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Scaling Up Community Driven Development


Find a successful community boutique, decide to scale it up. Design, negotiate a project, draft ... Some community boutiques are intrinsically not scalable: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scaling Up Community Driven Development

Scaling Up Community Driven Development
  • Theoretical Underpinnings And
  • Program Design Implications
  • Hans Binswanger and Swaminathan Aiyer

The Nightmare Scenario
  • Find a successful community boutique,
    decide to scale it up
  • Design, negotiate a project, draft operational
  • Set up project unit, new staff often not involved
    in design
  • Project starts, runs into a bottleneck, grinds to
    a halt
  • Mission sent, problem solved, start again, runs
    into next problem, grinds to halt
  • After several cycles the program is discredited
  • Willingness to finance scale-up is gone, even if
    logistics eventually worked out

  • Why is scaling up so difficult
  • Theoretical underpinnings and design implications
  • Program design and program tools

Why Is Scaling up So Difficult
Total or Fiscal Cost Is Too High
  • Some community boutiques are intrinsically not
  • inputs, technology and facilitation too costly
  • Too many intermediaries
  • Most money used up in program management rather
    than frontline work
  • Low fiscal transfer efficiency

Hostile Institutional Setting
  • No decentralization
  • No willingness to devolve power and money
  • No empowerment

Co-production of Investments, Outputs and
  • by many different stakeholders at many different
  • community workers, local government officials,
    NGOs, the private sector, technical specialists,
    sector administrators, program managers,
    politicians and aid agency personnel
  • Three sets of co-production problems
  • Differences in values of co-producers
  • Assignment of functions to actors and levels not
  • Incompatible incentives

No Scaling up Logistics
  • Inadequate development of operational tools and
  • The flow of funds has not been worked out
  • No information strategy and training logistics
  • No pretest at scale of district or province

Theoretical Underpinnings and Design Implications
Bargaining Model of Participation (Becker)
  • Bargaining will lead to decision and outcomes
    that will benefit all stakeholders or pressure
    groups if
  • All pressure groups have correct and equal
    information about consequences of each option for
    all stakeholders
  • All pressure groups have equal lobbying power
  • All decisions have to be evaluated against a
    single aggregate budget constraint

Some Design Implications Following Directly From
  • Participatory appraisal and planning methods need
    to be generalized to ensure all stakeholders have
  • Facilitators, technical agents provide knowledge
    to stakeholders on demand
  • Grants to communities, local governments not to
    be earmarked
  • Earmarking only when there is an un-surmountable
    information/participation constraint
  • A radical departure from current foreign
    assistance programs
  • Communication, communication, in all directions

These Ideal Conditions Would Ensure
  • Absence of Elite Capture
  • Inclusion of marginalized groups
  • Competition among members of the elite ensures
    they work for the common good, and not just for
  • Accountability for financial resources
  • Economic, Fiscal, Environmental
    Sustainability Of course these ideal conditions
    are never fully met, but program design and
    implementation need to constantly work towards

CDD Is Not a Project
  • Empowering Communities with resources and
    authority to manage their own development
  • CDD Implies four major changes
  • Development communities
  • Developing and empowering local governments
  • Reforming the Central State
  • Reforming the sector agencies

What Do We Want to Scale Up?
  • Real Participation
  • Improving Accountability
  • Technical Soundness
  • Fiscal, Environmental, and Social Sustainability

Fostering Real Participation
  • Devolution of authority and resources
  • Using principle of subsidiarity
  • Assured flows of fund
  • Authority to raise own resources
  • Participation in planning, appraisal,
    implementation, operation, and maintenance
  • Co-financing by communities and local government
  • Improves accountability and reduces fiscal costs

Essential Conditions For Empowerment and
  • Provide Authority and Money to Local Governments
    and Communities
  • Serious commitment at the top to shift power to
    the bottom
  • Brazil it came from the State Governors, in
    Mexico from the Federal government and later the
    state governors
  • Learning by doing at all levels

