Brain Haemorrhage: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

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Brain Haemorrhage: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

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Brain haemorrhage is a type of stroke wherein damage induced to the artery results in localised bleeding in the brain, and destroys the tissues and cells in the vicinity. When the rupture caused to the wall of the blood vessels results in blood spill, the blood enters the area wherein vital tissues and cells of brain are located and kills them. To know more visit here: www.lazoi.com – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brain Haemorrhage: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment


1
Brain Haemorrhage
  • Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment

2
What is Brain Haemorrhage ?
  • Brain haemorrhage is a type of stroke wherein
    damage induced to the artery results in localized
    bleeding in the brain, and destroys the tissues
    and cells in the vicinity. When the rupture
    caused to the wall of the blood vessels results
    in blood spill, the blood enters the area wherein
    vital tissues and cells of brain are located and
    kills them.
  • It is a severe condition, wherein the person
    needs immediate medication/treatment - if the
    person is not subjected to proper treatment in
    time, it can result in further complications like
    loss of brain function and cause coma or death.

3
Causes of Brain Haemorrhage
  • There are several risk factors and causes of
    brain haemorrhages. The most common include
  • Head trauma. Injury is the most common cause of
    bleeding in the brain for those under 50.
  • High blood pressure. This chronic condition can,
    over a long period of time, weaken blood vessel
    walls. Untreated high blood pressure is a major
    preventable cause of brain haemorrhages.
  • Aneurysm. This is a weakening in a blood vessel
    wall that swells. It can burst and bleed into the
    brain, leading to a stroke.

4
Causes Continue
  • Blood vessel abnormalities. Weaknesses in the
    blood vessels in and around the brain may be
    present at birth and diagnosed only if symptoms
    develop.
  • Amyloid angiopathy. This is an abnormality of the
    blood vessel walls that sometimes occurs with
    ageing. It may cause many small, unnoticed bleeds
    before causing a large one.
  • Blood or bleeding disorders. Haemophilia and
    sickle cell anaemia can both contribute to
    decreased levels of blood platelets.
  • Liver disease. This condition is associated with
    an increased risk of bleeding in general.
  • Brain tumours.

5
Symptoms of Brain Haemorrhage
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty writing or reading
  • Loss of fine motor skills
  • Loss of coordination
  • Loss of balance
  • An abnormal sense of taste
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Decreased alertness, lethargy
  • Changes in vision
  • Tingling or numbness

6
Symptoms Continue
  • A sudden severe headache
  • Seizures with no previous history of seizures
  • Weakness in an arm or leg
  • Nausea or vomiting

7
Diagnosis of Brain Haemorrhage
  • There are series of tests that are used to
    diagnose a condition which is likely to lead to a
    haemorrhage. A CT (Computerized Tomography) scan
    or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan can help
    find out where the haemorrhage has occurred.
  • Lumbar puncture - i.e. surgical removal of fluid
    from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region
    of the spinal cord for diagnostic purpose,
    angiography - imaging done by injecting a
    radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood
    vessel, etc., are other tests that are used in
    the diagnosis of brain haemorrhage.

8
Treatments of Brain Haemorrhage
  • Patients need to be monitored very closely if
    bleeding is inside the brain.
  • Initial step of treatment involves stabilizing
    the blood pressure and ensuring normal breathing.
  • Ventilator can be made available to ensure enough
    oxygen supply to the brain and other vital organs
    of the body.
  • Intravenous access is required so that patient
    can get fluids and medicines especially in
    unconscious state.
  • Special monitoring systems are needed for keeping
    track of the heart beats, blood oxygen levels and
    intracranial pressure.
  • Once the patient is stabilized, then doctors take
    decision to operate the patient based on various
    factors.

9
Preventions of Brain Haemorrhages
  • Controlling blood pressure or hypertension.
  • It has been found in a study that around 80
    patients have high blood pressure history.
  • Have a healthy diet and exercise regularly.
  • Meditate daily to keep your mind peaceful.
  • Stress can cause overexertion of brain.
  • Stop Smoking
  • Avoid drugs such as cocaine which can increase
    the risk of brain disorder.
  • To avoid head injury drive carefully with your
    seat belt on.

10
Complications of Brain Haemorrhages
  • Death can also occur despite of medication in
    some cases.
  • Loss of movement
  • Inability in communicating
  • Bleeding may occur in the digestive system
  • paralysis
  • depression

11
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