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The Office of Basic Energy Sciences and New Research for National Defense and Homeland Security 2002

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Title: The Office of Basic Energy Sciences and New Research for National Defense and Homeland Security 2002


1
The Office of Basic Energy Sciences and New
Research for National Defense and Homeland
Security2002 ERC Summit, Workshop
ForumArlington, VAFebruary 25, 2002
BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES -- Serving the Present,
Shaping the Future
  • Timothy J. Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.
  • Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering
  • U.S. Department of Energy
  • Germantown, Maryland

http//www.sc.doe.gov/production/bes/bes.html
2
OUTLINE
  • Introductions
  • DOE
  • The Office of Science
  • The Office of Basic Energy Sciences
  • The Division of Materials Sciences and
    Engineering
  • Areas of particular interest
  • Nano Science, Engineering, Technology
  • Neutron Science
  • Some Basic Research of Relevance to National
    Defense and Homeland Security
  • Workshop on Basic Research Needs to Counter
    Terrorism
  • Concluding Remarks

3
Department of Energy
Secretary Spencer Abraham Deputy
Secretary Francis Blake
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Under Secretary for Nuclear Security/
Administrator for Nuclear Security
Under Secretary for Energy, Science and
Environment Robert Card
Departmental Staff and Support Offices
Counterintelligence Intelligence Office of
Security and Emergency Operations/ Chief
Information Officer Office of Independent
Oversight and Performance Assurance Office of
Public Affairs Office of Policy Office of
Management and Administration Office of Worker
and Community Transition Office of Hearings
and Appeals Contract Reform and Privatization
Project Office Secretary of Energy Advisory
Board Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board
Liaison
General Counsel
Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs
Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management
Chief Financial Officer
Director, Office of Science Vacant
Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy
Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and
Health
Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear
Nonproliferation
Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy
Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management
Assistant Secretary for Congressional
Intergovnm'tal Affairs
Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology
Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors
Assistant Secretary for International Affairs
Energy Information Administration
Office of Economic Impact and Diversity
Power Marketing Administration
Inspector General
The Deputy Secretary also serves as the Chief
Operating Officer
4
The Department of Energy is a Science
Engineering Agency
Top Five Government Research Organizations for
Physical Earth and Mathematics
Engineering Life RD Sciences
Environmental Computing
Sciences Facilities Sciences
1. NASA (1,051) 2. NSF (481) 3. DOD (383) 4.
INTERIOR (364) 5. Energy (335)
1. NASA (1,948) 2. DOD (1,837) 3. Energy
(851) 4. NSF (484) 5. TRANS (323)
1. DOD (657) 2. Energy (623) 3. NSF (399) 4. HHS
(127) 5. COMMERCE (89)
1. Energy (2,012) 2. NASA (1, 019) 3. NSF
(515) 4. DOD (412) 5. HHS (205)
1. HHS (11,838) 2. USDA (1,215) 3. DOD (519) 4.
NSF (403) 5. Energy (288)
1. Energy (939) 2. NASA (403) 3. DOD (386) 4. NSF
(271) 5. HHS (227)
Numbers are FY 1999 Dollars in Millions -
Source NSF -- Preliminary Federal obligations
for research, by agency and field of science and
engineering fiscal year 1999 Numbers are FY
1999 Dollars in Millions - Source OMB
5
The Office of Science
  • Supports basic research that underpins DOE
    missions.
  • Provides over 40 of federal support to the
    physical sciences (including more than 90 of
    high energy and nuclear physics)
  • Provides sole support to select sub-fields (e.g.
    nuclear medicine, heavy element chemistry,
    magnetic fusion, etc.)
  • Supports the research of 15,000 PhDs and graduate
    students
  • Constructs and operates large scientific
    facilities for the U.S. scientific community.
  • Accelerators, synchrotron light sources, neutron
    sources, etc.
  • Used by about 18,000 researchers every year
  • Provides infrastructure support for the ten SC
  • laboratories.

