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... contrast to the First World War, Americans in World War II were generally able ... on August 15, Japan surrendered unconditionally, and Second World War ended ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • The Road to Pearl Harbor
  • relations between Japan and the United States
    deteriorated after Japan resumed its war against
    China in 1937
  • neither the United States nor Japan desired war
  • Roosevelt considered Nazi Germany to be a more
    dangerous enemy and dreaded the prospect of a
    two-front war

  • in the spring of 1941, Secretary of State Cordell
    Hull demanded that Japan withdraw from China and
    pledge not to occupy French and Dutch possessions
    in Asia
  • even moderates in Japan did not accept Hulls
    demand for total withdrawal
  • in July 1941, the United States retaliated
    against Japans occupation of Indochina by
    freezing Japanese assets in America and placing
    an embargo on petroleum

  • militarists assumed control of Japans
    government, and while the pretense of negotiation
    continued, Japan prepared to implement war plans
    against the United States
  • on December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
  • Congress declared war on Japan the following day,
    and on December 11, the Axis powers declared war
    on the United States

  • Mobilizing the Home Front
  • Congress granted wide emergency powers to the
  • however, Democratic majorities were slim in both
    houses, and a coalition of conservatives from
    both parties limited Roosevelts freedom to act
    through fiscal oversight
  • Roosevelt was an inspiring wartime leader but a
    poor administrator
  • nevertheless, Roosevelts basic decisions made

  • they included financing the war through taxes,
    basing taxation on ability to pay, rationing
    scarce resources and consumer goods, and
    regulating wages and prices
  • a lack of centralized authority impeded
    mobilization, but production expanded
  • manufacturing nearly doubled agricultural output
    rose 22 percent
  • unemployment virtually disappeared
  • productive capacity and per capita output
    increased especially dramatically in the South

  • The War Economy
  • Roosevelt selected James F. Byrnes as his wartime
    economic czar
  • Byrnes headed the Office of War Mobilization,
    which controlled production, consumption,
    priorities, and prices
  • the National War Labor Board arbitrated disputes
    and stabilized wages
  • despite rationing and wage regulations, American
    civilians experienced no real hardships during
    the war

  • prosperity and stiffer government controls
    strengthened organized labor the war did more to
    institutionalize collective bargaining than the
    New Deal had done
  • the war also effected a redistribution of wealth
    in America
  • the wealthiest 1 percent of the population
    received 13.4 percent of the national income in
    1935 by 1944 this group received 6.7 percent
  • the income tax was extended until nearly all
    Americans paid
  • Congress adopted the payroll-deduction system to
    ensure its collection

  • War and Social Change
  • Americans became more mobile
  • not only were those in the military moved to
    training camps all over the United States and to
    Europe and the Pacific, but wartime industries
    drew millions of civilians to new areas
  • wartime prosperity allowed new marriages and a
    higher birthrate

  • Minorities in Time of War Blacks, Hispanics, and
  • several factors improved the condition of black
  • Hitlers racial doctrines made racism less
  • black leaders pointed out the inconsistency
    between fighting for democracy abroad and
    ignoring it at home
  • blacks serving in the military were treated more
    fairly than in World War I however, the armed
    forces remained segregated

  • economic realities worked to the advantage of
    black civilians
  • unemployment had affected blacks
    disproportionately the labor shortage brought
    full employment
  • moreover, defense jobs often involved
    opportunities to develop valuable skills,
    opportunities that racist policies of unions and
    employers had denied to blacks before the war
  • blacks moved to the cities of the North, Midwest,
    and West Coast

  • although most migrants had to live in urban
    ghettos, their very concentration (and the fact
    that blacks outside the South could vote) gave
    them greater political clout
  • the NAACP grew in membership and influence it
    also assumed a more activist role
  • to head off a threatened march on Washington, the
    president established a Fair Employment Practices
  • racial tensions resulted in race riots, the worst
    of which took place in Detroit

