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Middle Childhood Physical

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Physical Issues of Middle Childhood. Obesity. Physical activity. Newspaper assignment ... Class 11 Early Child Physical. 4. Middle Child Motor Skills ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle Childhood Physical


1
Middle Childhood Physical
  • Physical Growth
  • Brain development
  • Physical Issues of Middle Childhood
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Newspaper assignment

2
Middle Child Physical Growth
  • Slow steady growth
  • extension of early pattern, bones lengthen,
    broaden
  • Add 2-3 inches and 5 lbs per year
  • Secular trends
  • we have seen increases in childrens body size
  • From one generation to the next
  • by about 1/3 inch per decade 1970s to 1990s
  • Due to improved health and better nutrition
  • Now increases in height slowing,
  • But increases in weight are continuing

3
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Improvements in
  • flexibility, balance, agility, strength

4
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Improvements in basic skills continues
  • Activities in playground contribute to motor
    skills
  • Climbing - stairs, ladders, ropes, monkey bars
  • Hanging arms or knees on bars
  • Swinging rings or rope Tarzan
  • Rolling summer saults
  • Jumping - take-offs landings
  • Upper body supports
  • gymnastics - bars

5
Middle Child Motor Skills
  • Developmental issues
  • The playground skills require child to have
  • Strength, flexibility, balance etc
  • Also risktaking and self-confidence
  • Parents are often fearful of letting child go
  • But kids -be encouraged to take sensible risks
  • Sometimes called self-testing skills
  • Can I do it? How good am I?

6
Middle Child Motor Skills
7
Fine motor skills
  • Fine motor skills are refined

8
Six-Year Olds Drawing
9
Eight-Year Olds Drawing
Text page 419
10
Ten-Year Olds Drawing
  • Complex
  • Perspective
  • Far objects smaller
  • Overlapping figures
  • Interesting placement
  • Use of colour

Text page 419
11
Changes in brain development
  • new MRI methods of observing the brain in action

12
Changes in brain development
  • Total brain volume
  • brain is 90 of adult size by age six.
  • head circumference changes through childhood
  • Can see child who wears an adults hat,
  • Boys add about 2 inches and
  • Girls 1.9 inches in diameter from age 4 to age
    18.
  • due mostly to an increase in skull thickness, not
    brain size (Giedd, 2004).

13
White matter
  • consists of myelinated axons, fatty sheath
  • speeds transmission between neurons
  • 100 times faster than unmyelinated neurons.
  • white matter increases through childhood
  • by same amount in all major lobes of the brain
  • frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital.
  • white matter is important to development
  • Allows child to integrate activities across
    different areas of brain

14
White matter
  • Eg, better white connections between
  • hippocampus frontal cortex
  • better memories of past events
  • help them make decisions.
  • Brocas area (speech production) Wernickes
    (understanding)
  • improve childrens understanding
  • interpretation of language
  • faster verbal responses.

15
Corpus callosum
  • connects right and left hemispheres of the brain
  • consists of 180 million myelinated axons,
  • develops from front to back,
  • so anterior reaches adult size earlier than the
    posterior section.
  • important for any brain activity benefiting from
    interhemispheric integration, such as
  • improvement in bimanual motor skills,
  • unification of sensory fields,
  • improved memory storage and retrieval,
  • attention, arousal,
  • language function,
  • creativity, and more complex cognitive abilities.

16
Subcortical gray matter
  • Basal ganglia - central role in control of
  • movement, higher cognitive function, attention
    affective states
  • Caudate nucleus motor inhibition, implicit
    learning
  • larger in females (smaller caudate in males)
  • may relate to male-predominant disorders ADHD
    Tourettes
  • Amygdala - emotion regulation
  • contains more androgen than estrogen receptors,
  • increases in size only in males (smaller amygdala
    in females).
  • Hippocampus - in memory formation - context
    dependent
  • contains more estrogen receptors
  • increases only in females (smaller hippocampus in
    males).
  • May account for sex differences in emotional
    disorders
  • depression and anxiety (greater in females)
  • learning difficulties (greater in males) (Giedd,
    2004).

17
Cortical gray matter
  • Gray thickens thins over childhood
  • As child adapts to social environment
    experiences
  • reflects changes in size complexity of neurons,
  • not a change in the number of neurons.
  • Longit studies - curvilinear invertedU pattern
    of gray
  • Arborization Thickening when cells grow bushier
  • extra branches more connections with other
    neurons.
  • Pruning Thinning when connections not used
  • use it or lose it principle,
  • eliminates redundant synaptic connections
  • speeds cognitive processes.
  • Earliest in sensorimotor, last in dl prefrontal
  • for complex thinking.