Cost Effectiveness
  • Overall costs, no matter who pays them
  • Will not be cost effective if you have too many
    intermediaries, or too many highly paid public
    sector workers, technical specialists
  • In none of the above project there are
    intermediary NGOs, only facilitators and
    technical agents who are hired by communities
  • In Brazil several layers of government
    intermediaries eliminated in 1993
  • Use of local village or community technicians
    rather than civil service or NGO staff

Fiscal Cost-effectiveness
  • You can reduce fiscal costs by mobilizing more
    co-financing from communities or local
    governments, and from user charges
  • Communities and local elected officials provide
    free management services, labor, labor,
    materials, and finance
  • Will only happen if communities, local
    governments fully empowered, and regard the funds
    received from outside as their own

Mobilize Latent Capabilities
  • Mobilize organizational and management
    capabilities at the community, local institution,
    and government levels
  • Mobilize technical capabilities already present
    in traditional specialists, retired or
    underemployed people with skills, in local
    institutions, or local governments, NGOs
  • Mobilize and energize the private sector

Program Design and Program Tools
Clarity of Functions, Proper Training, Learning
by Doing
  • All involved in co-production need to know what
    to do, how to do it, and have the tools and
  • Decide on allocation of functions to levels and
  • Provide Operational manuals and tools for each
    level and function
  • Insist on simplicity of procedures and rules,
    reduction of steps, overlapping functions etc
  • Facilitate learning by doing and interchange of
    experience at each level and among levels

Program Design and Diagnosis
  • Design elements and tools assembled solutions
    which practitioners have found
  • Community design elements and tools
  • Scaling up design elements and tools
  • Decentralization design elements and tools
  • Sector-specific design elements and tools
  • Ensure complete assignment of functions to actors
    and levels

Systematic Approach to Diagnosing and Design for
Scaling up
  • Reducing economic and/or fiscal costs
  • Overcoming adverse institutional barriers
  • Overcoming problems associated with co-production
  • fostering a common culture and vision among
    program participants
  • assigning and describing program functions and
    tasks to different actors and levels and
  • providing incentives compatible with program
  • Designing and field-testing the operational
    manuals, toolkits and scaling-up logistics

To Avoid the Nightmare Scenario Proceed to
Logistics Test
  • Use crackerjack team to scale up the program in
    one district or province only
  • Design and/or amend operational manual,
    implementation tools, training programs, and
    logistics manual as a learning by doing process
  • Produce a field tested operational and logistics
  • Expand to other districts and provinces,
    translate into different languages and adapt to
    local settingsResearch results

Research Project on Scaling Up
  • Mexico, Indonesia, Burkina Faso Large
    multi-sectoral programs within a movement of
  • Uganda 4 different community and district
    empowerment/capacity building projects in a
    strong movement of decentralization
  • Kerala Demand-driven community water supply
    project in a consistent decentralization and
    empowerment context
  • Benin Several empowerment projects with
    inadequate decentralization and attention to
    scaling up
  • Zambia National program at district and
    community levels, but inadequate
    decentralization, empowerment and linkages

Key Results
  • Conceptual framework has stood up well
  • Insufficient links to, and depth of
    decentralization hampers scaling up and program
    quality Zambia, Benin
  • Clear assignment of functions, strong linkages,
    facilitation and technical support, participatory
    and independent external monitoring are
    essential Indonesia, Kerala, Mexico,
  • Most of the specific scaling up tools have been

Tensions Inherent in CDD
  • between a more holistic and more targeted
    approach Kerala versus Mexico
  • between working with more organized community
    groups and bringing marginal people into the
    process Kerala
  • empowerment without linkages is rather
    meaningless Benin
  • empowerment of communities and of local
    governments doesn't necessarily mean good
    linkages Zambia

Emerging Concepts That May Be Universally
  • capacity-building ladders (Zambia)
  • Scale up local government capacity, with more
    funding and responsibility, using a clear
    graduation system
  • cascading training plans (Kerala, Indonesia)
  • incentives/rewards for local governments (Zambia,
    Mexico, Indonesia, Uganda)
  • Quantitative evaluations are possible (Uganda)

Much Progress Many Lessons to Apply and Scale
Up As National Programs, Not As Projects Still
More to Learn