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Alcohol

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Puritans used alcohol, but put progressive legal and social controls on abuse ... All women, alcoholic or not, have 60% less stomach alcohol dehydrogenase than men ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alcohol


1
Alcohol
  • Ethyl alcohol or ethanol
  • Only caffeine is used more widely
  • Recreational, not therapeutic

2
Vocabulary of alcohol
  • A series of organic compounds w/ OH
  • Isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol
  • Fermentation
  • Sugar water yeast --- ethanol CO2
  • Distillation Perhaps discovered in Arabia,
    first described in detail by the Dominican
    scholar Albertus Magnus

3
Albertus Magnus (1193-1280)
German saint, teacher of Thomas Aquinas
4
More vocabulary of alcohol
  • Fermented beverages Beer, wine, cider, and mead
  • Distilled beverages Brandy, rum,
    usquebaugh/whiskey/bourbon, schnapps Aqua vitae
  • Fortified beverages Sherry, port, madeira,
    muscatel, vermouth, Cisco
  • Mixed beverages Gin, vodka, liqueurs

5
Still more vocabulary
  • Measuring alcohol content
  • The moonshiners test
  • The proof system
  • Proof spirits
  • Overproof liquor
  • Proof numbers
  • The US system Percentage by volume
  • The British system Percentage by weight

6
History of alcohol
  • Multiple people groups, except native North
    Americans and Pacific Islanders
  • Ancient Egypt, Babylonia, and Israel
  • Classical Greece
  • Rome and the Christians
  • Britain

7
Gin Lane, a woodcut by English painter and engr
aver William Hogarth (1697-1764). Hogarth sati
rized contemporary English life. Note the dep
lorable Conditions, gender alienation, and the
implied connection to gin.


8
The picture is different on Beer Street, as Hoga
rth depicts a scene of prosperity for the masse
s, a flourishing of the arts and learning in the
public square, affection between the genders,
and ruination for the pawnbroker.
9
The gin epidemic in Britain
Significant Events By Year Gallons Sold
10
America and alcohol
  • British immigrants brought heavy drinking habits
    to the colonies
  • Spanish settlers in California brought
    grapevines Cortez, Jesuits, Franciscans
  • Puritans landed at Plymouth Rock perhaps
    because they ran out of beer Crews supply
  • Brewing began almost immediately in taverns
    commercially at New Amsterdam (1633) and
    (legally) at Charlestown, MA (1637)

11
More American history
  • Puritans used alcohol, but put progressive legal
    and social controls on abuse
  • Colonial Harvard had its own brewery
    Commencements became uproars.
  • American Revolution brought social changes and
    problem drinking
  • Business first
  • The Triangular Trade
  • Fur trading with Native Americans

12
  • The Whiskey Rebellion
  • Western Expansion
  • Industrial Revolution
  • The temperance movement and respectability
    Character
  • The Webb-Kenyon Law (1913)
  • The Eighteenth Amendment (1920) and the Volstead
    Act (1919) Effective?
  • The Twenty-First Amendment (1933)

13
Pharmacokinetics of alcohol
  • Administration and absorption
  • Oral
  • Both water and fat soluble
  • 80 absorption from upper intestine
  • Thus, rate limiting factor is stomach emptying
  • Total absorption is unaffected by food
  • 90 access to all body compartments

14
Pharmacokinetics of alcohol 2
  • Metabolism and excretion
  • 95 of alcohol is metabolized by alcohol
    dehydrogenase enzyme and CYP450 enzymes
  • 85 of that metabolism is in the liver
  • up to 15 is done in the stomach
  • All women, alcoholic or not, have 60 less
    stomach alcohol dehydrogenase than men
  • Women appear to be even more vulnerable than men
    to intoxication and chronic effects

15
Pharmacokinetics of alcohol 3
  • More on metabolism
  • Two-step metabolism
  • Alcohol is converted by alcohol dehydrogenase to
    acetaldehyde (co-factor NAD to NADH)
  • Acetaldehyde is converted by aldehyde
    dehydrogenase (ALDH)to acetic acid, then to CO2
    and water in the Krebs cycle (ATP to AMP)
  • Most Europeans and Africans are homozygous for
    the active form of ALDH 10 of Koreans,
    Japanese, and Chinese are homozygous for the
    inactive form, and another 40 are heterozygous.
  • Zero order metabolism
  • Disulfiram/Antabuse

16
Pharmacodynamics of alcohol
  • Perhaps not unitary
  • High doses may disrupt membrane functioning
    (fluidization)
  • Low doses act on synapses, particularly
    glutamate.
  • Inhibits NMDA receptors for glutamate and
    decreases glutamate release
  • Intoxication produces memory loss glutamate
    transmission is reduced at BAC of 0.03
  • Abstinence syndrome hyperexcitability from
    up-regulation of NMDA receptors
  • Withdrawal seizures due to up-regulated NMDA
    receptors
  • Increased glutamate release during withdrawal is
    excitotoxic on up-regulated NMDA receptors brain
    damage

17
GABA effects
  • GABAA-2L subunit EtOH is an agonist
  • protein kinase phosphorylation
  • intracellular mRNA changes
  • GABA antagonists picrotoxin (Cl- channel blocker)
    and bicuculline (GABA competitor) are partial
    antagonists for EtOH
  • GABA agonists increase ethanols effects
  • GABA-consequent effects on Ach, NMDA, and DA

18
Other neurotransmitter effects
  • Inhibits release of Ach Cognitive impairment
  • Agonizes DA from VTA to nucleus accumbens, the
    reward center.
  • Addiction is thus a combination of DA positive
    reinforcement and GABA negative reinforcement.
  • Opioid effects

19
Lipid solubility of alcohols
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