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Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

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Title: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics


1
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
  • Todd Bryant
  • Sareen Engineer
  • Han Hu

2
Presentation Overview
  • Definition of robotics
  • Robotics relevance to AI
  • Current developments in the field
  • Current implementations
  • Past successes in robotics
  • Roadblocks to robotics research
  • Future of robotics

3
Definition of Robotics
  • A robot is
  • An active artificial agent whose environment is
    the physical world
  • --Russell and Norvig
  • A programmable, multifunction manipulator
    designed to move material, parts, tools or
    specific devices through variable programmed
    motions for the performance of a variety of
    tasks
  • --Robot Institute of America

4
Relevance to Artificial Intelligence
  • Effectors
  • Sensors
  • Architecture
  • Integration of various inputs
  • Hierarchy of information representation
  • Emotions

5
Effectors
  • Effector vs. Actuator
  • Degrees of freedom (d.f.)
  • 6 d.f. for free body in space
  • Locomotion
  • Statically stable vs. Dynamically stable
  • Manipulation
  • Rotary vs. Prismatic motion
  • End Effector

Four-finger Utah/MIT hand
6
Sensors
  • Force-sensing
  • Tactile-sensing
  • Sonar
  • Visual (camera)
  • Proprioceptive

Robot with camera attached
7
Architecture
  • Classical architecture
  • shortcomings
  • Behavior-based architecture

Design for a behavior-based mobile robot
(adapted from Fig 25.10 in AIMA)
8
Information Representation Hierarchy
  • Raw data
  • Cognitive feature
  • Conceptual feature
  • Simple concept
  • Inter-connected synthesized concept

9
Information Representation Hierarchy
10
Information Representation Hierarchy
11
Current Developments
  • Emotions
  • Energy-efficiency
  • Integration
  • Hierarchy of information representation
  • Control structures
  • Synthesis of neural nets and fuzzy logic
  • Robotic surgery
  • Telepresence
  • Robot perception
  • Face and object recognition

12
Importance of Emotions
  • Emotions help prevent people from repeating their
    mistakes (decisions that resulted in negative
    feelings)
  • Recognizing emotions would allow robots to become
    more responsive to users needs
  • Exhibiting emotions would help robots interact
    with humans

13
Classification of Emotions
  • Continuous
  • Emotions defined in multi-dimensional space of
    attributes
  • Arousal-Valence Plane
  • Discrete
  • Defines 5, 6, or more basic emotional states
    upon which more complex emotions are based

14
Arousal-Valence Plane
  • Valence whether emotion is positive or negative
  • Arousal intensity of emotion

15
Classification of Emotions
  • Plutchiks Theory
  • Eight primitive emotions that more complex
    emotions are based upon
  • Gladness (joy)
  • Sadness
  • Anger
  • Surprise
  • Acceptance
  • Disgust
  • Expectancy
  • Fear

16
Complexity of Emotional Classification
17
Affective Research Kismet
  • Decides proper emotional response to stimuli and
    exhibits corresponding facial expression, body
    posture, and vocal quality
  • Behavioral response serves either social or
    self-maintenance functions

Kismet smiling
18
Organization of Kismets Emotions
  • Some of Kismets emotions, what causes those
    emotions, and what purpose they serve Kismet

19
Energy-Efficiency Seaglider
  • Small electric pump transfers 100cm3 of oil from
    an external bladder to its reservoir, making
    Seaglider dense enough to sink
  • To dive, small motor pushes battery pack into
    nose
  • Process is reversed to ascend

Seagliders diving process
20
Current Implementation
  • Industrial robots
  • used in factories to manufacture boxes and pack
    and wrap merchandise
  • Car manufacturers own 50 of todays robots
  • Robots used in hazardous situations
  • Nuclear power plants
  • Response to bomb threat
  • Outer space exploration

Robotic arm arranging chocolates
21
Current Implementation Asimo
  • Hondas Asimo (Advanced Step in Innovative
    Mobility)
  • Able to walk freely (can change stride speed)
  • Able to balance on one foot
  • Able to climb stairs
  • Able to manipulate objects
  • Space- cost-efficient

