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The Paradigm of Sustainable Human Development


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Title: The Paradigm of Sustainable Human Development

  • The Paradigm of Sustainable Human Development
  • From Rio to Johannesburg
  • ZEFa PhD-Course
  • Uwe HOLTZ, December 2003

Encyclopedia Britannica
  • The paradigm (pattern/model) of Sustainable
    development is an approach to economic planning
    that attempts to foster economic growth while
    preserving the quality of the environment for
    future generations. Despite its enormous
    popularity in the last two decades of the 20th
    century, the concept of sustainable development
    proved difficult to apply in many cases.
  • The term sustainable development was put into
    the lexicon of international discourse by the
    World Conservation Strategy of 1980 (IUCN, WWF,

ZEFs Mission
  • ZEFs mission is to give scientific support to
    the implementation of Agenda 21 and to contribute
    to a sustainable development which ensures a life
    in human dignity for everyone.
  • Bonn University Rector Prof. M. Huber in a
    letter to the UN Secretary-General B. Butros-
    Ghali, April 1, 1996

  • Holtz
  • For development to be human and sustainable it
    must be centered on the human beings and has to
  • economic development,
  • social development,
  • environmental stewardship,
  • political stability (democracy, human rights,
    rule of law, gender equality)
  • not just for today but for the generations
    to come.
  • This is the challenge facing parliaments and
    governments, non-governmental organizations,
    private enterprises, research and teaching
    institutions, communities and individuals.

  • 1972 Stockholm Conference on Human Environment
  • Creation of UNEP
  • 1987 Brundtland Report
  • Our Common Future
  • Introduction of the sustainable development
  • paradigm

  • 1992 UN Conference on Environment and
    Development/UNCED Earth Summit Rio
  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
  • Agenda 21 (to be done in the 21st Century)
  • Framework Convention on Climate Change/UNFCCC
  • Convention on Biological Diversity/CBD
  • UN-Convention to Combat Desertification/UNCCD
  • Forest Principles

  • 1997 Earth Summit 5
  • Programme for the Further Implementation of
  • Agenda 21
  • 2002 World Summit on Sustainable
  • Development / WSSD Johannesburg
  • Rio10 summit
  • Declaration on Sustainable Development
  • Johannesburg Plan of Implementation

1987 Brundtland Report Our Common Future
  • Sustainable development is development
  • that meets the needs of the present without
  • compromising the ability of future
  • generations to meet their own needs.
  • p. 43
  • Sustainable development requires
  • meeting the basic needs of all extending to
  • all the opportunity to satisfy their
  • aspirations for a better life.
  • p. 44

  • From Rio to
  • Johannesburg
  • The Globalization
  • Decade

UN Conference on Environment and development
  • UNCED or Earth Summit, an 11-day meeting held
    in June, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to
    discuss the global conflict between economic
    development and environmental protection.
    Representatives of more than 170 nations agreed
    to work toward the sustainable development of the
    planet and the highway to a better world,
    although most of the agreements were not legally
  • In Rio, sustainable development was declared a
    guiding vision.

  • The Rio Declaration defines principles for the
    relationship of states among each other and the
    relationship between states and their citizens in
    the field of environment and development. Agenda
    21 is the programme of action (21st century) for
    sustainable development containing
    recommendations for action in all areas of
  • In addition to Agenda 21 the Rio conventions were
    adopted as instruments of global environmental
    protection that are binding under international
    law. These were the UN Framework Convention on
    Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on
    Biological Biodiversity (UNCBD) and the
    Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The
    Statement of Forest Principles is not legally

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
27 Principles (Aventis CropScience / Bayer)
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Principle 10 … At the national level, each
individual shall have the opportunity to
participate in decision-making processes. Princ
iple 11 States shall enact effective
environmental legislation. Principle 15 The
precautionary approach shall be widely applied by
States … Principle 16 National authorities
should endeavour to promote the internalization
of environmental costs …
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  • Principle 25
  • Peace, development and environmental protection
    are interdependent and indivisible.

  • Principle 27
  • States and people shall cooperate in good faith
    and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment
    of the principles embodied in this Declaration
    and in the further development of international
    law in the field of sustainable development.

