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Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault

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Mixing of prescription or over the counter drugs will alcohol or recreational drugs ... A high blood alcohol level and the victim's insistence that she doesn't drink ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault


1
Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault
  • Presenter
  • Lyndel Williams

2
The Danger of Predatory Drugs
  • Offenders use of anesthesia-type drug
  • Whether give stealthily or not
  • Renders the victim physically incapacitated and
    thus incapable resisting sexual advances
  • May be conscious during all or part of the
    assault
  • May have amnesia even when conscious
  • May appear to participate during the assault

3
What is Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault
  • Victim is to high or drunk to consent for one of
    three reasons
  • Surreptitious administration by assailant
  • Mixing of prescription or over the counter drugs
    will alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Recreational use by the victim
  • Remember because the victim consented to drink or
    use drugs does not mean they consented to sex

4
The Drugs of Sexual Assault
  • Alcohol
  • Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol)
  • GHB or its analog GBL
  • Other Benzodiazephines
  • Antihistamines
  • Animal Tranquilizers
  • Sleep aids

5
DFSA Issues
  • Significantly delayed disclosure or not reported
  • Inadequate toxicology
  • Must have access to a lab capable of testing
    sensitive drugs like GHB and Rohypnol
  • Threshold should be .02 ng/ml
  • Most machines 20 ng/ml
  • Some machines set at 200 ng/ml
  • Change in standards of evidence (blood to urine)
  • Identification and use of expert witness

6
DFSA and Toxicology
  • Law enforcement must ask the victim about
    voluntary drug use, recreation, prescription and
    over the counter. We need to know
  • Victims level of experience with drugs and
    alcohol
  • Date and time of last dose
  • How much alcohol over what period of time
  • Types of alcohol
  • How many time did the victim void prior to the
    exam
  • What was different this time?

7
DFSA and Toxicology
  • GI/GU
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting (can be tested)
  • Diarrhea
  • Incontinence (urine and feces)

8
High Blood Alcohol Level
  • A high blood alcohol level and the victims
    insistence that she doesnt drink and no recall
    of doing so, should TRIGGER further tests
  • Once given drugs may unknowingly drink shots
    handed to her
  • Person booked for DUI may report rape once they
    come out of it
  • Dont assume they are making it up to get out of
    the DUI!
  • Never refuse a rape kit!

9
The Stimulant Scenario
  • Stimulants such as cocaine or methamphetamine can
    be administered to the victim to
  • Confuse the police
  • Damage the victims credibility
  • How administered?
  • Smoked or oral, vaginal or anus by engaging in
    sex acts called booting

10
Interviewing the DFSA Victim
  • Dont lead the victim and did you feel like
    oh, maybe somebody put something your drink
  • The victim may be looking to fill the gaps in her
    memory, and may adopt these memories as her own
  • Be careful what you say to other officers,
    witnesses and hospital personnel

11
Interviewing the DFSA Victim
  • Patterns of sexual relations and recent
    consensual acts
  • Personal history of alcohol/drugs
  • Normal drinking levels
  • What she knows she ingested
  • Anything missing?
  • Money
  • Jewelry
  • Clothes
  • Pictures

12
Investigating DFSA
  • Search warrants
  • Act promptly
  • Officers should know what they are looking for
  • Drugs
  • Precursors
  • Packaging
  • Photographs/video (additional victims)
  • Computer records
  • Downloading GHB recipe's
  • Pornography sites
  • Documents and packaging
  • Bond Tech could be a GHB kit ordered over the
    internet
  • Catalogs and receipts from Aldrich or Sigma
    Chemicals supplies (manufacturing operation?)

13
Investigating DFSA
  • Sexual acts beyond the victims experience
  • Lack of contraception or protection from STD
  • Suspects prior criminal history
  • Interview suspects friends
  • Prior known victims, even those past the statue
    of limitations
  • Grapevine assistance

14
Alcohol
  • Rape
  • vs.
  • Drunk Sex

15
Drunk Sex vs. Rape
  • Look for lack of consent
  • Did the perpetrator select the victim because she
    would be an easy target
  • Overcome the tendency to overlook the elements in
    favor of blaming the victim
  • Look for planning or manipulation on the part of
    the perpetrator
  • Did he deceive the victim (you are too drunk to
    drive)
  • Focus on the perpetrators attempts to control the
    situation

16
Victims Credibility
  • Perception at the time of the assault
  • Degree of intoxication
  • Were her motor skills impaired?
  • Was she able to perceive what was happening
    around her?
  • Who gave her the drinks?
  • Was it the defendant?
  • Did the defendant encourage her to drink?

