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Human Computer Interaction HCI and Video Game Systems

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Title: Human Computer Interaction HCI and Video Game Systems


1
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Video Game
Systems
  • Chris Nelson, Eric Whalen, Ben Hansen

2
Why HCI and Video Games?
  • Since Developers and Analysts are always creating
    products for end-users, it is important to know
    what the human factors should be considered for
    the final product.
  • Video games serve as a glance into the possible
    future of interface design.

3
Overview
  • Productivity Paradox
  • What Is HCI?
  • Past input/output HCI in video games
  • Present and Future HCI in video games
  • Summary

4
Productivity Paradox
  • Economists have found a disappointing lack of
    correlation between the amount of money invested
    in information technology and changes in industry
    productivity measures.
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Productivity is the fundamental economic measure
    of a technologys contribution.
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT
  • Has resulted in CEOs and line managers to
    question their huge investments in computers and
    related technologies.
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT

5
Paradox?
  • The Economist

6
Productivity Paradox (Continued)
  • Labor Productivity is calculated as the level of
    output divided by a given level of labor input
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT
  • Multifactor Productivity is calculated as the
    level of output for a given level of several
    inputs, typically labor, capital and materials
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT
  • Typically Multifactor is a better indicator of
    productivity since it adjusts for shifts among
    inputs
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT

7
Four Explanations For Paradox
  • Mismeasurement of outputs and inputs
  • Quality of work life goes up ? wage will go down
  • Lags due to learning and adjustment
  • Benefits can take several years to show up
  • Redistribution and dissipation of profits
  • Benefits individual firms, but not industry as
    whole
  • Mismanagement of information and technology
  • Building inefficient systems
  • Erik Brynjolfsson, MIT

8
Human Computing Interaction (HCI)
  • The study of interaction between people and
    computers
  • Wikipedia
  • Relates Information Technology with many other
    fields of study and research
  • Wikipedia
  • Interaction between users and computers occurs at
    the user interface which includes both software
    and hardware
  • Wikipedia
  • The major focus of HCI is the design and creation
    of computer systems
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Goal of HCI is to produce hardware and software
    that is useful, usable, and aesthetically
    pleasing
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)

9
Interdisciplinary Aspects of HCI
  • Aesthetics
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cognitive science
  • Computer vision
  • Design
  • Ergonomics
  • Library and information science
  • Philosophy
  • Psychology
  • Social psychology
  • Sociology
  • Speech-language pathology
  • Wikipedia

10
Science of Human Interaction
  • Perceptual-Cognitive-Motor process
  • Moment-by-moment
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Distributed cognition
  • Technical interaction of teammates
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)

11
Cognitive Modeling
  • Cognitive, Perceptual, and Motor Components in
    the moment-by moment interaction a person
    encounters when working at a computer
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Contrasts a lot of traditional psychological
    research since, multiple components of behavior
    interact
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)

12
Cognitive Modeling (Continued)
  • Time it takes to do a task the sum of a number
    of Cognitive Engineering Time Parameters
    including mental and physical acts
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Typical errors include
  • Loss of items from short-term memory
  • A motor slip
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)

13
Cognitive Modeling (EPIC)
  • EPIC (Executive Process Interactive Control)

Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
of Michigan)
14
Distributed Cognition
  • Addresses the more social and contextual aspects
    of work that the cognitive modeling line does
    not.
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Stems from anthropological and sociological
    studies of real-world work situations.
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)
  • Recognizes how peoples actions are intimately
    intertwined with the artifacts of their work
    their team member roles, responsibilities, and
    actions and even their cultural and historical
    setting
  • Gary M. Olson (School of Information, University
    of Michigan)

15
Why Use HCI In Video Games?
  • As a matter of necessity, game designers must
    create cognitive models and rule sets to guide
    artificial intelligences and bound interactive
    behavior. This makes games a perfect test-bed
    for HCI explorations.
  • Keeker, The Untapped World of Video Games

16
Summary
  • Productivity Paradox
  • HCI increasing usability of systems, in turn will
    increase productivity
  • Video game developments are the cutting edge in
    interface design

17
Ergonomics in HCI
  • Human anthropometry
  • Arrangement of displays and menu controls
  • Human cognitive and sensory limits
  • Sensory and perceptual effects of CRT and other
    display technologies
  • Controls

http//sigchi.org/cdg/cdg2.htmlH3
18
Anthropometry
  • measurement of humans
  • in physical anthropology, refers to the
    measurement of living human individuals for the
    purposes of understanding human physical variation

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropometry
19
Design
  • Display / Environment
  • Menu
  • Audio
  • Video
  • Controls
  • Keyboards, Mice
  • Controllers, Joysticks

20
Menu and Interface
  • Menu Based
  • Auto-Loading, Non-Linear
  • MLB 2005
  • Menu Based
  • TouristTrophy
  • Auto-Loading, Non-Linear
  • Still Menu Driven
  • GTA Vice City
  • Auto-Loading, Non-Linear

21
Output Devices
  • Audio
  • Mono
  • All output on one channel
  • Stereo
  • Dual channel output
  • 5.1 / 7.1
  • Multiple channels of output