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Agenda 21- Contents
  • Preamble
  • 2. International cooperation to accelerate
    sustainable development in developing countries
    and related domestic policies
  • 3. combating poverty
  • 4. Changing consumption patterns
  • 5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability
  • 6. Protecting and promoting human health
  • 7. Promoting sustainable human settlement
  • 8. Integrating environment and development in

  • 9. Protection of the atmosphere
  • 10. Integrated approach to the planning and
    management of land resources
  • 11. Combating deforestation
  • 12. Managing fragile ecosystems combating
    desertification and drought
  • 13. Managing fragile ecosystems sustainable
    mountain development
  • 14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural
  • 15. Conservation of biological diversity
  • 16. Environmentally sound management of
  • 17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas,
    including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and
    coastal areas and the protection, rational use
    and development of their living resources
  • 18. Protection of the quality and supply of
    freshwater resources application of integrated
    approaches to the development, management and use
    of water resources
  • 19. Environmentally sound management of toxic
    chemicals, including prevention of illegal
    international traffic in toxic and dangerous
  • 20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous
    wastes, in hazardous wastes
  • 21. Environmentally sound management of solid
    wastes and sewage-related issues
  • 22. Safe and environmentally sound management of
    radioactive wastes

  • 23. Preamble
  • 24. Global action for women towards sustainable
    and equitable development
  • 25. Children and youth in sustainable development
  • 26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of
    indigenous people and their communities
  • 27. Strengthening the role of non-governmental
    organizations partners for sustainable
  • 28. Local authorities' initiatives in support of
    Agenda 21
  • 29. Strengthening the role of workers and their
    trade unions
  • 30. Strengthening the role of business and
  • 31. Scientific and technological community
  • 32. Strengthening the role of farmers

  • 33. Financial resources and mechanisms
  • 34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology,
    cooperation and capacity-building
  • 35. Science for sustainable development
  • 36. Promoting education, public awareness and
  • 37. National mechanisms and international
    cooperation for capacity-building in developing
  • 38. International institutional arrangements
  • 39. International legal instruments and
  • 40. Information for decision-making

  • 2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable
    development requires a commitment to sound
    economic policies and management, an effective
    and predictable public administration, the
    inte-gration of environmental concerns into
    decision-making and progress towards democratic
    govern-ment, in the light of country-specific
    conditions, which allows for full participation
    of all parties concerned.
  • 27.1. Non-governmental organizations play a
    vital role in the shaping and implementation of
    parti-cipatory democracy.

14 B. Ensuring people's participation and
promoting human resource development for
sustainable agriculture
  • 14.22 Governments at the appropriate level, with
    the support of the relevant international and
    regional organizations, should
  • Encourage people's participation on farm
    technology development and transfer,
    incorporating indigenous ecological knowledge and
  • Launch applied research on participatory
    methodologies, management strategies and local

35. Science for sustainable development
  • Science is essential to the search for
    sustainable development and should be responsive
    to emerging needs.
  • The programme areas proposed herein are intended
    to be over-arching, in order to support the
    specific scientific requirements identified in
    the other Agenda 21 chapters. One role of the
    sciences should be to provide information to
    better enable formulation and selection of
    environment and development policies in the
    decision-making process. In order to fulfil this
    requirement, it will be essential to enhance
    scientific understanding, improve long-term
    scientific assessments, strengthen scientific
    capacities in all countries and ensure that the
    sciences are responsive to emerging needs.

  • Scientific knowledge should be applied to
    articulate and support the goals of sustainable
  • Sustainable development requires taking
    longer-term perspectives, integrating local and
    regional effects of global change into the
    development process, and using the best
    scientific and traditional knowledge available.
  • Often, there is a communication gap among
    scientists, policy makers, and the public at
    large, whose interests are articulated by both
    governmental and non-governmental organizations.
    Better communication is required among
    scientists, decision makers, and the general

Programme for the Future Implementation of Agenda
21 Adopted by the Special Session of the General
Assembly, 23-27 June 1997
  • We reaffirm that Agenda 21 remains the
    fundamental programme of action for achieving
    sustainable development. We reaffirm all the
    principles contained in the Rio Declaration on
    Environment and Development and the Forest
  • Economic development, social develop-ment and
    environmental protection are interdependent and
    mutually reinforcing components of sustainable

Earth Summit 5
  • Development, in turn, must involve mea-sures that
    improve the human condition and the quality of
    life itself.
  • Democracy, respect for all human rights and
    fundamental freedoms, including the right to
    development, transparent and accountable
    governance in all sectors of society, as well as
    effective participation by civil society, are
    also an essential part of the necessary
    foundations for the realization of social and
    people-centered sustainable development.

July 2002
  • At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992,
    the international community agreed an ambitious
    and comprehensive strategy to address environment
    and development challenges through a global
    partnership for sustainable development. The key
    framework around which future action was to be
    built was 'Agenda 21' covering each of the
    principal dimensions of sustainability - economic
    development, environmental protection, social
    justice, and democratic and effective governance.

