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World War I

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World War I 'The nations were caught in a trap. . there was no looking back. ... A world war can be won. You want me to believe. But I see through your eyes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I


1
World War I
  • The nations were caught in a trap. . there was
    no looking back.
  • General Joffre,
  • on the eve of the
  • Battle of the Marne, August, 1914

2
How was Europe in 1900 like the Titanic? La
belle epoque
3
War is Impossible
  • "Nothing could have been more obvious to the
    people of the early twentieth century than the
    rapidity with which war was becoming impossible. 
    And as certainly they did not see it.  They did
    not see it until the atomic bombs burst in their
    fumbling hands."
  • H G Wells, The World Set Free, 1914

First World War.com http//www.firstworldwar.co
m/index.htm BBC http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/war
/wwone/
4
Britain and France - Europes liberal
powers What spoiled children we are Germany
and Italy - The new nations We demand our place
in the sun Austria and Russia - Dying
dynasties Hard times make for hard
lines Central Europe - The Balkan
tinderbox We wanna be free!
5
The World United States - New great power of
the West China - self-strengthening that
failed, revolution Japan - the new great power
in the East India - Englands jewel in the
crown Latin America - Political Independence,
economic dependence Africa - Partition and
resistance Middle East - Ottoman decline, the
sick man
6
Deep, Underlying Developments
  • Imperialism
  • Economic Competition
  • Nationalism
  • Militarism the Schlieffen Plan, 1905
  • Standing armies
  • Alliances
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Triple Entente France, England, Russia
  • Role of Public Opinion War Fever

