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World War I 1914 1918


... Untersee Boot U-Boat- really came into being during the Great War. ... Wilson stated that the US must enter the war to make the world safe for democracy. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I 1914 1918

World War I 1914 - 1918
  • June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia, a
    Bosnian/Serbian nationalist assassinates the
    Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the
    throne of the Austria-Hungarian Empire.
  • All of Europe had entered treaties, contracts,
    agreements, etc., to aid the countries that were
    friendly. So when Austria-Hungary began to
    punish the Slavic people of Bosnia/Serbia, Russia
    entered into the conflict.

  • Russia had treaties with England, France the
    USA, among others. But Germany, who has always
    had a strong alliance with Austria, came to
    Austria-Hungarys aid.
  • This created the Triple Alliance (Central Powers)
    consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
    to start with. The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
    joined later on Italy switched sides.
  • The Triple Entente England, Russia France.
    Eventually, Russia would drop out in 1917, the
    US would enter the war.

The War of Firsts
  • First wartime use of
  • Airplanes
  • Submarines
  • Machine guns
  • Chemical weapons
  • Land mines
  • Flame throwers
  • Tanks
  • Long-range artillery

  • Aug. 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia
  • Aug. 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France
    invades Belgium.
  • Aug. 4, 1914 England declares war on Germany.
  • Thus creating a EuropeanWar.
  • Aug. 23, 1914 - Japan declared war on Germany,
    bringing Asia into the conflict
  • Where is the US?

  • The US stays out of the conflict. Increased
    pressure among the Isolationists kept the
    government out of foreign affairs.
  • Pres. Wilson stated that neither side threatened
    US interests therefore the US will maintain
    relations with both sides.
  • US businesses banks assisted both sides with
    supplies money. Banks would loan money to
    Germany, England, France, Russia, any nation that
    needed it.
  • Very strong feelings for both sides they knew
    it. Germany England tried to sway US public
    opinion for their cause

  • So much business continued between the US
    Germany, that British Navy began stopping US
    ships, confiscating supplies, even set up naval
    blockades to stop the flow of supplies to
  • Several industrialists gave money loans to the
    warring countries.
  • The US tried to negotiate a peace settlement with
    the Allied Central powers, Germany readily
    accepted, but England held out. Fearing they may
    lose their naval superiority. (Declaration of
    London the Order of the Council of Aug. 20,

Early Naval War
  • England had a very large navy could use it
    well. They had already established blockades,
    laid sea mines, etc. But the Germans had a new
    very powerful naval weapon the Submarine.
  • Unterwasser/Untersee Boot U-Boat- really came
    into being during the Great War. The Germans
    utilized them with great efficiency. This would
    be the answer to the English blockade.

  • U Boats were generally commanded by
    Junior-ranking officers, i.e., Lt. Mainly. Sr.
    ranking naval officers considered the U-Boat
    less than honorable duty. Sneaking up on your
    enemy, surprise attacks, were not seen as proper
    conduct of warfare.
  • U-Boats considered any ship on the ocean as a
    potential target. So much so, that the German
    government issued statements to the US to stay
    out of the war zones of the North Atlantic.
  • Few Americans heeded the warning.

  • May 7, 1915 U-Boats fired on and sank the
    Lusitania, a civilian ocean liner sailing from NY
    to Liverpool, England. The ship sank in less
    than 30 min., killing almost 1200 people 128
    were Americans
  • This outraged the US population, but not to the
    point of declaring war. Wilson had to address
    the issue with Germany, to stop sinking civilian
    ships. (even though these ships, including the
    Lusitania, had war supplies for England
  • Germany agreed to pay reparations, but demanded
    the ship was carrying supplies.

  • Wilson forced the issue of non-aggression towards
    non-combatant ships.
  • The Arabic Pledge Sept. 1, 1915 named after
    the English ocean liner the Arabic, which was
    sunk by U-Boats, killing 2 Americans. The Pledge
    stated that the ships would not be sunk by
    U-Boats without advanced warning without the
    safety of the non-combatants, provided they do
    not resist or try to escape.
  • Did not last long, but Wilson still hoped for a
    peaceful settlement.