World Summit on Sustainable Development / WSSD
Johannesburg 26.8.-4.9.2002
  • WSSD brought together more than 20,000
    officially registered participants, including
    heads of State and Government, national delegates
    and leaders from non-governmen-tal organizations,
    businesses and other major groups not to
    renegotiate Agenda 21, but to make further
    progress in implementing it.

Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable
Development 37 paragraphs
  • 1. We, the representatives of the peoples of
    the world, assembled at the World Summit on
    Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South
    Africa from 2-4 September 2002, reaffirm our
    commitment to sustainable development.
  • 2. We commit ourselves to build a humane,
    equitable and caring global society cognizant of
    the need for human dignity for all.

  • 5.We assume a collective responsibility to
    advance and strengthen the inter-dependent and
    mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable
    development economic development, social
    development and environmental protection at
    local, national, regional and global levels.
  • 11.We recognize that poverty eradication,
    changing consumption and production patterns, and
    protecting and managing the natural resource base
    for economic and social development are
    overarching objectives of, and essential
    requirements for sustainable development.

  • 13.The global environment continues to suffer.
    Loss of biodiversity continues, fish stocks
    continue to be depleted, desertification claims
    more and more fertile land, the adverse effects
    of climate change are already evident, natural
    disasters are more frequent and more devastating
    and developing countries more vulnerable, and
    air, water and marine pollution continue to rob
    millions of a decent life.
  • 14.Globalization has added a new dimension to
    these challenges.
  • 15. …democratic systems to which we remain
    committed …

  • 17. Recognizing the importance of building human
    solidarity, we urge the promotion of dialogue and
    cooperation among the worlds civilizations and
    peoples, irrespective of race, disabilities,
    religion, language, culture and tradition.

  • 20. We are committed to ensure that womens
    empowerment and emancipation, and gender equality
    are integrated in all activities encompassed
    within Agenda 21, the Millennium Development
    Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of
  • 22. In this regard, to contribute to the
    achievement of our development goals and targets,
    we urge developed countries that have not done so
    to make concrete efforts towards the
    internationally agreed levels of Official
    Development Assistance.
  • 27. We agree that in pursuit of their legitimate
    activities the private sector, both large and
    small companies, have a duty to contribute to the
    evolution of equitable and sustainable
    communities and societies.

  • 30. We undertake to strengthen and improve
    governance at all levels, for the effective
    implementation of Agenda 21, the Millennium
    Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of
  • 32. We reaffirm our commitment to the principles
    and purposes of the UN Charter and inter-national
    law as well as the strengthening of
    multilateralism. We support the leadership role
    of the United Nations as the most universal and
    representative organization in the world, which
    is best placed to promote sustainable
  • 35. We commit ourselves to act together, united
    by a common determination to save our planet,
    promote human development and achieve universal
    prosperity and peace.

  • Plan of Implementation / WSSD
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Poverty eradication
  • III. Changing unsustainable patterns of
    consumption and production
  • IV. Protecting and managing the natural resource
    base of economic and social development
  • V. Sustainable development in a globalizing world
  • VI. Health and sustainable development
  • VII. Sustainable development of small island
    developing States
  • VIII. Sustainable development for Africa
  • VIII.Bis Other regional initiatives
  • IX. Means of implementation
  • X. Institutional framework for sustainable

  • 2. The present plan of implementation will
    further build on the achievements made since
    UNCED and expedite the realization of the
    remaining goals.
  • To this end, we commit ourselves to
    undertaking concrete actions and measures at all
    levels and to enhancing international
    cooperation, taking into account the Rio
    Principles, including, inter alia, the principle
    of common but differentiated responsibilities as
    set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on
    Environment and Development.
  • These efforts will also promote the
    integration of the three components of
    sustainable development economic development,
    social development and environmental protection
    as interdependent and mutually reinforcing
  • Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable
    patterns of production and consumption, and
    protecting and managing the natural resource base
    of economic and social development are
    overarching objectives of, and essential
    requirements for, sustainable development.