22
Output Devices (cont.)
  • Video
  • CRT (cathode ray tube)
  • Plasma / LCD

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray_tube
23
Input Devices
  • Mechanics of Particular Devices
  • Performance Characteristics
  • (human and system)
  • Handwriting and Gestures
  • Stylus, EyeToy
  • Speech Input
  • SOCOM, etc.
  • Eye Tracking
  • Military Developed

http//sigchi.org/cdg/cdg2.htmlH3
24
Characteristics of Input Devices
  • Weight
  • Portability
  • Speed / Performance
  • IR
  • Wireless

http//sigchi.org/cdg/cdg2.htmlH3
25
The Beginnings
  • Corded
  • Box
  • Simple
  • D-pad Control

http//wii.advancedmn.com/article.php?artid6355
26
Form Follows Function
  • Additional Buttons
  • D-pad with 8 way control
  • Rounded, better shaped control
  • Lighter

http//wii.advancedmn.com/article.php?artid6355
27
Ergonomics are Considered
  • First leap to form fitting design
  • Feedback through the controller
  • More input possibilities
  • Analog joystick(s)
  • Some of the first wireless

http//wii.advancedmn.com/article.php?artid6355
28
In Good Hands
  • More development into design
  • Smaller, but heavier
  • Available in wireless
  • D-pad plus at least one analog joystick
  • Analog buttons

http//wii.advancedmn.com/article.php?artid6355
29
Next Generation
  • Same Evolution
  • Wireless
  • 360, PS3 with standard USB
  • Also have wireless packages
  • Revolution all wireless
  • Different Directions

http//wii.advancedmn.com/article.php?artid6355
30
Present Gaming Sony Playstation2
http//www.angelfire.com/extreme/paulsplace/PS2.ht
ml
31
Present Gaming Microsoft Xbox
http//www.angelfire.com/extreme/paulsplace/x-box.
html
32
Present Gaming Nintendo GameCube
http//www.angelfire.com/extreme/paulsplace/gamecu
be.html
33
The Five Senses Sight
  • Cameras
  • PS2 EyeToy

EyeToy Example
2630
http//video.google.com/videoplay?docid-349674462
1458453804qps2eyetoypltrue
34
The Five Senses Touch
  • Guns
  • Game Ex.? Duck Hunt
  • Racing Wheels
  • Game Ex.? Gran Turismo, NASCAR Thunder
  • Pads
  • Game Ex.? Dance Dance Revolution
  • Guitar
  • Game Ex.? Guitar Hero

35
The Five Senses Hearing
  • Headsets
  • Microphones

Lets Take a Quiz!!!
http//www.pbs.org/kcts/videogamerevolution/arcade
/name/index_flash.html
36
The Five Senses Smell Taste
  • Sony Corp. has been granted a patent for beaming
    sensory information directly into the brain.
  • The technique could one day be used to create
    videogames in which you can smell, taste, and
    touch, or to help people who are blind or deaf.
  • A technique for aiming ultrasonic pulses at
    specific areas of the brain to induce "sensory
    experiences"

http//www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/
2005-04-06-sony-patent_x.htm
37
Future Gaming (Nov. 2006) Sony Playstation 3
Playstation 2
  • Processor IBM Cell 3.2 GHz
  • Media Type Blu-ray
  • Memory/Storage 256 MB
  • RAM Installed
  • Sound Dolby 5.1 Digital
  • Surround Sound
  • Input/Output 6 x USB
  • 3 x Ethernet
  • Wi-Fi IEEE
  • 802.11 b/g Bluetooth
    Capable

http//ps3.ign.com/articles/614/614682p1.html
http//reviews.cnet.com/Sony_PlayStation_3/4507-64
64_7-31355103.html?tagtxt
38
Future Gaming Microsoft Xbox 360 (Available!)
  • Processor IBM PowerPC 3.2 GHz
  • Media Type DVD-ROM
  • Memory / Storage 512 MB RAM Installed
  • Video Output ATI Xbox 360 GPU
  • 256-bit 2D/3D graphics
    acceleration
  • Fill Rate 500 million triangles/sec
  • Sound 16-bit Surround Sound
  • Input/Output 3 x USB ports,
  • 1 x Ethernet port

Original Xbox
http//reviews.cnet.com/Microsoft_Xbox_360/4507-64
64_7-31355096.html
39
Future Gaming Nintendo Revolution or Wii
  • Processor CPU IBM Broadway
  • GPU ATI
    Hollywood
  • Memory Unknown amount of RAM
  • 512 Mb of Built-In Flash
  • Memory
  • Input/Output 2 x USB
  • Wireless Accessible
  • A lot Unknown as of now???

Gamecube
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintendo_Revolution
40
Where we could go from here???
  • Virtual Mall?
  • Making your own pizza?
  • The possibilities are endless!!!

41
Conclusion
  • Productivity Paradox
  • What Is HCI?
  • Past input/output HCI in video games
  • Present HCI in video games
  • The Five Senses in Video Games
  • Future HCI in video games
  • Whats Next???

42
  • Questions???
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