Hondas Asimo
22
Asimos Recognition Technology
  • Based on visual cues such as the angle and
    distance at which it perceives an object
  • Can map an object's contour and compare it to a
    database of prototypes for different expressions
    and actions
  • Is currently limited to pre-registered people

ASIMO making measurements
23
Successes AIBO
  • 1996 Prototype with small body, camera,
    microphones, and batteries
  • Trouble balancing
  • Required further development of software
  • First generation AIBO ERS-110 released in Japan
    (1999)

24
AIBO
  • Example of robotics with AI
  • Behavior dependent on owners behavior
  • No two are alike
  • Voice recognition
  • 50 distinct commands
  • SPECIFICS
  • 64-bit RISC processor
  • 18 joints
  • Touch sensor
  • CCD color camera
  • Infrared distance sensor
  • Acceleration sensor
  • Angular velocity sensor

25
Cog Brain
  • No central unit
  • Heterogeneous network of different processors
  • Microcontrollers (such as Motorolla 6811) process
    inputs and drive motor responses
  • A/V processing done by digital signal processor
    (DSP) networks
  • Relay data to core processor network by way of
    ISA and PCI cards
  • Core network 200 MHz PCs running QNX real-time
    OS, connected by 100VG Ethernet
  • 4 nodes

26
Cog Sensory Systems
  • Visual System
  • Binocular
  • Each eye has 2 gray scale cameras
  • Auditory System
  • 2 microphones
  • Stereo sampling _at_ 22.05 kHz with 8-bit resolution
  • Sound localization has been achieved, currently
    working on segregation of sound streams
  • Vestibular System
  • 3 semi-circular canals mimicked by 3 rate
    gyroscopes
  • 2 linear accelerometers
  • Tactile System
  • 6x4 array of sensors on torso can detect position
    and force of a touch
  • Some implementation in hands

27
Roadblocks In ResearchInteractive Activity
28
Roadblocks In Research
  • Shift attention from manufacturing to design
    processes
  • Shift attention from single to multiple
    capabilities
  • Energy-related issues
  • Bulky batteries with short lifespan

29
Problems
  • Sensing
  • Vision
  • Mobility
  • Design
  • Control
  • Reasoning

30
Problems
  • Sensing
  • Cost of tactile sensors very high
  • Range Limits
  • Light 2 meters
  • Required(factory) 10 meters
  • Vision
  • Two methods
  • Corner recognition
  • Edge recognition
  • Overlap of objects
  • Visibility of local features

31
Problems
  • Mobility
  • Growing need for AGVs in outdoor applications
  • Vision and laser ranging systems need development
    to produce information at a faster rate
  • Current bipeds are incapable of walking on uneven
    ground
  • Design
  • Control of robot after construction
  • Development of knuckles required to perform such
    tasks as lifting and grasping well
  • Actuators are often too big, slow, or difficult
    to control

32
Problems
  • Control
  • Simulation is not accurate to real world
    interaction
  • Based on mathematical and numerical computations
  • Reasoning
  • AI (an essential component of robotics) has
    slowly been introduced into industrial world
  • Further refinement in this field before faster
    progress of robotics

33
Future of Robotics
  • Downsizing
  • Reduction in power needs and size
  • Synergism
  • Greater integration of technologies
  • Greater intelligence
  • More user-friendly interface
  • More environmentally friendly
  • Robots easy to disassemble and destroy
  • Easily reusable or degradable parts

34
Future of Robotics
  • Design robots to recognize presence, posture, and
    gaze
  • Develop viable social exchange between robots and
    humans
  • Design systems that can learn via reinforcement

35
Moral Dilemmas
  • Legal rights of autonomous beings
  • Replacing humans in the workplace
  • Ethics of deleting intelligent robotsmurder?
  • Creating helpful sentient robots vs. playing God

36
Any Questions?
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