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Backyard Conservation and Integrated Landscape Management

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Title: Backyard Conservation and Integrated Landscape Management


1
Backyard Conservation and Integrated Landscape
Management
  • Ronald C. Smith, PhD
  • NDSU Extension Horticulturist Turfgrass
    Specialist

Created by Andrea Carlson
2
Soil
  • An extremely important component in a plants
    ability to survive on a site
  • Testing is advisable to determine soil
    attributes
  • Texture
  • Physical/Chemical
  • Erodibility

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural
Resources
3
Soil Texture
  • of sand, slit, and clay particles
  • A loam, equal parts of sand, silt, clay, is ideal
    for plant growth

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
4
The Physical/Chemical of Soil
  • Physically, an ideal garden consists of
  • 50 Solids
  • Soil, rock, organic matter
  • Organic matter offers nutrients, assists with
    water infiltration, retention, promotes root
    growth
  • 25 Water
  • 25 Air
  • Chemically
  • pH measures acidity/alkalinity of soil
  • Salinity and sodicity measures Ca, Mg, Na salts
  • High salinity/sodicity may be toxic

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
5
Soil Erodibility
  • Highly erodible soils, on steep slopes, needed to
    be protected from wind water during site
    preparation plant establishment
  • Moisture difficult to maintain
  • On slopes, mulch can reduce problem
  • On windy sites, properly placed plants can help

6
Planting
  • Get it right the 1st time!
  • Do not plant too deep!
  • Remove stakes after 1st growing season

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
7
Bareroot Trees Shrubs
  • Lowest price
  • Easiest establishment
  • Usually fastest growth rate
  • Do not firm with feet!

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural
Resources
8
Wildflowers
  • Extend flowering season by deadheading
  • Divide every 3-5 years
  • Cut back in late fall or early spring

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural
Resources
9
Attracting Birds Butterflies
  • Flowering plants that attract butterflies attract
    birds as well
  • Honeysuckle
  • Juneberry
  • Crabapples
  • Pines (fruit)
  • Flowering tobacco
  • Bee balm

10
Xeriscaping
A sample design for a front yard in which the
lawn has been entirely replaced with
drought-tolerant trees, shrubs, perennials,
ornamental grasses
11
Nitrogen Depletion, Toxicity, Acidity
  • Extra nitrogen may be added to the soil at a rate
    of 1 kg (2lb) per 45 kg (100 lb) of wood
    amendment. Or, sawdust, shavings, bark may be
    composted before being added to the soil
  • Trees with competitive phytotoxic properties
    include
  • Western red cedar
  • White pine (bark)
  • Black walnut
  • Hemlock (bark)
  • Redwood

12
Nitrogen Depletion, Toxicity, Acidity
  • Bark or sawdust from green, newly milled trees
    will be more detrimental to plantings stunted
    growth, chlorotic symptoms
  • Reduce toxicity by allowing products to leach for
    at least 6 weeks
  • Toxic substances usually destroyed by soil
    bacteria fungi within a few weeks

13
Environment Influences Plant Water Use
Most water taken up by the plant is lost through
evaporation, factors in the environment will
speed or slow the rate of drying that occurs
  • Shade
  • Reduces water needs of plant
  • Lowers surrounding air temperature
  • Losses on shady side 25 less than sunny side of
    plant
  • Forest-less water loss than lone tree
  • Humidity
  • In dry air, water evaporates more readily plants
    dry more quickly
  • Plants increase humidity by transpiring
  • Slows the rate of water loss from leaves

14
Environment Influences Plant Water Use
  • Wind
  • Greatly increases the rate of evaporation from
    leaves
  • Plants exposed to wind dry much faster that those
    in calm air
  • Shelterbelts reduce wind velocity reduce water
    loss of plants
  • Temperature
  • Plants lose water more quickly on hot days
  • Water uptake is slowed by low soil temps.
  • Evergreens show dieback due to spring drying

15
Drip Irrigation
  • The wetting pattern of drip irrigation depends on
    the soil.
  • Clay soils Water tends to percolate both
    laterally downward
  • Sandy soils Water moves primarily downward