6
The FY 2003 Presidential Budget Request
Government has four Multi-Agency RD Priorities
  •  
  • Anti-terrorism RD
  • Nanotechnology RD
  • Networking and Information Technology RD
  • Climate Change RD
  •  
  • The Office of Science is contributing to all
  • of these initiatives.

7
Office of Science Areas of Emphasis of the FY
2003 Budget
Setting aside SNS and the one-time FY2002
projects, there is a 5 increase for science.
  • Science Thrust Areas
  • Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology
    133M (48M)
  • Genomes to Life 45M (20M)
  • Climate Change Research Initiative 3M (3M)
  • Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing
    (SciDac) 62M (5M)
  • More Operating Time and New Instrumentation at
    User Facilities 1,246M (40M)
  • Improved Infrastructure 43M (6M)

8
Office of Science
Director James F. Decker (Acting) Principal
Deputy Director Milton Johnson (Acting) Deputy
Director for Operations James Turi (Acting)
BESAC BERAC HEPAP NSAC FESAC ASCAC
Office of Basic Energy Sciences Associate
Director Patricia Dehmer
Office of Biological and Environmental
Res. Associate Director Aristides Patrinos
Office of High Energy and Nuclear
Physics Associate Director S. Peter Rosen
Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Associate
Director N. Anne Davies
Office of Advanced Scientific Computing
Res. Associate Director C. Edward Oliver
Office of Resource Management Associate
Director John Rodney Clark
Office of Planning and Analysis Director William
J. Valdez
Office of Laboratory Policy Director Antoinette
Joseph
Office of Lab. Operations and ESH Associate
Director Margaret Tolbert (Acting)
Chicago Operations Office Manager Marvin Gunn
Oak Ridge Operations Office Manager Leah Dever
Berkeley Site Office Manager Richard Nolan
Stanford Site Office Manager John Muhlestein
9
BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES -- Serving the Present,
Shaping the Future
  • The Mission
  • Advance the frontiers of knowledge to provide the
    scientific foundations for new and improved,
    environmentally conscientious energy technologies
  • Create and operate forefront scientific user
    facilities
  • Provide innovative and effective research teams
    and tools
  • Scientific and Technical Core Competencies
  • Materials sciences and engineering chemistry
    geosciences physical biosciences
  • Multidisciplinary nanoscale science and
    technology
  • Reactor and accelerator based user facilities for
    photon, neutron, and electron beam scattering
    research
  • Advanced instrumentation

10
Office of Basic Energy Sciences -- Major
Research Areas
  • Chemical Biological Geosciences
  • Geochemistry of Mineral-fluid Interactions
  • Geophysical Interrogation of Earths Crust
  • Rock-fluid Dynamics
  • Biogeochemistry Atomic, Molecular Optical
    Physics
  • Advanced Batteries Fuel Cells
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Physics
  • Catalysis - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Phase
  • Combustion Dynamics
  • Electrochemistry
  • Heavy Element Chemistry
  • Interfacial Chemistry
  • Organometallic Chemistry
  • Photochemistry
  • Photosynthetic Mechanisms
  • Radiation Effects
  • Materials Sciences and Engineering
  • Catalysis
  • Ceramics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Corrosion
  • Electronic Properties of Materials
  • Experimental Techniques Instrument Devel.
  • Intermetallic Alloys
  • Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Physics and Chemistry
  • Mechanical and Physical Behavior
  • Metallic Glasses
  • Metallurgy, Metal Forming
  • Neutron and Photon Scattering
  • Photovoltaics
  • Polymer Science
  • Radiation Effects
  • Solid Dynamics

  • Engineering Research FY03 Request 16.5M
  • Materials Engineering
  • (e.g., NDE, Welding,Joining)
  • Multi-phase Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer
  • Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering
  • Systems Sciences/Engineering Analysis


