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Project Management Workshop

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The question We want to strengthen the constraint the critical path How do we do this? ... A critical path change means that your constraint has changed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management Workshop


1
Project Management Workshop
By Jonathan W. Powell, CGFM, PMP
2
Agenda
  • 'Cost world' perspective
  • 'Throughput world' perspective
  • Three mechanisms to add 'safety' to projects
  • Three mechanisms that waste project 'safety'
  • Critical chain analysis to ensure project success

3
(No Transcript)
4
The Problem
  • High Tech Industry

Product Life Cycle
5
The Problem (Cont.)
  • Development time of 2 years
  • New generation of modems every 6 months
  • Not are we going to miss but when?
  • Huge ramifications
  • Miss completely
  • Launch inferior product
  • Launch good product late

6
The Problem (Cont.)
  • Genemodem decides to form a think tank
  • Three managers (Finance, Engineering, Marketing)
  • No budget restrictions
  • Mission Find a way to drastically cut
    development time

7
Solving the Problem
8
Answer 1 Cost World Perspective
  • Cost World Perspective Driving local
    efficiencies
  • What this fails to account for is the linkage
    between dependent steps
  • Using the analogy of a chain -

It Depends! Which One is the Weakest Link?
9
Answer 2 Throughput World Perspective
  • Throughput World Perspective Driving production
    output
  • Managing by both the Cost World and Throughput
    World causes irreconcilable conflict

10
Theory of Constraints Analysis
  • Four Step Process
  • 1. Identify the Systems Constraint
  • Find the weakest link!
  • Could be physical or it could be something like
    an erroneous policy
  • 2. Strengthen the Weakest Link
  • Adding more capacity
  • Hire more people or buy more machines
  • Squeeze the maximum from the capacity we already
    have

11
Theory of Constraints Analysis (cont.)
  • Four Step Process (cont.)
  • 3. Subordinate Everything to the Systems
    Constraint
  • If the bottleneck can only do 3 units/hour, dont
    demand 5 units/hour!
  • If 3 units/hour is unacceptable then revisit Step
    2
  • 4. Elevate the Systems Constraint
  • Strengthening the weakest link to the point where
    it is no longer the weakest link
  • Repeat the four steps based on the new weakest
    link

12
Project Management Application
  • Step 1 Identify the Constraint
  • The constraint for a particular project is its
    critical path Delays to the critical path delay
    the project as a whole
  • Step 2 Strengthen the Constraint
  • The question We want to strengthen the
    constraint the critical path How do we do
    this?

13
The Concept of Safety
  • Safety The difference between the median of the
    probability distribution and the actual estimate
  • Typical for people to provide estimates that give
    them over an 80 chance of success
  • However, probabilities of 80 or more yield
    safeties of 200 or better
  • Three (3) common ways safety is added to a project

14
Three Common Ways to Add Safety
  • Time estimates are based on pessimistic
    experience
  • Larger number of management levels involved
    higher total estimation, because each level adds
    its own safety factor
  • Estimators also protect their estimates from a
    global cut

15
Three Common Ways to Waste Safety
  • Students Syndrome first fight for safety time,
    then wait until the last minute anyway
  • Multitasking

16
Three Common Ways to Waste Safety (cont.)
  • Reluctance to report an Early Finish

17
Project Management Application (Cont.)
  • Step 2 Strengthen the Constraint
  • Example Project, Four Steps of Varying Length
    (all on the critical path)

18
Project Management Application (Cont.)
  • Step 3 Subordinate Everything to the Constraint
  • Develop feeding buffers for tasks that feed into
    the critical path
  • Provide resource buffers eliminate negative
    impact of multitasking

19
Pulling Together the Pieces
20
Project Management Application (Cont.)
  • Step 4 Elevate the Systems Constraint
  • During the natural progression of a project, the
    critical path may change one or more times
  • A critical path change means that your constraint
    has changed
  • Determine the new constraint and re-perform
    four-step analysis
  • Also, organizations may be performing many
    projects
  • The same resource may be needed to perform
    critical path tasks on different projects
  • The dependencies between the critical path tasks
    of the various projects is called the Critical
    Chain

21
Conclusion
  • 'Cost world' perspective
  • 'Throughput world' perspective
  • Three mechanisms to add 'safety' to projects
  • Three mechanisms that waste project 'safety'
  • Critical chain analysis to ensure project
    success

22
Credits and Contact Info
  • www.eligoldratt.com
  • Jonathan Powell, CGFM, PMP
  • jwpowell_at_us.ibm.com
  • 240-715-3926
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