major concentration in a CTE program is more
    helpful in student retention
  • Source Jim Stone, National
    Center for Research in Career Technical Education

30
CTE Reduces Dropouts
  • Boesel Studies (1994)
  • High Schools That Work Sites (1992-1998)
  • Career Academy Studies (2000)
  • Planks Study (2001)

31
CTE Works!
  • Students involved in CTE are less likely to drop
    out of school.

32
(No Transcript)
33
CTE Works!
  • CTE concentrators are more likely to graduate
    from high school and go on to college in larger
    numbers (Schargel and Smink, 2001).

34
College Attendance
  • Hughes, Bailey and Mechur have found that CTE
    concentrators are likely to go on to college in
    higher numbers than their non-CTE peers (2001).

35
College Attendance
  • Participation in career-related programs does not
    generally impede college attendance, higher
    ratios of CTE-to-academic courses are associated
    with reductions in the chances of college
    attendance, even after adjusting for selection
    characteristics often associated with course
    trajectories. (NRCCTE, 2006)

36
College Attendance and Completion
NAVE, 2004
37
Credential Acquisition
NAVE, 2004
38
CTE Works!
  • While it is not conclusively proven that
    involvement in CTE sends students on to college
    in larger numbers it does result in greater
    acquisition of credentials.

39
Academic Achievement
40
Academic Achievement
  • The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988
    showed that CTE courses neither add to nor
    detract from achievement gains (Rasinski and
    Pedlow, 1994).

41
Academic Achievement
  • A National Research Center for Career and
    Technical Education study in 2001 concluded that
    CTE course-taking had no positive impact on
    academic performance. In fact, the report noted
    that 1992 graduates with only a vocational
    concentration showed significantly lower test
    scores gains in reading, math and science than
    those with only college preparatory curriculum
    (Plank, 2001Wonacott, 2001).

42
Academic Achievement
  • Students who combine a college-preparatory
    academic curriculum with a specific CTE sequence
    had gains in math, reading and science test
    scores during high school that were similar to
    the gains of students who took only the
    college-prep curriculum (Levesque, et al. 2000)

43
Academic Achievement
  • Students with both a CTE concentration and a
    college preparatory curriculum not only
    outperformed CTE concentrators, but were also
    statistically indistinguishable from those who
    completed a college preparatory curriculum only
    (National Center for Educational Statistics
    NCES, 2000)

44
Academic Achievement
  • 2004 NAVE concludes, there is little evidence
    that vocational courses contribute to improving
    academic outcomes (Silverberg et al., p. 7).
  • However, it is well to note that CTE
    concentrators did make substantial progress on
    academic achievement

45
NAVE Conclusions
  • Students who take both a strong academic
    curriculum and a vocational program of
    studystill only 13 percent of high school
    graduatesmay have better outcomes than those who
    pursue one or the other.

46
Theres still more
  • CTE and non-CTE students are equally college
    ready. There is no significant difference in
    college-readiness between CTE and non-CTE
    students as measured by the ACT Test
    (Mulcahy, 2007).

47
CTE Students are Improving Adding more rigor to
the school day and the results
NAVE 2004
48
But wait, theres more . . .
  • A study of Arizona high school students
    Stanford-9 scores, found that when they
    statistically controlled for extraneous variables
    (e.g., disproportionately large numbers of
    students from special population groups in CTE
    programs), apparent test score deficits for CTE
    students were negligible. The same is true for
    the AIMS test.

Elliot and Knight (2002)
49
HSTW Data - Students who complete upgraded
academic core and a career concentration
  • Equal or exceed scores of college prep students
    on HSTW assessments
  • Continue studies after high school at a higher
    rate
  • Have a higher grade point average and more likely
    to remain in college

50
CTSO ResearchCTE Works!
  • Camp, Navaratnum and Jeffreys (1987) concluded
    that CTSOs produce a positive contribution to
    student achievement as measured by student
    grades. Camp (1990) found that academic
    achievement is generally enhanced by
    participation in extracurricular activities.

51
Work-Based Learning CTE Works!
  • Studies have found increases in academic
    achievement as measured by standardized tests
    (Bailey Merritt, 1997 Phelps, 1998 Steinberg,
    1998).

52
Conclusions
  • CTE leads to higher short term and medium term
    earnings for students who complete CTE programs.
  • Each high school CTE course taken is associated
    with an almost two percent increase in annual
    earnings.
  • Students with disabilities showed significant
    improvement in post school employment as a result
    of their involvement in CTE

53
More conclusions
  • Involvement in CTE reduces the risk of dropping
    out of high school.
  • Involvement in CTE increases the likelihood that
    a student will graduate from high school.
  • Involvement in CTE increases the chances of
    obtaining postsecondary credentials.

54
Still more conclusions
  • Students who take both a strong academic
    curriculum and a vocational program of study may
    have better outcomes than those who pursue one or
    the other.
  • CTE students are equally college ready as non-CTE
    students.
  • Involvement in CTSOs increases academic
    achievement.
  • Involvement in work-based learning increases
    academic achievement

55
CTE Works!
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