11
Basic Energy Sciences FY 2003 BudgetRequest
1.020 Billion
National and International Scientific
Leadership 6 Nobel Prizes in the past 15 years
in physics, chemistry, and biosciences Chemical
reaction dynamics (Chemistry, 1986) Chemical
structural specificity (Chemistry,
1987) Development of neutron scattering (Physics,
94) Atmospheric chemistry ozone depletion
(Chemistry, 1995) Buckminsterfullerene
(Chemistry, 1996) Mechanism of ATP synthesis
(Chemistry, 1997) Distinguished and
award-winning national programs, e.g. In
materials sciences, the large DOE laboratory
programs consistently rank among the top
materials sciences institutions worldwide. Of
more than 1,000 institutions surveyed, ANL, LBNL,
ORNL, and the U. of Illinois materials research
lab rank among the top 25 institutions in the
world based on citations of high-impact papers
published (Science Watch, 1995). In chemical
sciences, researchers in the catalysis program
have won 60 of the awards given by the American
Chemical Society for homogeneous or heterogeneous
catalysis and for organometallic catalysis and
70 of the awards given by the North American
Catalysis Society for heterogeneous
catalysis. Dozens of major prizes and awards
each year from professional societies and others
election to NAS and NAE and to fellowship in
professional societies.
  • Construction of the Spallation Neutron Source
    (ORNL)
  • PED Construction funding for Nanoscale Science
    Research Centers
  • Molecular Foundry (LBNL)
  • Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (ORNL)
  • Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (SNL, with
    LANL)
  • Synchrotron Light Sources
  • Advanced Photon Source (ANL)
  • Advanced Light Source (LBNL)
  • National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL)
  • Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab (SLAC)
  • Neutron Scattering Sources
  • High Flux Isotope Reactor (ORNL)
  • Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (ANL)
  • Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANL)
  • Spallation Neutron Source (ORNL)
  • Combustion Research Facility (SNL, CA)

12
BES Research Funding toDOE Laboratories and
Universities
13
Universities Funded by BES in FY 2000
- continued -
14
Universities Funded by BES in FY 2000
- continued -
15
BES Facilities Collaborative Research Centers
Advanced Photon Source
Electron Microscopy Center for Materials Research
Materials Preparation Center
Center for Microanalysis of Materials
Intense Pulsed Neutron Source
National Synchrotron Light Source
Advanced Light Source
Spallation Neutron Source
National Center for Electron Microscopy
Surface Modification Characterization Center
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory
Shared Research Equipment Program
Los Alamos Neutron Science Center
Combustion Research Facility
High-Flux Isotope Reactor
James R. MacDonald Lab
Pulse Radiolysis Facility
16
The Users of Synchrotron Light Sources(From the
Province of Specialists in the 1980s to a Widely
Used Tool in the 21st Century)
Who funds research at the light sources? BES
provides the complete support for the operations
of these facilities. Furthermore, BES continues
as the dominant supporter of research in the
physical sciences, providing as much as 85 of
all federal funds for beamlines, instruments, and
PI support. Many other agencies, industries, and
private sponsors provide support for
instrumentation and research in specialized areas
such as protein crystallography.
17
Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology
(NSET)The Scientific and Technical Challenges
Cadmium selenide nanocrystals linked to
biomolecules light up a cells actin filaments
(red) and nucleus (green).
  • Attain a fundamental understanding of nanoscale
    phenomena
  • Design and synthesize materials at the atomic
    level to produce materials with desired
    properties and functions
  • Understand the processes by which living
    organisms create materials and functional
    complexes
  • Create experimental tools and theory/modeling/simu
    lation tools to drive the nanoscale revolution

