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NIOSH Occupational Health and Safety Research Around Moving Vehicles

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Title: NIOSH Occupational Health and Safety Research Around Moving Vehicles


1
NIOSH Occupational Health and Safety Research
Around Moving Vehicles
Roger Rosa National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health December 8, 2004
2
NIOSH MissionProvide leadership in research to
prevent work-related illness, injury, disability,
and death.
3
Strategic Goals
Conduct research to reduce work-related illnesses
and injuries.Promote safe and healthy
workplaces through interventions, recommendations
and capacity building.Enhance global workplace
safety and health through international
collaborations
4
NIOSH Locations
NIOSH Staff 14, 000Annual Budget 280 million
5
NIOSH Programs
  • Surveillance and Tracking
  • Research
  • Prevention Intervention
  • Information Dissemination
  • Training

6
Scope of the Problem
  • Transportation Incidents
  • Account for 43 of work-related deaths.
  • Highest number and rate of all causes.
  • These incidents are not declining at the rate of
    other work-related injuries.

7
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8
Occupational Fatalities
9
Occupational Fatalities
10
Occupational Fatalities
11
Fatal and Nonfatal Injury Focus Areas
  • Aviation (Alaska)
  • Small Aircraft
  • Helicopter Logging
  • Commercial Fishing
  • Alaska and Maine

12
Fatal and Nonfatal Injury Focus Areas
  • Motor Vehicles On- and Off-Road
  • Roadway
  • Farming
  • Mining
  • Construction
  • Forklifts

13
Health and Chronic DisorderFocus Areas
  • Roadway Dust Exposures
  • Diesel Fume and Particle Exposures
  • Low-Back and Cumulative Trauma Disorders
  • Reproductive Disorders

14
Related Areas
  • Working Hours, Stress, Fatigue
  • Noise and Hearing Loss
  • Technical Assistance
  • Health Hazard Evaluations
  • Specialized Injury and Health Surveillance and
    Tracking
  • Fatality Investigations (FACE)
  • Firefighter Fatality Investigations
  • Emergency Dept. Follow-up

15
Occupational Fatalities in Alaska
16
Commuter and Small Carrier Aviation in Alaska
  • Occupational fatality rate of 380/100,000/year
    during 1990-2003
  • Unique geography and conditions
  • But worse than the Nordic Countries

17
Commuter and Small Carrier Aviation in Alaska
Partners Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
Department of Transportation (DOT), Civil
Aeromedical Institute (CAMI), the National
Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and the
National Weather Service (NWS), the Alaska Air
Carriers Association, and the Alaska Airmen's
Association
18
Commuter and Small Carrier Aviation in Alaska
  • Epidemiologic Risk Survey and Analysis
  • Develop and Evaluate Interventions
  • Pilot and passenger training programs
  • Promote safety culture
  • Improve weather information
  • Time management
  • Avionics Equipment

19
Commuter and Small Carrier Aviation in Alaska
  • Current and near-future plans are to evaluate
    intervention and safety communication efforts
  • Use systematic surveillance to track progress

20
Commercial Fishing
  • Occupational fatality rate of 140/100,000/year in
    Alaska
  • Drowning, presumed drowned, or hypothermia,
    caught in machinery
  • Result of vessel capsizing or sinking or falling
    overboard, unstable platforms, fatigue, weather,
    equipment layout

21
Commercial Fishing
  • Recommendations
  • Vessel stability and integrity
  • Skipper licensing and training
  • Crew training
  • Diver training
  • Watch and staffing requirements
  • Management culture and engagement
  • PFD for overboard protection

22
Commercial Fishing
  • Near-Future Plans
  • Analyze deck injuries
  • Develop and evaluate recommendations for deck
    safety

23
RoadwayNIOSH Hazard Review
  • Crash data
  • Regulations
  • Special topics distracted driving, age, fatigue
  • Safety recommendations
  • Internet and print resources

www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-119/pdfs/2003-119.pdf
24
Partnership Activities
  • ANSI Z-15 Committee, Safe Practices for Motor
    Vehicle Operations
  • Voluntary best practices standard geared to
    non-CMV drivers
  • Network of Employers for Traffic Safety
  • Public-private partnership delivering traffic
    safety information through employers
  • TRB Truck and Bus Safety Committee
  • Preparing a Circular on truck and bus safety
    research

25
Roadway Research Projects
  • Trucking focus
  • Work Organization Influence on Fatigue in Truck
    Drivers
  • Examining organizational factors associated with
    driver fatigue and crashes
  • Mortality among Independent Owner-Operator Truck
    Drivers
  • Assessing whether truck drivers are at risk of
    premature mortality from specific diseases

