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Hypnosis

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Frenay MC, Faymonville ME, Devlieger S, Albert A, Vanderkelen A. ... Hypnosis with conscious sedation instead of general anaesthesia? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hypnosis


1
Hypnosis
  • Dr. G. Bakx
  • Institut de Nouvelle Hypnose
  • Brussels - Belgium

2
Traditional hypnosis
3
Traditional hypnosis
4
Traditional practioners...
5
Religious healing
6
The beginning of modern hypnosis A. Mesmer
7
J.M. Charcot S. Freud M. Erickson
8
Modern practitioners
9
Modern religious healing...
10
Modern religious healing...
11
Hypnosis in the operating theatre ...
12
Hypnosis in the operating theatre ...
Frenay MC, Faymonville ME, Devlieger S, Albert A,
Vanderkelen A. Psychological approaches during
dressing changes of burned patients a
prospective randomised study comparing hypnosis
against stress reducing strategy. Burns. 2001
Dec27(8)793-9. Faymonville ME, Laureys S,
Degueldre C, DelFiore G, Luxen A, Franck G, Lamy
M, Maquet P. Neural mechanisms of
antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Anesthesiolog
y. 2000 May92(5)1257-67. Defechereux T,
Meurisse M, Hamoir E, Gollogly L, Joris J,
Faymonville ME. Hypnoanesthesia for endocrine
cervical surgery a statement of practice. J
Altern Complement Med. 1999 Dec5(6)509-20. Meur
isse M, Defechereux T, Hamoir E, Maweja S,
Marchettini P, Gollogly L, Degauque C, Joris J,
Faymonville ME. Hypnosis with conscious sedation
instead of general anaesthesia? Applications in
cervical endocrine surgery. Acta Chir Belg. 1999
Aug99(4)151-8. Faymonville ME, Meurisse M,
Fissette J. Hypnosedation a valuable
alternative to traditional anaesthetic
techniques. Acta Chir Belg. 1999
Aug99(4)141-6. Maquet P, Faymonville ME,
Degueldre C, Delfiore G, Franck G, Luxen A, Lamy
M. Functional neuroanatomy of hypnotic
state. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb 145(3)327-33.
13
Even animals can be hypnotised...
14
Hypnosis
  • Dr. G. Bakx
  • Institut de Nouvelle Hypnose
  • Brussels - Belgium

15
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis is not an alternative form of medicine.
  • It is
  • observable
  • reproducible
  • teachable.

16
Hypnosis
  • is fascinating because we dont know what it is.
  • we do know what it can do
  • we know how we can induce it

17
We have no science of the mind
  • If consciousness were so simple that we could
    understand it, then we would be too simple to
    understand it. A. Einstein

18
Each person is a unique individual. Hence,
psychotherapy should be formulated to meet the
uniqueness of the individuals needs, rather than
tailoring the person to fit the Procrustean bed
of a hypothetical theory of human
behaviour. Milton H. Erickson, M.D.
19
We dont know what hypnosis is!
  • But we know all people in all cultures have
    found ways of using it

20
Hypnosis
  • is a name for a concept covering a number of
    phenomena
  • just like Freuds concept of the unconscious
  • or Newtons concept of gravity

21
What are the facts?
  • William James Dr. Carpenter

He has frequently begun a lecture while
suffering neuralgic pain so severe as to make him
apprehend that he would find it impossible to
proceed. Yet no sooner has he by a determined
effort fairly launched himself into the stream of
thought, than he has found himself continuously
borne along without the least distraction until
the end had come, and the attention has been
released then the pain has recurred with a force
that has overmastered all resistance, making him
wonder how he could have ceased to feel it. W.
James (1890), The Principes of Psychology,
Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, 1981
22
When one can take ones mind off pain, it seems
to go away. Conversely, when the mind returns to
pain, so does the body. Where the mind is, the
body is too.
23
What are the facts?
  • The case of warts

Warts can be made to go away by something that
can only be called thinking or something like
thinking It is one of the great mystifications
of science warts can be ordered of the skin by
hypnotic suggestion. Lewis Thomas, The Medusa
and the Snail, Hew York, Harper and Row, 1957
24
What are the facts?
  • The case of warts