17
Victims Credibility
  • Memory after the incident
  • What does she remember about the event?
  • Did she black out or pass out?
  • Where did she go that night?
  • Can anything refresh her memory?
  • Physical or medical evidence
  • Statements from other witnesses
  • Photographs or video tapes

18
Victim Credibility
  • Corroboration
  • Victim may delay in reporting
  • Evidence lost
  • Credibility issues?
  • Witnesses
  • Does she remember if anyone else was present?
  • Who did she tell first?
  • Who saw her first after the assault
  • Witnesses to ingestion
  • What did they see or hear?
  • Interview bartenders and waiters
  • How much did victim have to drink
  • Did she appear to be drunk

19
Victim Credibility
  • Victim Likeability
  • Victim becomes the focus of the investigation
  • May not want to cooperate with investigation
  • Prior bad acts
  • Does not present as a sympathetic victim

20
Evidence Collection
  • Must find corroborating physical or medical
    evidence
  • Are there surveillance tapes?
  • Videotapes?
  • Tape recordings?
  • Photographs?
  • Injuries?
  • Evidence of victims presence
  • Blood
  • Hair
  • Vomit
  • Clothing

21
The Perpetrator
  • Always attempt an interview
  • Did he know she was drunk?
  • How much did she drink?
  • What signs of intoxication did she exhibit?
  • Who purchased the alcohol?
  • Who provided the alcohol?
  • Why does the perpetrator think the encounter was
    consensual?

22
The Perpetrator
  • Defendants state of intoxication
  • Either he was wasted (and therefore shouldnt be
    able to remember clearly what happened) or he was
    sober enough to have the ability to perceive and
    remember (and therefore, sober enough to know
    better)

23
Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate
  • AKA
  • GHB, G, Jib, Scoop,
  • Liquid X, Easy Lay
  • Grievous Bodily Harm,
  • Gamma 10, Salty Water
  • and GHB Buddy

24
GHB Information
  • GHB is a behavioral CNS depressant that was
    originally used by body builders
  • Still heavily used by body builders and their
    associates
  • GHB is available in Europe as an anesthetic
  • Drug of choice for Raves, dance clubs and any one
    mandatory drug testing
  • It has been reported that some meth operations
    may run a batch of GHB between meth runs

25
Unique to GHB
  • Extremely dose sensitive and very unpredictable
    especially with alcohol
  • Vomiting (can be tested)
  • Rapid high intoxication
  • May loose control of bodily functions
  • Sexually oriented behavior
  • Seizure type movement
  • Very loud chain-saw like snoring
  • Sudden resolution of symptoms

26
Unique to GHB
  • Respiration very depressed (six per minute)
  • Pulse probably slow, but maybe fast
  • Comatose (deep, unarousable sleep)
  • No gag reflex
  • 3 5 hours of effects
  • No antidote

27
Field Testing
  • NO field test kit that accurately identifies GHB
    (most test for Hydroxy element, thus will not
    identify analogs)
  • Have a bottle of real water to do a side-by-side
    comparison
  • BUT

28
Field Testing
This is what GHB/GBL does to a Styrofoam cup!
29
GHB Street Form
  • Most frequently seen as a liquid
  • Highly concentrated street-form come in small
    plastic bottles (Visine or nasal spray)
  • Colorless, odorless, tasteless or salty
  • Dosage is usually a capful or two depending on
    potency

30
What To Expect!
GHB in its pure form is clear and thicker than
water it bubbles when shaken. But it can be dyed
any color, watered down and not all of its
analog cousins bubble.
31
Typical GHB Containers
Typical bottles for hiding GHB film canisters,
hair spray, liquid candy, food coloring, and
vanilla bottles. Gatorade and hand-pump lotion
bottles
32
Recognizing Containers
ANY container that will hold a liquid. Dont
overlook anything in the kitchen, bathroom or
garage. Examine all sports and nutritional
supplement containers. GHB addicts have even
hidden GHB in engine compartments.
33
The Not-So-Obvious
34
Efforts to Avoid Detection
GHB and its analogs are not protected by the
Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of
1994
35
How Much Does It Cost?
  • Party caps 5.00 to 15.00
  • 16 ounce bottle of water 30.00 or more
  • -contains approximately 90 caps
  • 32 ouch bottle of water 80.00 to 120.00
  • They can be from 5 to 70 percent or possibly even
    straight GHB

36
Common Indicators ThatGHB Has Arrived
  • Increase in the number of rapes
  • Sudden increase in calls to one location
  • -disturbance calls
  • -vomit in bathrooms and halls
  • -unarousable drunks inside and outside the
    location
  • Increased number of drunk driving stops with
    surprisingly low blood alcohol levels

37
GHB Terms
  • carpeting out or throwing down or scooping
    out refers to suddenly collapsing in a heap
  • head snap refers to similar involuntary forward
    snap of the head when the GHB takes affect