  • 4. Good governance within each country and at
    the international level is essential for
    sustainable development.
  • At the domestic level, sound environmen-tal,
    social and economic policies, democratic
    institutions responsive to the needs of the
    people, the rule of law, anti-corruption
    measures, gender equality and an enabling
    environment for investment are the basis for
    sustainable development.
  • As a result of globalization, external factors
    have become critical in determining the success
    or failure of developing countries in their
    national efforts. The gap between developed and
    developing countries points to the continued need
    for a dynamic and enabling international economic
    environment supportive of international

  • 5. Peace, security, stability and respect for
    human rights and fundamental freedoms, including
    the right to development, as well as respect for
    cultural diversity, are essential for achieving
    sustainable development and ensuring that
    sustainable development benefits all.
  • 6. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global
    challenge facing the world today and an
    indispensable requirement for sustainable
    development, particularly for developing
    countries. Although each country has the primary
    responsibility for its own sustainable
    development and poverty eradication and the role
    of national policies and development strategies
    cannot be overemphasized, concerted and concrete
    measures are required at all levels to enable
    developing countries to achieve their sustainable
    development goals as related to the
    internationally agreed poverty-related targets
    and goals, including those contained in Agenda
    21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations
    conferences and the United Nations Millennium
    Declaration. This would include actions at all
    levels to
  • (b) Establish a world solidarity fund to
    eradicate poverty and to promote social and human
    development in the developing countries …

Integrating human rights with sustainable human
development A UNDP policy document - January
  • UNDP advocates the realization of human rights
    as part of sustainable human development, an
    approach that places people at the centre of all
    development activities.
  • For UNDP sustainable human development
    provides a unique and holistic paradigm.

  • Sustainable human development seeks to expand
    choices for all people-women, men and children,
    current and future generations-while protecting
    the natural systems on which all life depends.
  • Moving away from a narrow, economy-centred
    approach to development, sustainable human
    development places people at the core, and views
    humans as both a means and an end of development.
  • Thus sustainable human development aims to
    eliminate poverty, promote human dignity and
    rights, and provide equitable opportunities for
    all through good governance, thereby promoting
    the realization of all human rights-economic,
    social, cultural, civil and political.

Braun, P. Vlek, A. Wimmer 2002 The Development
  • Over the past five decades, efforts to foster
  • around the world have undergone important changes
  • thinking and execution.
  • Development has always been considered a
    difficult, complex,
  • and not well-understood process. In the 1950s and
    60s, the
  • general emphasis was on creating conditions that
  • stimulate economic growth, often through the
    expansion of
  • physical infrastructure.
  • Many gigantic infrastructure projects illustrate
  • lessons learned from the 1950s, 60s, and 70s
    notably, that
  • efforts to stimulate economic growth in one
    sector can be
  • offset by adverse impacts in another that the
    management of
  • resources can have long-term consequences for
  • sustainable use and that development is tied to
    the larger
  • political and economic context in which it

  • In the 1980s, development approaches that focused
    on rapid
  • aggregate economic growth were attacked as too
    narrow and
  • not sufficient t o ensure long-term growth and an
  • sharing of economic progress. International
    leaders embraced
  • the term sustainable development, which
    emphasized the
  • importance of promoting growth that did not
    undermine the
  • long-term productivity of natural resources and
  • environment.
  • As the development concept evolved, it also
    broadened into a
  • more comprehensive, integrated, systemic approach
  • encompasses issues such as
  • - the role of governments, the private sector,
    and civil society
  • - poverty reduction and equity
  • - technology and
  • - political, institutional, and legal frameworks.
  • Besides improved livelihoods, the redefined
    notion of
  • development also included aspects of freedom,
    rights, cultural

Through the 1990s, development was taking place
in a rapidly changing political, economic, and
social context. The most notable trends included
continued demographic growth and rapid
urbanization the rapid expansion of global
trade the widening gap between rich and poor
and the general trend toward democratization and
decentralization in government institutions,
particularly following the changes in political
and economic systems in China, Eastern Europe,
the former Soviet Union, South Africa, and Latin
America. In recent years, there have been
significant changes in thinking about the way
development works. Development policy is now much
more than development aid. It also includes
cultural and social factors institutional and
technological innovations and ecological
complexities. To the extent that local,
national, and global policies impinge on these
factors, they are a part of development policy.
Furthermore, development is a nonlinear process
and involves crises. This much broader, more
complex notion of how development works calls for
an equally complex research agenda.
  • Uwe Holtz
  • For development to be human and sustainable it
    must be centered on the human beings and has to
  • economic development,
  • social development,
  • environmental stewardship,
  • political stability (democracy, human rights,
    rule of law, gender equality)
  • not just for today but for the generations
    to come.
  • This is the challenge facing parliaments and
    governments, non-governmental organizations,
    private enterprises, research and teaching
    institutions, communities and individuals.

The Ghost of Rio and Joburg - Appeal to all PhD
  • ZEFs mission is to give scientific support to
    the implementation of Agenda 21 and to contribute
    to a sustainable development which ensures a life
    in human dignity for everyone.

  • Thank you
  • very much
  • for
  • your kind attention