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Pest Control

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Biological Pests - Organisms that reduce the availability, quality, ... Genetics and Bioengineering. Hormones. Sex Attractants. 20. Integrated Pest Management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pest Control


1
Pest Control
2
Outline
  • Pests
  • Pesticides
  • Use and Types
  • Benefits
  • Problems
  • Alternatives
  • Reducing Exposure
  • Regulating Use
  • Organic Farming

3
PESTS AND PESTICIDES
  • Biological Pests - Organisms that reduce the
    availability, quality, or value of resources
    useful to humans.
  • Only about 100 species of organisms cause 90 of
    crop damage worldwide.
  • Insects are most frequent pests.
  • Make up three-fourths of all species.
  • Generalists
  • Compete effectively against specialized endemic
    species.

4
Pesticides
  • Pesticide - Chemical that kills (repels) pests.
  • Biocide - Kills wide range of organisms.
  • Herbicide - Kills plants.
  • Insecticide - Kills insects.
  • Fungicide - Kills fungi.
  • Acaricide - Kills mites, ticks, and spiders.
  • Nematicide - Kills nematodes.
  • Rodenticide - Kills rodents.
  • Avicide - Kills birds.

5
Conventional Pesticide Use
6
Early Pest Controls
  • Sumerians controlled insects with sulfur 5,000
    years ago.
  • Chinese describe mercury and arsenic to control
    pests 2,500 years ago.
  • People have used organic compounds and biological
    controls for a long time.
  • Romans burned fields and rotated crops to reduce
    crop disease.

7
DDT
  • Era of synthetic organic pesticides began in 1939
    with DDT
  • Inexpensive, stable, easily applied, highly
    effective
  • By 1960s evidence of concentration through food
    chains to endocrine hormone-disrupting levels in
    top predators
  • Banned in developed countries by late 1960s
    still used in developing countries
  • Most prevalent contaminant on U.S. imported food

8
Current Pesticide Use
  • EPA estimates total pesticide use in the U.S.
    amounts to about 5.7 billion pounds annually.
  • Roughly half is chlorine and hypochlorites used
    for water purification.
  • Roughly 80 of all conventional pesticides
    applied in the U.S. are used in agriculture or
    food storage and shipping.
  • Homes and gardens account for only about 8 of
    total pesticide use in the U.S..

9
Pesticide Types
  • Inorganic Pesticides - Broad-spectrum, generally
    highly toxic, and essentially indestructible.
    (arsenic - copper)
  • Generally neurotoxins
  • Natural Organic Pesticides (Botanicals) -
    Generally plant extracts. (nicotine - phenols)
  • Fumigants - Small molecules that gasify easily
    and penetrate materials rapidly. (carbon
    tetrachloride - ethylene dibromide)

10
Pesticide Types
  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons - Fast acting and highly
    toxic to sensitive organisms. (DDT - mothballs)
  • Inhibit nerve membrane ion transport and block
    nerve signal transmission.
  • Persistent - Tend to biomagnify.
  • Organophosphates - Extremely toxic to mammals,
    birds and fish. (Malathion)
  • Outgrowth of nerve-gas research.
  • Inhibit neurotransmitter enzyme.

11
Pesticide Types
  • Carbamates - Similar to organophosphates.
    (Sevin). - Extremely toxic to bees.
  • Biological Controls
  • Microbial agents
  • Bacteria
  • Parasitic wasps

12
PESTICIDE BENEFITS
  • Disease Control
  • Many insects serve as disease vectors.
  • Malaria, Yellow Fever
  • Crop Protection
  • Using pesticides, pre-harvest losses to diseases
    and pests are at 33, with post-harvest losses at
    an additional 20-30.
  • In general, farmers save an average of 3-5 for
    every 1 spent on pesticides.

13
PESTICIDE PROBLEMS
  • Non-Target Species
  • Up to 90 of pesticides never reach intended
    target.
  • Pesticide Resistance and Pest Resurgence
  • Resistant members of a population survive
    pesticide treatment and produce more resistant
    offspring.
  • Pest Resurgence
  • Pesticide Treadmill

14
Creation of New Pests
  • Broadcast spraying is also likely to kill
    beneficial predators.
  • Under normal conditions many herbivorous pests
    are controlled by natural predators.
  • With advent of chemical pest controls, farmers
    have tended to abandon traditional methods of
    pest / pathogen control.
  • Mixed crops and rotation regimes.

15
Environmental Persistence and Mobility
  • Because chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT) are so
    persistent, they tend to show up far from the
    point of dispersal.
  • Stored in fat bodies, and thus tend to
    bioaccumulate.
  • High levels detected in upper levels of food
    chain.
  • DDT banned from US for over twenty years, but
    high levels still detected in some areas.

16
Environmental Persistence and Mobility
  • Many persistent organic pollutants were banned
    globally in 2001.
  • Use was banned or restricted in developing
    countries for years, but between 1994 and 1996,
    the U.S. shipped more than 100,000 tons of DDT
    and POPs annually.
  • Many returned to U.S. in agricultural products
    and migrating wildlife.

17
Human Health Problems
  • WHO estimates 25 million people suffer pesticide
    poisoning, and 20,000 die each year.
  • At least two-thirds resulting from occupational
    hazards in developing countries.
  • Long-term health effects difficult to
    conclusively document.
  • PCBs have been linked to learning deficiencies
    in children.
  • Intake during mothers pregnancy.

18
ALTERNATIVES TO PESTICIDE USE
  • Behavioral Changes
  • Crop Rotation
  • Mechanical Cultivation
  • Flooding Fields
  • Habitat Diversification
  • Growing in Pest-Free Zones
  • Adjusting Planting Times
  • Plant Mixed Polycultures

19
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Biological Controls
  • Predatory / Herbivorous Insects
  • Genetics and Bioengineering
  • Hormones
  • Sex Attractants

20
Integrated Pest Management
  • Flexible, ecologically-based strategy that uses a
    combination of techniques applied at specific
    times aimed at specific pests.
  • Tries to minimize use of chemical controls and
    avoids broad spectrum controls.
  • Employs economic thresholds to determine the
    point at which potential economic damage
    justifies pest control expenditures.

21
REDUCING PESTICIDE EXPOSURE
  • Less than 10 of active pesticide ingredients
    have been subjected to a full battery of chronic
    health-effect tests.
  • Of the 321 pesticides screened, EPA reports 146
    are probable human carcinogens.
  • Since 1972, only 40 pesticides have been banned.

22
Regulating Pesticides
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Food and
    Drug Administration (FDA) and Department of
    Agriculture (USDA) all share federal
    responsibility for regulating pesticides used in
    food production in the U.S..
  • EPA regulates sale and use, and sets tolerance
    levels.
  • FDA and USDA enforce pesticide use and tolerance
    levels set by EPA.

23
Regulating Pesticides
  • 1999, EPA banned use of methyl parathion on all
    fruit and many vegetables, and limited the
    quantity of azinphos methyl that can be used on
    foods common in childrens diets.
  • Studies show children are more susceptible than
    adults to toxic pesticides because they are still
    developing and have less natural protection.

24
Is Organic the Answer ?
  • Numerous studies have shown organic, sustainable
    agriculture is more eco-friendly and leaves soil
    healthier than intensive, chemical-based
    mono-culture cropping.
  • Currently, less than 1 of all American farmland
    is devoted to organic growing, but market for
    such crops is growing.

25
Summary
  • Pests
  • Pesticides
  • Use and Types
  • Benefits
  • Problems
  • Alternatives
  • Reducing Exposure
  • Regulating Use
  • Organic Farming

26
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