  • increased demands for labor led to a reversal of
    the governments policy of forcing Mexicans out
    of the Southwest
  • in Los Angeles, prejudice against Hispanics
    erupted into rioting against young men wearing
    zoot suits
  • military service and mobility in search of
    employment increased the American Indians
    assimilation into white society

  • The Treatment of German- and Italian-Americans
  • World War II produced less intolerance and
    repression than World War I
  • in marked contrast to the First World War,
    Americans in World War II were generally able to
    distinguish between the enemy in Italy and
    Germany and Italian-Americans and German-Americans

  • few Italian-Americans supported Mussolini, and
    most German-Americans were vehemently
  • moreover, both groups were well organized and
    prepared to use their political influence

  • Internment of the Japanese
  • in marked contrast to treatment of Americans of
    Italian or German descent, 112,000
    Japanese-Americans, many of them native-born
    citizens, were relocated into internment camps
  • the government feared their potential disloyalty,
    and the public was aroused by racial prejudice
    and the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Supreme Court upheld restrictions on
    Japanese-Americans in Hirabayashi v. U.S. (1943)
  • finally, in Ex Parte Endo (1944), the Supreme
    Court forbade the internment of loyal
    Japanese-American citizens

  • Womens Contribution to the War Effort
  • millions of women entered the work force during
    the war, and more married women than ever worked
    outside of the home
  • despite initial reluctance by employers and
    unions, women made inroads into traditionally
    male domains
  • black women bore a double burden of race and
    gender, but the demand for labor created
    opportunities for them
  • in addition to prejudice in the workplace,
    working women faced housework as well

  • war also affected women who did not take jobs
  • wartime mobility caused problems for the women
    who faced new, sometimes difficult, surroundings
    without traditional support networks
  • war brides often followed their husbands to
    training camps, where they faced problems
    comparable to those of women who moved to work in
    defense industries in addition, they faced the
    fear and emotional uncertainties of newlyweds,
    compounded by separation from husbands who were
    risking their lives overseas

  • Allied Strategy Europe First
  • Allied strategists decided to concentrate on the
    European war first
  • the Japanese threat was remote, but Hitler
    threatened to knock Soviet Union out of war
  • the United States and Soviet Union wanted to
    establish a second front in France as soon as
  • Churchill pressed instead for strategic bombing
    raids on German cities and an invasion of
    German-held North Africa
  • Churchill got his way

  • in 1942, Allied planes began to bomb German
    cities, and an Allied force under Dwight
    Eisenhower invaded North Africa
  • the decision to offer conditional surrender terms
    to the French collaborationist, Admiral Jean
    Darlan, disturbed Charles de Gaulle and many
    Americans, but it did yield strategic dividends
  • Rommels Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943
  • by the fall of 1943, the Soviets had checked the
    Nazi advance at Stalingrad, and the Allies were
    pushing their way up the Italian peninsula

  • Germany Overwhelmed
  • on D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allied forces
    launched a massive attack on the Normandy coast
  • in the East, millions of Soviet troops slowly
    pushed back the Axis lines
  • while Eisenhower prepared for a general advance,
    the Germans launched a counterattack
  • Allies turned back Germans at the Battle of the
    Bulge, which cost Germans their last reserves

  • on May 8, 1945, Nazi Germany unconditionally
  • as the Allies advanced, the horror of the Nazi
    death camps unfolded
  • news of the camps had reached the United States
    much earlier
  • yet Roosevelt declined to take any action to save
    refugees or even to bomb the camps or the rail
    lines leading to the camps

  • The Naval War in the Pacific
  • while the first priority was to defeat Germany,
    American forces in the Pacific fought to prevent
    further Japanese expansion
  • in spite of heavy losses, the American navy
    turned back a Japanese convoy at the Battle of
    the Coral Sea (1942)
  • at Midway, the United States fleet decisively
    defeated a Japanese armada
  • thereafter, the initiative in the Pacific shifted
    to the Americans

  • Island Hopping
  • American forces ejected the Japanese from the
    Solomon Islands in a series of battles around
    Guadalcanal in which American air power proved
  • American forces advanced steadily, and by
    mid-1944, American land-based bombers were within
    range of Tokyo
  • in February 1945, MacArthur liberated the

