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European Union

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Title: European Union


1
European Union
  • Ivan Peout (ipesout?cutn.sk)
  • City University Bratislava
  • 2007

2
What will be discussed?
  • An introduction to the European Integration
    Definitions and Terminology (intergovernmental
    vs. supranational approach)
  • Philosophical roots of European Integration
    process (G. Stresemann, G. Agnelli, A. Briand, K.
    Tucholsky, L. Blum, W. Churchill, A. Einstein,
    Ch. de Gaulle, J. Monnet and others)
  • History and motives of European Integration
    (United States of Europe?, Council of Europe,
    OEEC, EFTA, ECSC, WEU - EDC, ECC EC EU)
  • Basic EU/EC legislation (Treaties of Rome,
    Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice)

3
What will be discussed?
  • Institutions and decision making process
    (Commission, EU Council, European Parliament,
    Courts of Auditors, European Court of Justice)
  • Key policies of the EU (Common trade policy,
    Common agricultural policy, Regional policy,
    Economic and monetary union, Energetic policy,
    Competition policy)
  • New challenges (Lisabon strategy, European
    constitutional treaty, post Hong Kong position
    of the EU in WTO, future EU enlargements,
    democratic deficit of EU institutions, etc.)

4
Why is this course important for you? Will you
really need it in your future manager career?
5
Compulsory reading
  • John McCormick Understanding the European union.
    Palgrave McMillan. 2002.
  • All articles from my EU reader 10 articles that
    will upgrade our knowledge, convergent to
    courses topics

6
Recomended reading
  • Cinni, M. European union politics. Oxford. 2002
  • Nello, S. European union Economy, policies,
    history. McGraw Hill. 2005
  • Wallace, H. Wallace, W. Policy - making in the
    European union. Oxford. 2004
  • Anything interesting You find ?

7
How to pass the Course? 4 essays written exam
(combination of closed and opened questions)
  • Essay topics (details will be explained)
  • The Sence of the European Integration Idea
  • To what Extent is a Collaboration between France
    and Germany Necessary for a Process of European
    Integration?
  • EU versus USA Power.
  • European Union What is (in your opinion) its
    Future?

8
SO, LETS START!

9
Philosophical roots of European Integration
process
  • Gustav Stresemann (german chancellor)
  • Giovanni Agnelli European Federation or United
    Nations? (1918)
  • Richard Coudenhove Calergi Pan Europe (1922)
  • Winston Churchill We are with Europe, but not
    inside, we are connected to Europe, but not
    included, we are associated to Europe, but not
    absorbed (Saturday Evening Post, 1930)

10
Philosophical roots of European Integration
process
  • Ideological war around a supranational principle
  • Dante Alighieri About a Monarchy (1318)
  • Sully idea of permanent european army (16 cent.)
  • Emil Mayrish (ARBED) International Commitment on
    Steel

11
Philosophical roots of European Integration
process
  • Me voilá ! father of Europe on the scene
  • Jean Monnets ideas United states of Europe
    and Franco British Union

12
Philosophical roots of the European Integration
process
  • 19/9/1946 Zurrich W.Churchill We must
    create some United States of Europe
  • 1947 London W.Ch. The world order should
    stand on four pillars USA, GB Commonwealth,
    USE, Soviet union
  • Why does W. Churchill revitalise the idea of
    United States of Europe?

13
Integration processes in and outside Europe
  • United Nations (UN) 23/10/1945
  • Bretton Woods system World Bank (IBRD),
    International Monetary Found (IMF)
  • General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)
  • Why the USA did not continue in their previous
    doctrine based on isolationism?

14
Integration processes in and outside Europe
  • Organisation for European Economic Cooperation
    (OEEC) 16/6/1948
  • - unanimity, consultations
  • Council of Europe
  • Nord Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

15
European integration motives
  • Instrument of avoiding raise of nationalism
  • Instrument of avoiding soviet expansion
  • Inclusion of Germany into the system of
    International relations
  • Counterbalance to economical, political and
    military domination of the USA
  • Attemption to aplicate the model of the USA in
    Europe
  • Instrument of influation and security of small
    western european states
  • Others (Social Policy, Enviromental Policy,
    Common Foreign and Security Policy, Cooperation
    in Judicial and Criminal Matters).