16
Drip Irrigation Advantages
  • Easy, relatively inexpensive to install
  • Less water is needed since little is lost to
    evaporation
  • Energy savings due to lower pumping costs lower
    pressure
  • Fewer weeds
  • Fertilizer can be applied through lines
  • Plant stress is reduced
  • Plant damage due to water impact is reduced
  • Foliage remains dry fewer disease problems

17
Drip Irrigation Disadvantages
  • Design formation is not as well prepared by
    industry as it is for sprinklers
  • Product inconsistency
  • Low level of industry knowledge
  • Cannot see what is happening below wetted
    surface may
    lack confidence in system, initially
  • System requires filtration systems since emitters
    can be clogged with
    soil, organic particles, algae
  • Require pressure regulation
  • Lateral lines are vulnerable to damage from
    machinery, hoeing, animals
  • Emitters must be checked regularly
  • Potential for salt accumulation

18
Mulch
  • Summer mulch
  • Apply when soil has warmed to 68F
  • Suppresses weeds
  • Conserves water
  • Winter mulch
  • Protects perennial plants
  • Temperature variations
  • Desiccation from drying winter winds
  • 3-4 Layer recommended
  • Depth greater may inhibit gas exchange

19
USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
North-Midwest U.S.
http//www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/hzm-nm1.html
20
Ornamental Grasses
  • Common components of landscape
  • Add color, texture, form, shape
  • Low-maintenance landscaping
  • Ground covers
  • Individual accent or specimen plants
  • Prairie or meadow restoration
  • Low water fertility requirements
  • High insect disease resistance
  • 1 seasons of interest

http//www.arboretum.umn.edu/programs/index.htm
21
Ornamental Grasses
  • Establish quickly
  • Hardy, tough
  • Reproduce by seed, above- or below-ground stems
  • Various forms
  • Compact tufted
  • Erect in bunches
  • Creeping on the ground surface
  • Spreading--sod
  • Heights vary from ground-hugging to several feet
    tall

22
big bluestemAndropogon gerardii
  • Full sun
  • Height 4-8
  • Season of interest June-frost
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • Copper-red fall color
  • Prefers well-drained, fertile soil
  • Tolerates wide range of soil types
  • Native plant

http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
23
side oats gramaBouteloua curtipendula
  • Full sun
  • Height 1 ½-2 ½
  • Season of interest July-frost
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • Purplish flowers
  • Oat-like seeds on one side of stem
  • Dominant prairie grass

http//ridgwaydb.mobot.org/kemperweb/plantfinder
24
Karl Foerster feather reedgrassCalamagrostiss x
acutiflora Karl Foerster
  • Full sun
  • Height 4 ½
  • Season of interest July-winter
  • Perennial
  • Blooms 2-3 weeks earlier than common

    feather reedgrass
  • Stiff, pink, upright flowers in July, turning

    beige by August
  • Wheat-like appearance

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
25
blue sedgeCarex flacca
  • Filtered sun, part shade in hot areas
  • Height 14
  • Season of interest June-winter
  • Annual/Perennial (Zones 5-9)
  • May be invasive
  • Silver-blue blades
  • Tolerates drier soil than most sedges

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
26
Elijah blue fescueFestuca cinerea Elijah Blue
  • Full sun
  • Height 8-10
  • Season of interest Year-round
  • Perennial (Zones 4-10)
  • Buff colored flowers
  • Well-drained, moist soil
  • Border plant, groundcover
  • Fast growing

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
27
pampas grassCortaderia selloana
  • Full sun
  • Height 7-10
  • Season of interest Year-round
  • Annual (Zones 7-10)
  • White, 30 plumes
  • Tolerates variety of soils, prefers fertile,
    moist,
    well-drained soils
  • Once established, tolerates drought
  • AKA Miscanthus sacchariflorus Robusta