  • two battles in Philippine waters (1944) completed
    the destruction of Japans sea power and reduced
    its air power to kamikazes
  • American forces took Iwo Jima and Okinawa, only a
    few hundred miles from the Japanese mainland, in
    March 1945
  • the tenacity of Japanese soldiers made it seem
    that the actual invasion and conquest of Japan
    would take at least another year and cost an
    additional million American casualties

  • Building the Atom Bomb
  • following Roosevelts death in April 1945, Harry
    S Truman became Americas president
  • Americas scientific community delivered a
    powerful new weapon, the atom bomb, to Truman
  • the United States had devoted over six years and
    2 billion to develop this weapon
  • after the first successful test on July 16, 1945,
    Truman faced a difficult decision

  • he could authorize bombing the Japanese cities
    with this weapon, or he could finish the war
    using conventional means
  • the motives behind Trumans decision are still
  • on August 6 and 9, 1945, atomic weapons
    devastated the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • Trumans decision was influenced by the potential
    casualties involved in an invasion of Japan as
    well as a desire to end the war before the Soviet
    Union could intervene effectively and claim a
    role in making peace

  • hatred of Japan undoubtedly also influenced the
  • on August 15, Japan surrendered unconditionally,
    and Second World War ended
  • millions of people perished in the war, and many
    areas lay in ruins. Despite the war's horrible
    cost, improvements in technology and medicine
    held out the promise of a better world
  • scientists argued that the power of the atom
    could also serve peaceful needs
  • with the drafting of the United Nations charter
    in 1945, the world hoped for international

  • Wartime Diplomacy
  • hopes of world peace and harmony failed to
    materialize, largely because of a split between
    the Soviet Union and the western allies
  • during the war, American propaganda spared no
    effort to persuade Americans that the Soviet
    Union was a devoted, peace-loving ally
  • Joseph Stalin was portrayed as a kindly father
  • Americans representing viewpoints as diverse as
    Douglas A. MacArthur and Henry A. Wallace adopted
    pro-Soviet positions

  • such views were naive at best, but the war
    created an identity of interest in defeating a
    common enemy
  • moreover, the Soviets expressed a willingness to
    cooperate in resolving postwar problems, and the
    Soviet Union was one of the original signers of
    the Declaration of the United Nations
  • in May 1943, the Soviets dissolved the Comintern
  • in October, the big three powers established
    the European Advisory Commission to set policy
    for the occupation of Germany

  • the Big Three met and cooperated constructively
    at Teheran and Yalta
  • at San Francisco, the Allies created a United
    Nations Organization consisting of a General
    Assembly (made up of all member nations) and a
    Security Council (consisting of five permanent
    members and six other, temporary members)

  • Allied Suspicion of Stalin
  • long before the war ended, the Allies clashed
    over important issues
  • Stalin deeply resented the delay in opening a
    second front
  • at the same time, the Soviet leader never
    concealed his determination to protect his
    western frontier by exerting control over Eastern

  • most Allied leaders conceded Stalins dominance
    in Eastern Europe, but they never publicly
    acknowledged this
  • Conflicts between western commitments to
    self-determination and Soviet desires for
    security presented difficult problems,
    particularly in Poland

  • Yalta and Potsdam
  • at Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to
    Soviet annexation of large sections of eastern
  • Stalin agreed to allow the Poles to hold free
    elections, a commitment he probably never
    intended to keep
  • a pro-Soviet regime was installed in Poland. The
    new president, Truman, met with Stalin and the
    British leadership at Potsdam in July 1945

  • Potsdam formalized the occupation of Germany
  • fortified by news of the successful testing of an
    atomic bomb, Truman made no concessions to the
  • Stalin refused to relinquish his hold on Eastern
  • suspicions mounted and positions hardened on both
  • the end of World War II marked the beginning of a
    new international order dominated by the
    Soviet-American rivalry
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