16
First integration phase
  • 50-ties - International Office for Rhone
    region
  • 9/5/1950 Schumann declaration The first step to
    the European federation, indisponsible to keep
    the peace
  • European Coal and Steal Community (18/4/1951 by
    Paris Treaty, valid from 23/7/1952 for 50 years)
    tariff cancelation, high profit, social measures,
    peace keeping
  • Why did future ECSC members agreed with this kind
    of integration?

17
European Coal and Steal Community
  • High Authority production quotas, strategic
    plans of production, prohibition of subsidies and
    aids, etc. (decision making process through
    DECISIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, OPINIONS 9 members
    completely independent in te performance of
    their duties)
  • Common Assembly democratic input into ECSC dec.
  • Council of Ministers harmonization of H.A. and
    member states governments actions (art. 26)
  • Court of Justice institution vs. institution,
    institution vs. member state, member state vs.
    member state

18
European Coal and Steal Community
  • General Competencies of ECSC institutions
  • a) abolition and prohibition of internal tarrif
    barriers, special charges and restrictive
    practices
  • b) fix prices under certain conditions
  • c) harmonise external commercial policy
  • d) impose levies on coal and steel production to
    finance ECSC activities

19
Sense of ECSC
  • Not only a free trade area, but also a base for a
    common market (coal, coke, iron ore, steel, crap)
  • The first of the European inter state
    organisations possessing significant
    supranational characteristics

20
Deepening the integration
  • BENELUX memorandum (20/5/1955)
  • Messina talks (1-2/6/1955) Erhard plan/Beyenn
    plan/Monnet plan
  • Treaties of Rome
  • - I. ToR European Economic Community
  • - II. ToR EURATOM
  • JUNKTIM

21
European Economic Community
  • EEC GENERAL GOALS
  • Economic and social growth
  • Improving living and working standards
  • Diminuation of differencies between regions,
    support to the least favoured areas
  • Solidarity between Europe and overseas teritories
  • Common market

22
European Economic Community
  • EEC policy guidelines concerned with the
    establishment of a common market
  • The removal of all tarrifs and quantitative
    restrictions on internal trade free trade
    area
  • The erection of a Common External Tarrif (CET)
    customs unionbasis of CCP
  • The prohibition of competition distorting
    practices
  • Four fundamental freedoms free movement of
    capital, services, goods and workers

23
European Economic Community
  • EEC policy guidelines concerned with making the
    Community more than a common market
  • Different from national constitutions
  • Legislative definition of the Common Agricultural
    Policy (EAGGF), Common Transport Policy,
    Competition policy, European Social Fund,
    European Investment Bank
  • Contributional financing

24
EEC institutions
  • Commission principal policy initiator, some
    decision making powers on its own, responsibility
    for policy implementation
  • Council of Ministers principal decision maing
    body
  • Assembly advisory and limited supervisory
    powers
  • Court of Justice ensuring that inthe
    interpretation and application of this Treaty the
    law is observed

25
European Economic Community
  • Frances conditions agri, at. energy, privileged
    rel. of the 6 with overseas dependencies
  • Communitarization of agricultural policies
  • LENGRENAGE - Jean MonnetPaul Henri Spaak a)
    reinforcing of the European Court of Justice
    decisions, b) process of EEC enlargement, c)
    enlargement of sectoral integration inside the
    EEC

26
GB changes the vue on integration
  • Why did not the Great Britain agreed with its
    membership in EURATOM?
  • FTA not an actual question
  • GBs proposal to reform the OEEC
  • Jean Monnets revenge OEEC ? OECD
  • GB delivers its first aplication 1961
  • De Gaulles veto s 1963 and 1967

27
Common european defence?
  • European Defense Community 1952/6 members
  • EDCs goal control of german remilitarization
  • Why France finally refuses EDC treaty?
  • Germany forms its military units anyway, inside
    WEU (1954) and NATO (1955)...
  • Western European Union (Brussels treaty, GB6,
    intergov. base, sponzored by GB)