The Zimmerman Telegraph
  • The US population was stressing the US should get
    more involved, but still not to the point of open
    warfare. Even with the U-Boat attacks, increased
    tension within the US among German, Italian,
    Austrian immigrants.
  • Feb. 25, 1917 the German minister to Mexico was
    instructed to ask Mexico to attack the US if the
    US entered the war against Germany. If Mexico
    assisted Germany, the German government would
    offer an alliance money, plus return the lands
    of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona to Mexico.

  • This telegraph was captured by the English,
    decoded and given to the US.
  • March 1, 1917 the American public learned of
    the telegraph demanded that something be done.
  • What was the US going to do now?

US enters the Great War
  • April 2, 1917 Pres. Wilson stated that the US
    must enter the war to make the world safe for
  • April 6, 1917 Congress voted to declare war
  • May 1917 Rear Admiral William S. Sims took
    command of US ships in the Atlantic and arrived
    with the 1st groups of ships in Ireland. Began
    to train them in the evasion escort tactics
    used by the merchant fleet.

  • June 26, 1917 the 1st contingent of the
    American Expeditionary Force 14,500 men,
    commanded by Gen. John J. Pershing, arrived on
    the coast of France. They had to march into
    Paris, arriving in the city on July 4, 1917.
  • Upon seeing the condition of the Allied forces,
    he contacts Washington, D.C. and requests another
    1 million troops.
  • The Selective Service Act of 1917 all men aged
    21 30 had to register for military service. It
    would later be changed to 18-45.
  • About 2 million men were sent to Europe

  • It would take almost a year to build up the
    military from scratch to deploying to Europe.
  • The War Industries Board of 1917 became the
    most important mobilization agency. Very
    powerful, they could allocate raw materials, tell
    manufacturers what they would be allowed to make,
    build new plants for the war effort, and fix
  • It was very powerful, very efficient,
    standardized products designs to save on

  • Herbert Hoover would get his 1st big break here,
    he was placed in charge of the Food Commission
    meatless Mon./Tues, wheat less Wed.,
    Victory gardens, etc.
  • Everyone participated.
  • Women minorities were allowed to seek work
    outside the home. To take up the vacancies left
    by the men going to war.
  • The Great Black Migration circa 1910-1920.
    Large numbers of blacks were leaving the South
    moving North for jobs in the factories.

  • Rosie the Riveter women working in the
    factories, enjoying newfound freedom, prosperity,
    and identity.
  • Increase in women volunteers in the Red Cross,
    Ambulance Corps, Army Navy Nurse Corps, etc.
    They literally did it all.
  • Many would never return to the domestic
    lifestyle they had led up to the war.
  • This would increase their status among the
    politicians, increasing their rights as citizens.

  • Espionage Sedition Acts of 1917-1918 made it
    against the law to criticize the US government,
    its leaders or its war policies.
  • These laws, among others, were used to deal with
    any dissention among the population.
  • Eugene V. Debs a socialist politician, was
    arrested convicted of encouraging draft
    resistance. Sentence to 20 years in prison.
    (received 1 million votes in the 1920 Pres.
    Election while still in prison)

  • Schenck vs. US 1919- the US Supreme Court
    upheld the conviction of a man handing out
    anti-draft leaflets.
  • Abrams vs. US 1919 the US Supreme Court
    upheld the conviction of a man handing out
    pamphlets in opposition to the US involvement
    against the Bolsheviks during the Russian
  • These cases are still brought up in the courts
    today, set a precedent for future cases.
  • Free speech is not protected if it proves a clear
    present danger

US Fights in Europe
  • From 1917 1918, the US played a very small role
    in the actual combat. Most troops were parceled
    out to the English French and were placed in
    support roles.
  • May 1918 the bulk of the US troops have
    arrived, and now the Force numbered over 1
    million troops.
  • Now the US had to take up the slack left by
    Russia, after the Bolshevik Revolution. Russia
    had been out of action since the revolt started
    in March 1917, the Communists take control on
    Oct. 1917.

