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World War I


Trench warfare was a major part of World War I ... Zimmerman Telegram was revealed to the public, the U.S. declared war on Germany. World War I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I

World War I
  • Total war When warring countries mobilize every
    resource available and use any means necessary to
    completely destroy an enemy
  • Trench warfare warfare where enemies sit in
    trenches and the battle line does not move
  • Alliance an agreement between countries to
    further common goals such as security
  • Berlin to Baghdad railway a railway Germany
    tried to build to transport oil from the Middle
    East to mainland Europe
  • Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia, Italy,
    and the U.S.
  • Central Powers Germany, Austro-Hungarian
    Empire, Ottoman Empire
  • Neutrality When a country declares not to
    interfere with a war on either side

Berlin to Baghdad Railway
  • German banks were paying for a railway to be
    built from Baghdad in the Ottoman Empire to
    Berlin in Germany
  • This would bring Ottoman oil to mainland Europe,
    especially to Germany
  • The British strongly opposed the project because
    it gave oil to Germany and avoided
    British-controlled sea trade

  • Balance of Power politics had led to many
    alliances to balance different countries against
    each other. Some of these alliances were secret
  • These alliances required countries to defend each
    other if one country was attacked
  • How might this lead to a larger war?

Franz Ferdinand
  • Archduke of Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Tensions between Serbia and Austria were already
    high when a Serbian extremist group assassinated

July Crisis
  • Austria sent Serbia a list of 10 extreme demands
  • Serbia removed one of the demands and held
    reservations about some of the others
  • Austria declared war on Serbia
  • By treaty, Russia mobilized for war to defend
    Serbia on July 28, 1914
  • Germany, an ally of Austria, declared war on
    Russia and France
  • When Germany invaded France through Belgium,
    Belgiums neutrality was violated and, by treaty,
    Britain had to declare war on Germany
  • 5 out of 6 major European powers were at war

Trench Warfare
  • Trench warfare was a major part of World War I
  • Soldiers would fire back and forth from their
  • It was a slow and bloody way to fight war

New Weapons
  • Infantry usually had 4 weapons rifle, bayonet,
    shotgun, hand grenade
  • Mustard gas and other gas killed soldiers in
    large numbers
  • Machine guns also killed many people

  • The submarine became a popular weapon in the war
  • German submarines or U-boats attacked Entente
    supply ships

American Neutrality
  • President Woodrow Wilson vowed to keep America
    out of the war
  • Public support for the war in America was low

The Lusitania
  • Wilson continually pressured Germany to stop
    torpedoing ships bringing peaceful supplies to
    Entente countries
  • Actually America had been selling weapons and
    other war materiel for some time
  • When a German U-boat sank a British ship carrying
    American passengers, the U.S. public was enraged

The Zimmerman Telegram
  • In January 1917, British intelligence intercepted
    a letter from Germany to Mexico telling her to
    declare war on the U.S. if the U.S. entered the
  • After German U-boats sank 7 American merchant
    ships and the Zimmerman Telegram was revealed to
    the public, the U.S. declared war on Germany

World War I
  • With the Americans now on the side of the Entente
    powers, the collapse of the Central Powers came
  • The war devastated Europe, destroyed millions in
    productive wealth, and left America as the
    worlds largest creditor nation

The Numbers
  • Entente Powers
  • 5,525,000 dead
  • 12,831,500 wounded
  • Central Powers
  • 4,386,000 dead
  • 8,388,000 wounded

Wilfred OwenDulce et Decorum Est
  • Bent double, like old beggars under
    sacks,Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed
    through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we
    turned our backsAnd towards our distant rest
    began to trudge.Men marched asleep. Many had
    lost their bootsBut limped on, blood-shod. All
    went lame all blindDrunk with fatigue deaf
    even to the hootsOf disappointed shells that
    dropped behind.GAS! Gas! Quick, boys!-- An
    ecstasy of fumbling,Fitting the clumsy helmets
    just in timeBut someone still was yelling out
    and stumblingAnd floundering like a man in fire
    or lime.--Dim, through the misty panes and thick
    green lightAs under a green sea, I saw him
  • In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,He
    plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.If
    in some smothering dreams you too could
    paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in,And
    watch the white eyes writhing in his face,His
    hanging face, like a devil's sick of sinIf you
    could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome
    gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene
    as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable
    sores on innocent tongues,--My friend, you would
    not tell with such high zestTo children ardent
    for some desperate glory,The old Lie Dulce et
    decorum estPro patria mori.