28
From European Community to European Union
  • Supplements and amendments to the Founding
    Treaties
  • a) Merger Treaty 1965/67
  • b) The Treaty amending certain budgetary
    provisions of the treaties 1970
  • c) The treaty amending certain financial
    provisions of the treaties 1975
  • d) The act concerning the elections of the
    representatives of the assembly by direct
    universal suffrage

29
New enlargements
  • EU becomes more important int. organ.
  • EU institutions became more complex
  • Smaller importance of Franco German axis
  • Changing debate on EU priorities and preferencies

30
From European Community to European Union
  • The Single European Act (SEA) 1986/87 (most
    important measures)
  • a) completition of the internal market by 92
  • b) number of policy areas formally incorporated
    into EEC treaty (environment, research and
    technological development, economic and social
    cohesion)
  • c) establishment of the new cooperation
    procedure and assent procedure
  • d) establishment of the Court of First Instance

31
From European Community to European Union
  • The Treaty on European Union (Maastricht T.)
  • a) new EU organisation based on 3 pillars
  • b) procedure and timetable for moving to EMU
  • c) moving towards Political Union

32
From European Community to European Union
  • 3 steps to adoption the Maastricht Treaty
  • Step 1. Intergovernmental conferences Hanover
    88 Madrid 89 Strasbourg 89 Dublin I. 90
    Dublin II. 90 Rome I. 90 Rome II. 90
  • Step 2. Work of the IGCs and Maastricht summit
  • Step 3. Ratification of the Treaty

33
From European Community to European Union
  • Maastricht summit 1991
  • 1. level Political union (MFA) and EMU (MF)
  • 2. level permanent representatives
  • 3. level experts from member states

34
From European Community to European Union
  • Ratification process
  • Ireland, Denmark national referendums
  • others parliament approval
  • Problems in the ratification process Denmark,
    UK, Germany, France

35
From European Community to European Union
  • Contents of the Treaty
  • EU citizenship what does it mean?
  • Economic and social progress, high level of
    employment
  • Economic and social cohesion
  • Incorporation of the European Convention for the
    Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
    Freedoms

36
From European Community to European Union
  • 3 pillar structure
  • I. Pillar
  • EEC ? EC (art. 1.)
  • Subsidiarity principle (art. 3b)

37
I. Pillar
  • Institutional changes
  • Council - QMV
  • EP co decision procedure
  • ? number of policy areas subject to co decision
  • Assent procedure
  • 95 Office for Commissioners 4 ? 5 years
  • Committee of Regions
  • Court of Justice fines on member states

38
I. Pillar
  • Policy changes
  • EMU definition of the main features and
    timetable (ESCB, ECB, single currency),
    convergence criteria
  • Cohesion fund
  • Social Charter

39
II. Pillar
  • M.S. shall endeavour jointly to formulate and
    implement a European Foreign Policy
  • C.D.P. shall lead to Common Defense
  • Systematic cooperation
  • General guidelines from the European Council
  • WEU elaborates and implements EU decision and
    actions, that have defense implications

40
III. Pillar
  • Asylum policy, controls of persons on external
    borders, imigration policy, residence rights,
    international fraud, drug addiction
  • EUROPOL
  • Coordinating Committee

41
Amsterdam Treaty
  • Corfu reflexions group ideas
  • a) to make Europe more relevant to its citizens
  • b) to prepare the EU for enlargements
  • c) to give the EU greater capacity for external
    actions
  • Extension of QMV?
  • Extension of EP powers?
  • CFSP and JHA transfer to the 1. pillar?

42
Amsterdam Treaty
  • IGCs Work (Lionel Jospin, Helmut Kohl, Tony
    Blair)
  • Ratification process
  • DenmarkIreland

43
Amsterdam Treaty
  • Contents of the Treaty
  • only a revising treaty
  • institutional reform (EP, Commission, Council)
  • What was transfered to the 1. pillar?
  • SO, JHA Police and Judicial Cooperation in
    Criminal Matters (PJCCM)
  • Social Chapter incl. to TEC
  • FLEXIBILITY

44
Amsterdam Treaty
  • Contents of the treaty
  • External policys instruments general
    guidelines, common strategies, joint actions,
    common positions, strenghtened cooperation
  • CONSTRUCTIVE ABSTENTION
  • CFSP HIGH REPRESENTATIVE
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