26
Roadway Research Projects (cont.)
  • Focus on other worker populations
  • Ambulance Crash Survivability Improvement
  • Developing engineering interventions to improve
    occupant restraint systems and structural
    integrity of ambulance patient compartment
  • Risk Factors for Vehicle Crashes among Public
    Employees
  • Analyzing nonfatal crash data for state DOT
    employees and assessing vehicle safety programs
    collaborating with U.S. Department of Defense to
    develop research project

27
Future Considerations
  • Workplace driving by drivers of smaller company
    vehicles and personal vehicles
  • Behavioral aspects of workplace driving
  • Impact of in-vehicle technologies
  • The role of commuting in workplace crashes
  • Frequency and intensity of workplace driving by
    non-CMV drivers

28
Future Considerations (cont.)
  • Workplace driving by priority populations such as
    Hispanic workers
  • Matching of CFOI and FARS data sets
  • Occupational road safety policies and practices
    outside the U.S.
  • Motor vehicle safety initiative with OSHA

29
Evaluating Roadway Construction Workzone
Interventions
  • Prevent workers from being struck by construction
    trucks and equipment.

30
  • Limit exposure of workers-on-foot to construction
    traffic.
  • Focus on blind areas around construction vehicles
    and equipment.
  • Develop exposure monitoring system(s)
  • Evaluate injury prevention measures

31
Proximity Warning Systems
Radar
Sonar detection zone
Camera
32
INTERNAL TRAFFIC CONTROL PLANS
Paving Model Plan
33
Work Zone Analysis System
GPS Video Observer
WZAS Trailer
34
Surface MiningProximity Warning Systems
  • Evaluating a combination of radar and cameras on
    off-highway dump trucks.

35
Proximity Sensor and Warning Systems for Forklifts
  • Ultrasonic and laser sensors
  • Pulsed versus broadband warning signals

36
Long range ultrasonic sensor
Laser sensor
Laser sensor
37
Safety in Agriculture
  • Rollover Protection Systems (ROPS) for Tractors
  • Auto-ROPS deploys on tilt

38
Safety in Agriculture
  • Alerts to Prevent Deaths and Injuries to Youth
  • ATVs and Tractors

39
Ergonomic Evaluation and Improvement of Mobile
Equipment
40
Ergonomic Evaluation and Improvement of Mobile
Equipment
  • Objective Reduce musculoskeletal injuries by
    evaluating and improving the design of mobile
    equipment used in mining, construction, and
    agriculture industries.

41
Ergonomic Evaluation and Improvement of Mobile
Equipment
  • Evaluate Cab Design.
  • Characterize whole-body vibration exposure to the
    operators.
  • Collect health work history questionnaire data
    from operators to better understand exposure and
    health outcome.
  • Evaluate available controls effectiveness in
    reducing back discomfort associated with static
    sitting.
  • Evaluate landing forces as operators exit the
    equipment and postural stability after exposure
    to whole-body vibration.

42
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43
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44
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45
Diesel Exposure Study
46
Diesel Exposure Study
  • Evaluate mortality, particularly from lung
    cancer, with regard to diesel exhaust exposure.
  • Determine whether lung cancer mortality increases
    in relation to level of exposure to diesel
    exhaust taking into account smoking and other
    potential confounders

47
Diesel Exposure Study
  • Cohort mortality study
  • Nested case-control study of lung cancer
  • Current exposure assessment component
  • Historical exposure component
  • Biomarker component

48
Hydrogen as a Viable Vehicle Fuel at an
Underground Metal Mine
  • Reduce miners exposure to diesel particulate
    matter by using alternative fuel.
  • Developed a vehicle that is powered by an
    internal combustion engine modified to burn
    hydrogen.
  • Zero Emissions Utility Solution, or ZEUS, vehicle
    has completed initial underground testing at the
    Stillwater Mine in Nye, Montana.

49
ZEUS CO Emissions Comparison
50
Other NIOSH Health Studies
  • Reproductive Health Study of Female Flight
    Attendants
  • A Cytogenetic Study of Markers of Cosmic
    Radiation Exposure and Effects Among Pilots
  • Control of Disease Transmission in Commercial
    Aircraft Cabins

51
Current Extramural Grants
  • Violence Against Truckers
  • Truckers Access to Health Care
  • Medical Residents Working Hours and Crash History

52
Recent Extramural Grants
  • Auditory Motion and Pedestrial-Motor Vehicle
    Collisions
  • Trucking Firm Characteristics, Driver Injury, and
    Outcome
  • Work-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes Reducing the
    Burden
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