Fourteen subjects under hypnosis were asked to
rid themselves of warts, but only on one side of
their body. Nine of these subjects were able to
bring about this result, becoming completely free
of warts on that side. A.H.C. Sinclair-Gieben
and D. Chalmers, Evaluation of Treatment of
Warts by Hypnosis, Lancet, Oct. 3, 1959 480-482
25
What are the facts?
  • Dr. E. Faymonville, Liège
  • Hypnosis in the operating theatre less
    conventional sedation, less bleeding, faster
    recovery
  • Specific patters of brain activation during
    hypnosis
  • Dr. Vincent Martin
  • Operation with hypnosis as only anaesthetic

26
Frenay MC, Faymonville ME, Devlieger S, Albert A,
Vanderkelen A. Psychological approaches during
dressing changes of burned patients a
prospective randomised study comparing hypnosis
against stress reducing strategy. Burns. 2001
Dec27(8)793-9. Faymonville ME, Laureys S,
Degueldre C, DelFiore G, Luxen A, Franck G, Lamy
M, Maquet P. Neural mechanisms of
antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Anesthesiolog
y. 2000 May92(5)1257-67. Defechereux T,
Meurisse M, Hamoir E, Gollogly L, Joris J,
Faymonville ME. Hypnoanesthesia for endocrine
cervical surgery a statement of practice. J
Altern Complement Med. 1999 Dec5(6)509-20. Meur
isse M, Defechereux T, Hamoir E, Maweja S,
Marchettini P, Gollogly L, Degauque C, Joris J,
Faymonville ME. Hypnosis with conscious sedation
instead of general anaesthesia? Applications in
cervical endocrine surgery. Acta Chir Belg. 1999
Aug99(4)151-8. Faymonville ME, Meurisse M,
Fissette J. Hypnosedation a valuable
alternative to traditional anaesthetic
techniques. Acta Chir Belg. 1999
Aug99(4)141-6. Maquet P, Faymonville ME,
Degueldre C, Delfiore G, Franck G, Luxen A, Lamy
M. Functional neuroanatomy of hypnotic
state. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb 145(3)327-33.
27
What are the facts?
  • Placebo effect
  • this will help you!
  • mamas little kiss will help you!
  • this pill will help you!
  • never this is only a placebo!

28
How is it done?
  • Deceptively easy!
  • Use of concentration
  • Use of imagination, metaphor, stories
  • the brain seems unable to distinguish between
    real experience and hypnotic experience
  • Easier with children!

29
O, who can hold a fire in his hand by thinking on
the frosty Caucasus? Or cloy the hungry edge of
appetite by bare imagination of a feast? Or
wallow naked in December snow by thinking on
fantastic summers heat? William Shakespeare,
Richard III, act I, scene 3
30
Why not simply give a straight command?
  • Why not simply say to the body Heal thyself?
  • We dont know how to!
  • L. Thomas one would have to be an extraordinary
    cell biologist to know what orders to send to
    eliminate warts!
  • Compare a CEO does not need to know how to
    execute all his orders, but needs to know how to
    talk to his collaborators!

31
What we see in hypnosis is that the body does
what we tell it to do, but only if we know how
to tell it!
32
How do we talk to the body?
  • by actively engaging the mind using
  • visualisations
  • metaphor
  • stories
  • a placebo is a way of fooling the mind this will
    help you!

33
Why is this a problem?
  • Because of the scientific mindset in our
    culture body-mind separation
  • Because of the medical model for every disease
    there is an external treatment by a specialist
  • often useful
  • but also disempowering, leading to hopelessness
    and depression

34
A different mindset ...
  • Quantum mechanics we have come to accept the
    wave-particle duality as two aspects of the same
    reality
  • Neither is true!
  • Body and mind could be seen as two aspects of the
    same reality

35
If I do science, I must assume determinism. But
if I think of life, I must assume a free
will. William James
36
A missed opportunity?
  • Alternative medicines have missed the chance of
    introducing a real alternative, i.e. healing from
    inside and learning to use the amazing powers of
    the mind
  • Instead they try to compete with science in
    providing healing by an outside specialist

37
Thank you for your attention!
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