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Cloning

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Cloning has the potential to create sentient and non-sentient life. Mammalian cloning has been achieved ... http://www.bioethics.gov/topics/cloning_index.html ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloning


1
Cloning
2
Introduction
  • Cloning has the potential to create sentient and
    non-sentient life.
  • Mammalian cloning has been achieved through a
    nuclear transfer process as well as cell
    splitting.
  • Agricultural cloning is widely used in crops.
  • The cloning of mammalian life from adult cells
    using nuclear transfer leads to a host of ethical
    issues about the use of this technology.

3
How does cloning work?
  • http//www.synapses.co.uk/science/clone.html
  • http//www.roslin.ac.uk/
  • http//www.howstuffworks.com/cloning.htm
  • http//www.time.com/time/newsfiles/cloning/

4
Professional Issues?
  • Mammalian cloning, although possible, involves
    high degrees of risks to both donor and
    recipient.
  • Spontaneous abortion, fetal size, etc.
  • The long range problems are as yet unknown.
  • Aging, etc.
  • Research into Dolly has revealed that she may
    have telomeres on her chromosomes similar to
    those from the cell from which she was derived.
    The telomeres are small pieces of DNA that help
    to protect chromosomes from damage. Very young
    animals have long telomeres, but as the animal
    ages, the telomeres are worn away.

5
Legal/Policy Issues?
  • 13 Euro States have banned Human Cloning.
  • U.S. has not yet passed legislation banning human
    cloning. It is presently voluntary!
  • States
  • California and Rhode Island
  • 5 year moratorium
  • Michigan
  • permanent ban
  • Currently an International legal minefield.

6
Legal/Policy Issues? (contd.)
  • http//www.georgetown.edu/research/nrcbl/nbac/pubs
    .html
  • http//www.humancloning.org/legality.htm
  • http//strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/bb00003e.html

7
Ethical Issues?
  • Physical harm to embryos
  • Dolly was 1 of 277, 276 perished!
  • Eugenics
  • Poor use of scarce resources
  • Human right to a unique identity
  • Treating People As Objects
  • Freedom of Scientific Inquiry

8
Ethical Issues?
  • http//www.bioethics.gov/topics/cloning_index.html
  • http//www.cs.virginia.edu/jones/tmp352/projects9
    8/group1/home.html
  • (Excellent student project.)
  • http//www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/els
    i/elsi.html

9
Stakeholders?
  • Individual being cloned
  • Mother carrying fetus
  • Spontaneously aborted fetuses
  • Potential offspring
  • Society

10
Possible actions?
  • Ban all cloning
  • Ban human cloning
  • Allow animal cloning for scientific research
  • Allow human cloning on a limited basis

11
Consequences of banning all cloning
  • The greatest happiness is achieved by
    understanding the consequences of cloning.
  • ? Cloning should be allowed on a limited and
    controlled basis in order to determine its
    effects.

12
Consequences of banning human cloning
  • The greatest happiness is achieved by the least
    trauma to society.
  • Animal cloning demonstrates the dangers.
  • Human cloning may be fraught with dangers.
  • ? Human cloning should be banned.

13
Consequences of allowing animal cloning for
scientific research
  • Sufficient scientific research can be gained by
    research into animals.
  • Sufficient scientific knowledge is not yet
    available to know the consequences of going
    beyond limited experimentation.
  • ? Animal cloning should be permitted on a
    restricted basis.
  • This is consistent with educational and
    scientific freedom of research ideals.

14
Consequences of human cloning on a limited basis
  • The greatest happiness is achieved by the least
    trauma to society.
  • Animal cloning has demonstrated sufficient
    concern that human cloning may be fraught with
    dangers.
  • ? Human cloning should be banned.

15
Individual Rights/Fairness
  • Some religions and cultures consider the fetus to
    have human rights, therefore, the rights of the
    spontaneously aborted fetus is in violation of
    this right.
  • The cost of this procedure is prohibitive. Funds
    could be better used for other medical research.
  • The medical moral standard of do no harm is
    called into question.

16
Common Good
  • Animal cloning may lead to new findings that will
    benefit humankind.
  • Human cloning may eventually lead to better
    quality of life.

17
Final Decision?
  • Human cloning should be banned.
  • Animal cloning should be allowed under restricted
    circumstances.
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