18
Summary
  • Changes in brain over childhood
  • Allow children to inhibit responses
  • characterizes transition to mature performance
  • and enhanced brain function.
  • are not influencing the emergence of responses
  • improve their higher level cognition
  • modulate emotions, think flexibly inhibit
    impulses
  • But they dont always show mature brain function.
  • may be vulnerable to fail under demanding
    situations,
  • or when they are distracted or unmotivated.

19
Obesity in Childhood
  • Obesity
  • weight 20
  • higher than healthy wt
  • BMI 30.
  • Wt/Ht ratio
  • body mass index

20
Obesity Trends
Figure of obesity trends text page 411
21
Obesity
  • Prevalence of obesity
  • Berk 15 of Canadian children are obese
  • Self reports boys 9 girls 10
  • Canada CCHS 20002001 survey data
  • Is increasing 1981-gt1996 doubled.
  • Prevalence of overweight Canada
  • BMI 25 29 for 7 - 13 yr olds
  • Self reports boys 20 girls 17
  • Is increasing 1981-gt1996 almost doubled.

22
Obesity
  • Nova Scotia study (Veugelers Fitzgerald, 2003).
  • Measured 4300 grade 5s
  • 97 of schools across province
  • ht, wt, risk factors
  • Obesity 33 overweight 10
  • Risk factors for being overweight
  • Not eating vs eating breakfast 50 more likely
  • Buying lunch vs bringing lunch to school 47
    more
  • Having family supper 3-4 times vs 1- times/wk
    30 less
  • Eating in front of TV, 1- times vs 5 times/wk
    40 less

23
Obesity
  • Health issues
  • Obesity tracks into adulthood
  • Over 80 of obese children will become obese
    adults
  • reduces life expectancy, makes for poorer quality
    life
  • Hypertension, high cholesterol
  • Type 2 diabetes, Osteoporosis
  • Mental health problems
  • eg, self- esteem, depression, social isolation
  • Feeling unattractive, clumsy
  • Stereotyping and teasing

24
Obesity
  • Why do you think the numbers of overweight or
    obese children continue to rise?

25
TV Viewing Childhood Obesity
Figure of TV watching test page 408
26
Obesity
  • Treating obesity
  • Is a family affair, need parents input
  • Kids may try crash diets but go back to old
    habits
  • Focus is on changing family behaviours
  • Change in eating habits
  • Daily exercise
  • Reinforcement for progress time with parent

27
Obesity
  • Schools - How can schools help?
  • Communities What factors and policies would
    help?

28
Physical activity
  • Developing habit of activity in childhood
    important
  • time to lay foundation for future health.
  • If inactivity established in childhood, habit
    will carry into adulthood
  • But only 33 of children meet guidelines for
    optimal growth and healthy development.
  • Childrens habitual physical activity levels are
    low
  • rates decline dramatically from child to
    adolescence.

29
Physical activity
  • Childrens fitness
  • identified as issue neglected by parents
    schools.
  • Benefits of physical activity numerous diverse
  • Health
  • reduces the risk of premature mortality ,
  • coronary heart disease, hypertension,
  • colon cancer, osteoporosis,
  • obesity, diabetes.
  • Provides skills aids self-confidence,
    self-esteem
  • Offers opportunities for friends, social
    acceptance

30
Physical activity
  • Problem
  • 80 - 90 parents believe their children have
    good Activity Levels
  • In recent report Canadas report card on
    physical activity for children and youth 2006, by
    Healthy Active Kids Canada.
  • But lt half Canadian children teens
  • meet minimum daily physical-activity standards
  • of 90 min/day of moderate to vigorous exercise
  • Moderate exercise eg walking.
  • Vigorous exercise eg running, climbing, or
    swimming.

31
Participation in organized sport
  • Participation in organized sport
  • by 40- 50 of kids in Canada
  • at least 2 - 3 times per week.
  • Fewer girls (41) than boys (48)
  • Most kids participate at least once
  • Baseball, soccer, football, hockey
  • Differences by SES
  • Fewer from low SES families (38)
  • than in middle (44)
  • high SES families (50).