Superconductivity, a collective effect, enables
materials to conduct electricity without loss.
Enzymatic mechanism of ATP synthesis, a molecular
rotator that can be incorporated into manmade
structures
Tweezers composed of carbon nanotubes grab a
particle only about 500 nm in diameter and move
it to a desired location.
18
Nanoscale Science Engineering and Technology
  • Nanoscale Science Research Centers for the study
    and the national support of research in nanoscale
    science, engineering, and technology -- an
    addition to the existing network of BES
    facilities and collaborative research centers.
    NSRCs will
  • Support research for fundamental understanding
    and control of materials at the nanoscale
  • Provide state-of-the-art nanofabrication and
    characterization facilities to in-house and
    visiting researchers at no cost
  • Provide training for students in
    interdisciplinary nanoscale research in
    cooperation with regional or national academic
    institutions
  • Build on the core competencies of the host
    laboratory, particularly the BES user facilities
    and research programs already in place
  • Partner with state government, local
    institutions, and other-agency centers
  • Project Engineering and Design funding (11M) is
    provided for three NSRCs at ORNL, LBNL and SNL/
    (LANL). Construction funding is provided for the
    Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at
    ORNL (24M).
  • Nanoscale Research is receiving approximately a
    20 million increase in the Presidents FY03
    Budget Request.

19
The Center for Nanophase Materials SciencesA
Nanoscale Science Research Center at Oak Ridge
National Laboratory
Specializing in neutron science, synthesis
science, and theory/modeling/simulation
  • Neutron Science
  • Opportunity to assume world leadership using
    unique capabilities of neutron scattering to
    understand nanoscale materials and processes
  • Synthesis Science
  • Science-driven synthesis will be the enabler of
    new generations of advanced materials
  • Theory/Modeling/Simulation
  • Scientific thrusts will include 10
    multidisciplinary research focus areas proposed
    by the scientific community and chosen by the
    Scientific Advisory Committee
  • Access to other major ORNL facilities
  • Spallation Neutron Source
  • High-Flux Isotope Reactor

SNS
HFIR
Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
20
President Bush Establishes Office of Homeland
Security
Its Mission and Management Responsibilities
Include Detection Preparedness Prevention Pr
otection Incident Management Response and
Recovery Source http//www.whitehouse.gov/news/re
leases/2001/10/20011008.htmlMission-Mgmt
21
Role of the Scientific Engineering Communities
Science and engineering have critical roles to
play in the war on terrorism. We need improved
tools with which to prevent, detect, protect, and
treat victims of chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear, and conventional terrorist
attacks. Additionally, we will need new and
improved tools to recover facilities from those
same types of attacks, should they ever occur.
From a presentation to the AAAS symposium The
War on Terrorism What Does it Mean for
Science?December, 2001
John H. Marburger, III Director, OSTP
22
Some Areas Where Basic Research May be of
Relevance to National Defense and Homeland
Security
  • Improved detection mechanisms, equipment
  • Sensors
  • Monitoring of sensitive infrastructure
  • Forensic Characterization Analysis
  • Remediation and Recovery

23
Basic Energy Sciences Workshop Basic Research
Needs to Counter Terrorism
Workshop Objective
Identify critical science issues and
opportunities in research areas supported by BES
that will be important to our Nation's ability to
detect, prevent, protect against, and respond to
future terrorist threats.
Expected Outcome
A report will posted on the BES website by the
end of March that will summarize current work in
the area, workshop presentations and discussions
and include recommendations for future basic
research investment needs.
Walter Stevens (walter.stevens_at_science.doe.gov)
BES Lead
Terry Michalske, Sandia National
Laboratories (tamicha_at_sandia.gov)
Workshop Chair
Jay Davis, National Security Fellow, LLNL and
former Director, Defense Threats Reduction Agency
Keynote Speaker
24
Workshop Basic Research Needs to Counter
Terrorism
FOCUS AREAS Scientific issues underlying the
detection, containment, sampling, analysis, and
destruction of
Chemical Threats
Including conventional explosives and toxic
chemicals such as choking agents, blood agents,
blister agents, nerve agents, and byproducts of
their manufacture.
Biological Threats
Including bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses, fungi,
and toxins. Gram for gram much deadlier than
chemical agents. Can be bioengineered.
Radiological and Nuclear Threats
Including nuclear explosives and radioactive
materials and byproducts of their manufacture.
25
Concluding Remarks
Thank You!
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