38
Analogs of GHB
An analog is a chemical cousin with substantially
similar chemical structure, or the same or
similar side effects Blue Nitro, Renewtrient, R
evivarant, Remforce, Firewater, etc.
Gamma butyl lactone (GBL) It is illegal federally
most states This is an unapproved, misbranded
drug It is the precursor to GHB but also an anal
og It converts in the body rapidly to GHB
39
More GHB Analogs
Serenity, FX, Enliven, Biosul,
One4B, Fantasy, Sucol B (made up name), etc.
40
The Latest Analogs
Midnight Blue, 4 Sleep Tranquili G, Sublimiss, e
tc. Sodium 4- hydroxyvalerate (GHV) aka 4-methy
l GHB
aka Valeric acid
41
Analogs
  • Things to look for
  • Does not contain GHB
  • legal (or herbal) GHB
  • Cleaning products or fingernail polish remover
    that say no aftertaste or in case of
    accidental ingestion, mint flavoring has been
    added
  • Other warnings include before remover arrives be
    sure to buy a bottle of fingernail polish to
    justify having this product

42
How are Victims Drugged?
  • Sweet or cinnamon flavored liquors like
    Goldschlager
  • Strong drinks like Long Island Ice Tea or Hot
    Damn
  • Any odd concoction that can mask the flavor
  • Some may freeze GHB into ice cubes

43
Clandestine Synthesis of GHB
  • One step reaction
  • Required chemicals easy to obtain
  • No special reaction conditions or chemical
    knowledge required
  • Synthesis has been widely described on the
    internet
  • www.erowid.org

44
Chemicals Used
  • Sodium or Potassium hydroxide
  • Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
  • Acid (Hydrochloric or Sulfuric)
  • pH buffer solutions
  • Gamma-Butylactone (a solvent used for degreasing
    engines/cement or stripping floors)

45
GHB Addiction
  • Addiction is not measured by quantity consumed
    but by frequency
  • Most stumble into addiction accidentally
  • Missing a dose by more than a few hours sends the
    addict into significant withdrawal symptoms
  • Will dose every one to three hours with slightly
    higher dose at night for sleep or
  • Around the clock sipping from a bottle of diluted
    product
  • Effects will vary based on tiny variations in
    dose, food intake or lack of food or other
    unknown reasons

46
Addiction Withdrawal
  • Withdrawal is characterized by
  • Profuse sweating
  • Anxiety attacks
  • Soaring blood pressure (stroke levels)
  • Hallucinations
  • May not recognize family and friends

47
GHB Detoxification Protocol
  • Exact withdrawal treatment has not been clearly
    defined
  • Treatment will involve use of benzodiazepines and
    antipsychotic medications, or Phenobarbital
  • Attempts to self-detoxify, without medical
    assistance have been fatal and most are unable to
    tolerate the symptoms of withdrawal

48
Who Are The G-Aholics?
  • Bodybuilders/athletes
  • Business professionals (sleep aids)
  • Elderly (anti-aging compound)
  • People with depression
  • People subject to random drug testing

49
What is Rohypnol?
  • Brand name for flunitrazepam manufactured by
    Hoffman-LaRoche
  • Used as a pre-anesthetic
  • Causes anterograde amnesia
  • Class of drugs called benzodiazepines
  • A chronic user may ingest up to three or more
    2mg. tablets without losing consciousness

50
What are Benzodiazepines?
  • Are in the family of depressants
  • Can produce sedation and deep sleep
  • Acts as a hypnotic in high doses
  • Are sedatives (insomnia) in low doses
  • Are among the most widely prescribed drugs,
    accounting for 30 of all controlled substances

51
Benzo Family Members
  • diazepam (valium)
  • flurazepam (dalmane)
  • clonazepam (klonopin)
  • alprazolam (xanax)
  • chlordiazepoxide (librium)
  • midazolam (versed)
  • triazolam (halcion)
  • flunitrazepam (rohypnol)

52
Rohypnol Slang Names
  • Roofies, Roches, Ruffies
  • Ropies, R-2, R-1
  • Forget-me-pill, Mind Eraser
  • Pingas, Wheel, Shay
  • Landing Gear, LaRocha
  • Ro-shay, Robutal, Roche

53
Illegal Behavior Associated with Rohypnol
  • Acts of vandalism, sexual assault, and other acts
    of violence
  • Used by heroin addicts to expand the effects of
    low-grade heroin or even used as a substitute
  • Used by cocaine and methamphetamine addicts to
    cushion the crash
  • Driving while impaired violations go undetected

54
Typical Users
  • Lower border
  • Rest of Texas
  • Middle and high school youth
  • College students
  • Older poly-drug users
  • Gang members

55
Questions?
56
Thank You!
  • Lyndel Williams
  • Training Director
  • Texas Association Against Sexual Assault
  • 6200 La Calma Drive, Suite 110
  • Austin, Texas 78752
  • 512-474-7190 x27
  • williams_at_taasa.org
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