32
Participation in unstructured sports
  • at home or in neighbourhood
  • protects vs overweight obesity
  • Recommendation
  • children participate 2 3 times/wk
  • only 2/3 Cdn kids do it that often.
  • Lower participation by girls
  • Girls 20 less likely than boys
  • 72 for boys vs. 54 for girls.
  • SES
  • Only small difference in rate

33
Going on your own to School
  • Active transport to school is down.
  • In Canada (2004) parents report
  • Walking to school - declined to 23.
  • 36 in 1998.
  • Cycling - consistent at less than 10
  • almost 90 of children own a bicycle.
  • Riding school bus - increased to 54.
  • 43 in 1998
  • Driven in family car - consistent at 20.
  • In NS study Walking or biking to school
  • 15 - 39 less likely to be overweight

34
Physical Education in School
  • Recommended phys ed as standard 150 min/wk
  • Required phys ed in MB (2004) 60 min/wk
  • Only 805 of all schools in Canada meet standard
  • Canadian Association for Health, Physical
    Education, Recreation and Dance (CAHPER)
  • Parents believe kids get enough phys ed at school
  • Over half think they get 3 - 4 days/ wk of phys
    ed.
  • Parents need to be better informed and supported
  • to advocate for more phys ed for their children

35
Screen time
  • Leisure time use - TV computer combined
  • Recommendations for screen time
  • by Canadian Paediatric Society US Academy of
    Pediatrics
  • Children no more than 2 hrs/day
  • Preschoolers no more than 1 hr/ day.
  • Excessive screen time
  • Means less chance for physical activity
  • Linked to health problems,
  • poor eating habits, obesity, high BP, poor bones
  • Linked to psychological problems
  • body and self-image issues,
  • anti-social behaviour

36
Screen time
  • Canadian findings
  • Only 20 children meet guidelines
  • of 2 hrs or less of screen time
  • regardless of gender and family income.
  • More than 50 children watch 2 - 4 hrs TV/day
  • 33 spend 2 hrs on leisure time pc use
  • Non-school computer use is rising, but
  • TV viewing remaining consistent

37
Physical activity
  • Social factors for 5 12 yrs age group
  • Gender
  • 30 of girls, 50 of boys are physically active
  • girls consistently 10 - 15 less active than
    boys.
  • Lower perceived family wealth
  • lower activity levels
  • Family encouragement, involvement
  • But factors not related to lower physical
    activity
  • unemployment rates, education, average income.

38
Increasing physical activity
  • Community/school strategies recommended
  • Coalition for Active Living
  • http//www.activeliving.ca/
  • Incorporate more physical activity in schools
  • Allow communities to use schools after hours
  • Mandate daily physical education K-12
  • Expand existing programs in community

39
Increasing physical activity
  • More Recommendations
  • Healthy Active Kids Canada 2006 report
  • Develop public awareness
  • on importance of unstructured physical activity
    play
  • active (on your own) transportation to school
  • Ensure quality physical education classes
  • Get children to step away from the screen
  • Fill time with play unstructured family
    activity.

40
Parents can play a role
  • To ensure their children are physically active
  • They provide skills, values, norms, knowledge
    that kids need. Parents important at this age.
  • Findings
  • 36 parents are physically active with children
  • was 43 in 2000.
  • 32 parents rarely/never play with kids
  • ie, playing actively in games or sport.
  • 46 of parents with kids 5 - 12 yr
  • 21 of parents of teens 13 17yr

41
Parents can play a role
  • What can parents do to help encourage more
    physical activity in their children?

42
Appropriate Physical Activity
  • Goal to have fun
  • Build on child interests
  • Teach appropriate skills
  • Basic kick, throw, bat
  • Simple games
  • Limit practices
  • 2 times/wk, 30-60 min
  • Avoid unhealthy competition
  • Let everyone play
  • Allow child to make rules
  • Lets them understand fair play,
  • others perspectives

43
Websites of interest
  • http//www.activehealthykids.ca/ Active Health
    Kids Canada This is the website of a charitable
    organization committed to advocating the
    importance of quality, accessible, and enjoyable
    physical activity experiences for children and
    youth.
  • http//www.cflri.ca/ The Canadian Fitness and
    Lifestyle Research Institute conducts research,
    monitors trends and makes recommendations to
    increase population levels of physical activity
    and improve the health of all Canadians.
  • http//www.phac-aspc.gc.ca Public Health Agency
    of Canada. Click the Child Health link to read
    about health issues, child health, injuries, and
    child abuse in Canada.
  • http//www.cahperd.ca
  • Canadian Association for Health, Physical
    Education, Recreation and Dance. This website
    promotes physical activity in schools in Canada.

44
Newspaper clipping
  • Small Groups
  • Summarize your article for your group
  • key developmental issues your article raises
  • Class discussion
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