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
28
silver feather maiden grassMiscanthus sinensis
Silberfeder'
  • Full sun
  • Height 7
  • Season of interest Year-round
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • Red foliage in fall turns gold in winter
  • Silver-pink flowers
  • Variety of soil types well-drained

http//www.gramineae.com/missi.htm
29
blue switchgrassPanicum virgatum Heavy Metal
  • Full to part sun
  • Height 3-5
  • Season of interest Year-round
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • Metallic blue-gray foliage
  • Moisture tolerant
  • Salt tolerant
  • Loose, broad, purple-green spikelets

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
30
purple fountain grassPennisetum setaceum 'Rubrum'
  • Full sun
  • Height 3-4
  • Season of interest July-frost
  • Annual (Zones 9-10)
  • Neat clumps of maroon-purple blades
  • Rose-red flowers
  • May need staking
  • Drought tolerant

http//www.monrovia.com/PlantInf
31
Feeseys form ribbongrassPhalaris arundinacea
Feeseys Form
  • Part shade
  • Height 2-4
  • Season of interest June-frost
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • White green striped foliage
  • Pink/red foliage in spring
  • Not as invasive as sp.
  • Tolerates wet or dry soil, prefers moist,
    well-drained

http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
32
little bluestemSchizachyrium scoparium or
Andropogon scoparius
  • Full sun
  • Height 2-4
  • Season of interest August-winter
  • Perennial (Zones 4-10)
  • Predominant prairie species
  • Blue-green foliage, turns red-orange in fall
  • Variety of soil types, except high fertility
    moist soils
  • Common cultivars
  • Aldos
  • Little Camper
  • Blaze

http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
33
Indian grassSorghasturm nutans
  • Full sun
  • Height 5-7
  • Season of interest August-winter
  • Perennial (Zones 4-9)
  • Tolerates a range of soil conditions including
    clay
  • Drought tolerant
  • Copper flowers in August
  • 'Sioux Blue' common cultivar

http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
34
prairie dropseedSporobolus heterolepsis
  • Sun to light shade
  • Height 2-3½
  • Season of interest August-winter
  • Perennial (Zones 4-8)
  • Fine texture
  • Airy flowers
  • Reddish in fall
  • Very drought tolerant

http//www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsh
eets/ornamental_grass
35
Spring TO DO List
  • Prune evergreen shrubs
  • Mow lawn to a height of 3 inches, leaving
    clippings on lawn
  • Check lawn to determine if it needs aeration or
    power raking
  • Compost garden prunings to reduce trash volume
    recycle nutrients back into the garden
  • Plant trees, shrubs, and most herbaceous plants
    now look for disease-resistant cultivars to cut
    down on pesticide use.
  • Pressurize check all zones of automatic
    sprinkler system to make sure there are no leaks.
    Set system for shorter /or less frequent cycles
    during cool spring months install rain-sensor
    for greater efficiency of system.

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
36
Summer TO DO List
  • Water plants early in morning, according to plant
    needs, to maintain healthy root top growth to
    reduce water loss by evaporation
  • Control aphids mites with insecticidal soaps to
    spare beneficial insects provide long-term pest
    control
  • Prune spring-flowering shrubs just after bloom,
    leaving the branch collar instead of making flush
    cuts
  • Keep ahead of weeds by mowing hand-pulling.
    Use herbicides sparingly apply according to
    label

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
37
Fall TO DO List
  • Compost equal parts of dry leaves green plant
    materials for next years soil amendment
  • Prepare soil for next years plantings plant
    trees shrubs now for superior root
    establishment better spring growth
  • Water landscape plants for good establishment
    winter survival
  • Drain blow out irrigation system
  • Apply repellents barriers to reduce animal
    damage
  • Install snow fence on windward side of plantings
    to trap moisture protect sensitive plants
  • Fertilize lawn with winterizer fertilizer

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
38
Winter TO DO List
  • Prune deciduous trees late summer-blooming
    deciduous shrubs
  • Watch south-facing slopes windy areas for
    winter drying protect as needed
  • Be aware of heavy, wet snow and ice on trees and
    shrubs carefully remove or support. Do not hit
    with broom or shovel!
  • Begin any extensive deciduous woody plant pruning
    tasks in late winter weeks

Creating Native Landscapes in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountains, USDA Natural Resources
39
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