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10
World War I Alliance System
Central Powers
Triple Entente
11
WAR FEVER NOTED WRITERS AND THINKERS ADVOCATED
WAR William James (American) The plain truth is
that people want war (1912) Winston Churchill
(British) . . .in the field of battle life is at
its best and healthiest while one awaits the
caprice of the bullet. (1900) von Treitschke
(German) War, with all its bruitality and
sterness, weaves a bond of love between man and
man, linking them together to face death,
creating a bond that will last forever. He who
knows history knows also that to banish war from
the world would be to mutilate human nature.
12
Schiller (German) Man is stunted by peaceful
days, In idle repose his courage dercays. . . But
in war mans strength is seen, War enobles all
that is mean. Belloc (British) How I long for
the Great War. It will sweep Europe clean like a
broom! Stravinsky (Russian) War is necessary
for human progress. (1907) Holmes (American) .
. .mans warlike nature and his destiny is
battle. Civilization has not changed human
nature. . .armed strife will not disappear from
the earth until human nature changes.
(1895) Driant (member of the French
assembly) the outcome of the next war will be
decided in less than a month. (1906)
13
The Schliffen Plan, 1905
Paris in six weeks, Christmas in Berlin
Belgium
Germany
Marne River
Paris
14
Battle of the Marne, August 1914
15
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16
The Lamps are going out all over Europe. We
shall not see them lit again in our
lifetime. Sir Edward Grey, August 1914.
17
(RGH 62, p. 258)
18
TOTAL WAR the killing machine
Unrestrained, mass warfare because whole nations
were fighting for their national survival. Need
to draft huge numbers of citizens and to organize
the rest for war-related work. Blurring of
distinctions between the battlefront and the
homefront. Efficient mobilization of vast
amounts of human and material resources began to
eclipse tactical brilliance and courage. Science
was mobilized to develop more deadly weapons to
break the stalemate. Homefront attacks,
espionage, propaganda, restricting civil
liberties in the name of national
survival. Sacrifices from civilians through
rationing, bond drives, blood donations, civilian
defense.
19
Come you masters of warYou that build all the
gunsYou that build the death planesYou that
build the big bombsYou that hide behind
wallsYou that hide behind desksI just want you
to knowI can see through your mask You that
never done nothin'But build to destroyYou play
with my worldLike it's your little toyYou put a
gun in my handAnd you hide from my eyesAnd you
turn and run fartherWhen the fast bullets
flyLike Judas of oldYou lie and deceiveA
world war can be wonYou want me to believeBut I
see through your eyesAnd I see through your
brainLike I see through the waterThat runs down
my drain
You might say that I'm youngYou might say I'm
unlearnedBut there's one thing I knowThough I'm
younger than youEven Jesus would neverForgive
what you doLet me ask you one questionIs your
money that goodWill it buy you forgivenessDo
you think that it couldI think you will
findWhen your death takes its tollAll the money
you madeWill never buy back your soulAnd I
hope that you dieAnd your death'll come soonI
will follow your casketIn the pale afternoonAnd
I'll watch while you're loweredDown to your
deathbedAnd I'll stand o'er your grave'Til I'm
sure that you're dead
You fasten the triggersFor the others to
fireThen you set back and watchWhen the death
count gets higherYou hide in your mansionAs
young people's bloodFlows out of their
bodiesAnd is buried in the mudYou've thrown
the worst fearThat can ever be hurledFear to
bring childrenInto the worldFor threatening my
babyUnborn and unnamedYou ain't worth the
bloodThat runs in your veinsHow much do I
knowTo talk out of turn
Masters of War Bob Dylan
20
Mutual Butchery
Stalemate War of Attrition (See RGH 62, p.
258-259) Why were there NO victories in World War
I? Machine Gun Trenches No Mans Land Barbed
Wire Poison Gas Advantage to the Defense
German trenches, 1917
21
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22
TRENCHES 400 MILE LINE FROM NORTH SEA TO
SWITZERLAND
23
From All Quiet on the Western Front, (RGH 63,
pp. 261-266)
In himself, man is essentially a beast, only he
butters it over like a slice of bread with a
little decorum. There is no escape anywhere. .
.I open my eyesmy fingers grasp a sleeve, an
arm. . .a dead man. We have all lost feeling
for each other. . .we are insensible, dead men,
who through some trick, some dreadful magic, are
still able to run and to kill. . . I am young,
I am 20 years old yet I know nothing of life but
despair, death, fear, and fatuous superficiality
cast over an abyss of sorrow. Our knowledge of
life is limited to death. What will happen
afterwards? And what shall come out of us?
24
The War Sonnets V. The Soldier Rupert Brooke,
d. 1915 If I should die, think only this of
meThat there's some corner of a foreign
fieldThat is for ever England. There shall beIn
that rich earth a richer dust concealedA dust
whom England bore, shaped, made aware,Gave,
once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,A
body of England's, breathing English air,Washed
by the rivers, blest by suns of home. And think,
this heart, all evil shed away,A pulse in the
eternal mind, no lessGives somewhere back the
thoughts by England givenHer sights and sounds
dreams happy as her dayAnd laughter, learnt of
friends and gentleness,In hearts at peace,
under an English heaven.
25
Anthem for Doomed Youth Wilfred Owen, d. Nov. 4,
1918
What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?
Only the monstrous anger of the guns. Only
the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle Can patter
out their hasty orisons. No mockeries for them
no prayers nor bells, Nor any voice of mourning
save the choirs, -- The shrill, demented choirs
of wailing shells And bugles calling for them
from sad shires. What candles may be held to
speed them all? Not in the hands of boys, but
in their eyes Shall shine the holy glimmers of
goodbyes. The pallor of girls' brows shall be
their pall Their flowers the tenderness of
patient minds, And each slow dusk a drawing-down
of blinds.
26
Children's Crusade Sting, Dream of the Blue
Turtles, 1984 Young men, soldiers, nineteen
fourteenMarching through countries they'd never
seenVirgins with rifles, a game of charadesAll
for a children's crusadePawns in the game are
not victims of chanceStrewn on the fields of
Belgium and FrancePoppies for young men, death's
bitter tradeAll of these young lives
betrayedThe children of England would never be
slavesThey're trapped on the wire and dying in
wavesThe flower of England face down in the
mudAnd stained in the blood of a whole
generation
Corpulent generals safe behind linesHistory's
lessons drowned in red winePoppies for young
men, death's bitter tradeAll of those young
lives betrayedAll for a children's crusadeThe
children of England would never be slavesThey're
trapped on the wire and dying in wavesThe flower
of England face down in the mudAnd stained in
the blood of a whole generationMidnight in Soho
nineteen eighty fourFixing in doorways, opium
slavesPoppies for young men, such bitter
tradeAll of those young lives betrayedAll for a
children's crusade
27
Corpulent generals safe behind linesHistory's
lessons drowned in red winePoppies for young
men, death's bitter tradeAll of those young
lives betrayedAll for a children's crusadeThe
children of England would never be slavesThey're
trapped on the wire and dying in wavesThe flower
of England face down in the mudAnd stained in
the blood of a whole generationMidnight in Soho
nineteen eighty fourFixing in doorways, opium
slavesPoppies for young men, such bitter
tradeAll of those young lives betrayedAll for a
children's crusade
28
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29
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30
IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I John LukacsThe Short
Century1914-1989 (or 1991) Military Technolog
ymachine gun, barbed wire, gas, flame thrower,
tank, airplane, submarine The end of
couragetrench warfare, massed assaults,
artillery, attritionVerdun, Somme Total
warcivilians role (background for
totalitarianism) Fear of total war in post-war
eradisarmament and appeasement World War I and
World War IIcause and effect?
31
Political A New World Order Old states and New
states End of four empires German, Russian,
Austrian and Ottoman New states Finland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland,
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Hungary German and Russian losses (Nazi-Soviet
pact, 1939) and appeasement Russian
revolutionLenin and the party state (beginning
of Cold War?) --the ideologically based
state The Middle East New countriesIraq,
Syria, Palestine-Jordan Within states Political
centralizationsuspension of democracy Propaganda
dehumanization of the enemy End of
aristocracymany died in war Democracy to
dictatorship in 20s and 30s (Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, Austria, Yugoslavia, Spain,
Italy, Germany) Appeal of ideologiesKoestler and
conversion to communism GenocideTurkey and the
Armenians
32
Economic Economic regimentation during the
warwar socialism and the growth of
government Break up of empires causes economic
chaos German reparations and allied war
debts USA debtor to creditor contributes to the
depression
33
International law, etc. Treaty of
Versailles Idea of an international forumLeague
of Nations, UN Idea of arms controlWashington
Naval Conference, etc. U.S. emerges as a
reluctant world powerWilsonself-determination
USSRLenin and global ambitions Revolt
against Europedecline of imperialism (eg. of
India)
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Cultural (See RGH 65) End of Enlightenment
valuesirrationalism (Nietzsche, Bergson,
Freud) Age of AnxietyEliot, Yeats, y Gasset,
Sartre and existentialism ArtDada, Surrealism,
Futurism, abstract expressionism,
etc. Literaturewar novels, the Lost
Generation, Kafka HistorySpengler Religionori
ginal sinBarth PsychologyHuman nature (Inge)
behaviorism, instinctualism Sciencethe end of
exact science Planck, Heisenberg
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