  • May 28, 1918 The Battle of Cantigny- US troops
    took back the town of Cantigny from the Germans
    held it.
  • June 2-3, 1918 the Battle of Belleau Wood. A
    US Marine brigade stopped the German advance.
  • At the same time, the US Army attacked seized
    the towns of Vaux Chateau-Thierry from the
    Germans running them out.
  • These early victories increased morale and proved
    the US could be a force in battle.

  • July 15, 1918 the 2nd Battle of the Marne. US
    troops stopped the German armys push into Paris.
    By July 18, the Germans were being pushed back.
    The turning point of the western campaign.
  • Sept. 12, 1918 the Battle of St. Mihiel the
    1st strictly US offensive. 500,000 US Army
    troops pushed the Germans back, out of the area.

  • Sept. 26, 1918 the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
    The largest US action of WWI. Over 1.2 million
    us troops fought, 117,000 WIA (wounded in
    action), 26,000 KIA ( killed in action). US
    troops pushed the Germans back even farther,
    causing them to retreat. German General Erich
    Ludendorff stated the the Americans have thus
    become the decisive power in the War.
  • From this point on, the Central Powers were ready
    to talk peace. Some fighting continued, but to a
    lesser extent.

  • Gen. Ludendorff advised Germany to seek the best
    peace terms possible.
  • Oct. 1918 the new German Chancellor made the
    1st move for peace. As long it was based on
    Wilsons 14 Point Peace Plan.
  • From Sept. Nov. 1918, the German front was
    falling apart. Germanys allies had left, the
    Kaiser himself abdicated the throne, Nov. 9,
    1918, leaving a German Republic, instead of a

  • Nov. 11, 1918 on the 11th hour of the 11th day
    of the 11th month, fighting stopped, the guns
    were silent with the signing of the armistice.
    Thus becoming Armistice Day, later changed to
    Veterans Day.
  • Now the peace process could begin.
  • The Treaty of Versailles officially ended the
    war, but deliberations continued with the 14
    Points. Some of the points were left out, but
    the formation of the League of Nations was a main
    focus of it. The League would be a group of
    nations that would mediate disputes between
    countries, thus there would be no need for war.

  • The war issue continued until May 1920, and the
    US finally signing the resolution on Oct. 18,
  • War reparations the division of territories
    held up the negotiations. The Triple Alliance
    was to make payments to the Entente, give up lots
    of territory, and be limited on their ability to
    make war machines.
  • Some governments changed, and Russia began
    spreading communism throughout the Slavic

After the War
  • Wilson lost support while in Europe debating the
    Treaty of Versailles, upon his return home, he
    was met with partisanship rivalry. Oct. 2,
    1919, Pres. Wilson has a stroke, leaving him
    permanently disabled.
  • His wife kept him out of the public eye, so much
    so, that he was almost never heard from.
  • Warren G. Harding easily becomes the next Pres.

  • Factories had to convert back to civilian
    production, returning veterans wanted their jobs
    back. Women other minorities did not want to
    lose the power they had held during the war.
    This, among other reasons, led to race riots.
    Most of which were very bloody violent.
  • The Spanish Flu Sept. 1918,a strain of
    influenza was brought back from Europe by the
    veterans. A particularly virulent form. It
    killed 5 times more Americans than the War. Over
    500,000 died, from 1918-1921.

  • The Red Scare 1919-1920
  • Was influenced by the Bolshevik Revolution
  • The fear of the Lunatic Fringe here in the US,
    some of which were sending letter bombs in the
  • The growing Socialist Communists parties here
    in the US
  • Increased labor union activity, violent
    sometimes, had been connected with the
    Socialists. Factory workers, policemen, etc.,
    everyone went on strike.
  • Considered a major threat to the Democratic way
    of life here in the US.

  • Increased hatred suspicion of immigrants
  • Push for Isolationism once again.
  • But the Great War did lead the US into a time of
    great prosperity the 1920s!