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To broadcast meant planting seeds by casting them widely i

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To broadcast meant planting seeds by casting them widely in a ... (Ed Sullivan), quiz shows, Truth or Consequences, soap operas (thanks to Colgate-Palmolive! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: To broadcast meant planting seeds by casting them widely i


1
Radioand film
  • April 2, 2007

2
What is broadcasting?
  • Term borrowed from agriculture
  • To broadcast meant planting seeds by casting them
    widely in a field (vs. depositing one at a time)
  • Came to be used for radio (and later)
    transmissions in which
  • a single source
  • sends messages over airwaves
  • to a wide number of people

3
Why was this revolutionary?
  • Compare to telegraph, which
  • Required wires
  • Worked point-to-point
  • Meaning 1-to-1 transmission of message
  • Radio (and later, TV) broadcasting was
  • Wireless
  • Point-to-many/infinite points
  • Meaning 1-to-many transmission

4
Broadcasting (radio, TV)
  • Transmitter sends messages over a part of the
    electromagnetic spectrum via electronic signals
  • Signals are captured by a receiver or antenna
  • Receiver/antenna relays signals to device (radio
    or TV set)
  • Waves are decoded by receiving device
  • Allowing humans to hear/see them

5
Radios ubiquity
  • Most widely available medium of mass
    communication around world
  • Most heavily used medium in the US
  • 960 hours/person annually
  • 2.65 hours/day
  • At least 99 of US households have at least 1
    radio
  • Similar penetration in most other industrialized
    nations

6
Functions of radio
  • Around the world, radio is medium of
  • Entertainment
  • News/information
  • Surveillance
  • Marketing
  • Emergency broadcasts
  • Why is radio especially good/ important during
    emergencies?

7
Functions
  • Talk radio information, debate, (limited)
    interactivity)
  • News radio breaking news, traffic, weather,
    school closings
  • Other commercial radio music
  • Entertainment for listeners
  • Marketing for musicians, recording industry

8
Radios historical development
  • Radio has evolved tremendously since introduction
    in terms of
  • Technology
  • Economics
  • Programming
  • Continues to evolve in digital age

9
Radios pre-history
  • 1835 Samuel Morse invents telegraph, Morse Code
  • 1876 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrates telephone

10
Wireless telegraphy
  • Mid-1800s inventors and scientists around the
    world independently experimenting with radio
    technology
  • 1884-1885 Heinrich Hertz experiments with
    electromagnetic waves
  • Proves existence of radio waves
  • Why do you know Hertzs name?

11
Measurement of electromagnetic frequencies named
for Hertz
  • AM radio broadcasts between 530 and 1700
    kilohertz (KHz)
  • 0.53 1.7 megahertz (MHz)
  • FM radio 88 and 108 MHz
  • Short-wave radio 5.9 to 26.1 MHz
  • CB (citizens band) 26.96 to 27.41 MHz
  • TV stations
  • Channels 2-6 54-88 MHz
  • Channels 7-13 174-220 MHz
  • Cell phones 824-849 MHz
  • GPS (global positioning systems) 1227-1575 MHz

12
Railway telegraphy
  • 1887 Granville T. Woods (African American
    scientist)
  • Allowed messages to be sent between moving trains
  • and between moving trains and stations
  • Reduced frequency of railway collisions

13
Radio telegraphy (the wireless)
  • 1899 Guglielmo Marconi
  • Marconis wireless made possible real-time
    transmission of audio
  • Was in form of dots and dashes (Morse code)
  • Over distance WITHOUT wired connection
  • The first real radio transmission

14
Radios development in early 20th century
  • 1900 USDA sees potential for use for farmers
  • finances Canadian Reginald Fessendens research
  • transmitter emitting continuous waves (forerunner
    of todays AM radio)

15
Early 20th C. (ctd.)
  • 1906 Swedish-born inventor Ernst Alexandersson
    builds high-frequency, continuous wave machine
  • Allows station to transmit radio broadcast of
    human voice and violin solo
  • 1912 USDA transmits first weather reports (in
    telegraphic code, not human voice)

16
Meanwhile
  • Lee de Forest (US pioneer) develops his own
    transmission technology
  • 1907 proves his transmitter can work for both
    point-to-point and broadcast transmission
  • Supplies US Navy fleet with arc radiotelephones
    for around-the-world voyage
  • During WWI (1914-1918), evolution of de Forests
    vacuum-tube radio transmitter allows for nightly
    news broadcasts

17
Before WWI
  • Amateurs compete with military for airwaves
  • Congress passes Radio Act of 1912
  • Requires broadcasters to get licenses
  • Why? Limited number of frequencies
  • Requires ship radio operators to man their
    stations!

18
During later years of WWI
  • All radio stations taken over by US government
  • Or shut down completely
  • During war, illegal for private citizens to
    own/operate radio transmitters without permission
  • After the war (late 1918), Navy tries to retain
    all control
  • But commercial interests complain
  • radio restrictions lifted
  • Industry takes off!

19
To satisfy public opponents
  • Government creates a monopoly to control civilian
    broadcasting
  • RCA
  • Which stands for . . . ?

20
RCA gets
  • The patents
  • ATT telephone lines
  • GE Westinghouse radio transmitters and
    receivers
  • United Fruit, Inc. patents on components
  • Even Marconis assets!

21
RCA markets products
  • And disperses the royalty shares to
  • ATT
  • GE
  • United Fruit
  • Westinghouse

22
Commercial broadcasting
  • Begins in 1920
  • Includes first broadcast of election-night
    coverage
  • KDKA in Pittsburgh first commercial station
  • What makes radio a major medium of mass
    communication?
  • Boxing!
  • 1921 fight (heavyweight champ Jack Dempsey vs.
    Georges Carpentier)
  • Technical help from RCA

23
1920s
  • Radio enters households on wide scale for first
    time
  • Changes peoples lives, schedules, routines
  • And family dynamics

24
The 1921 fight (and aftermath)
  • Most people didnt have home radios
  • Local public halls set up receivers, charged
    admission
  • Much media commentary after the event
  • Hundreds of stations spring up
  • Meanwhile, RCA begins manufacture of home radio
    sets
  • Which sell like crazy
  • ATT drafts plan for first radio network
  • 1922 ATTs flagship station (WEAF in NYC) takes
    to the air

25
How should radio be financed?
  • In 1920s, some stations first experimented with
    advertising sponsorship
  • But critics complained
  • Rationale radio should be for public good, not
    profit
  • should be government public service
  • should be used largely for education

26
So what happened?
  • Why isnt US radio a government property?
  • Combo of
  • commercial interests
  • government decisions (often influenced by
    businesses)
  • lack of coordination among advocates of public
    radio
  • Allowed the advertising-supported model to
    prevail
  • Still the prevalent model today
  • And the basis for TVs advertising-supported model

27
Radio networksand their regulation
  • Networks first formed in 1920s
  • Idea affiliated stations in multiple cities
    would share core set of programs

28
1926
  • National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
  • RCA buys NYC station WEAF (now WNBC) from ATT
  • Then buys Newark station WJZ from Westinghouse
  • Future acquisitions allocated to either Red or
    Blue network

29
1927
  • United Independent Broadcasters teams up with
    Columbia Phonograph and Records Company
  • Becomes Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
  • 22 affiliates

30
Radio Act of 1927
  • Congress creates Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
  • Intended to help establish order over chaos of
    unregulated airwaves
  • Many stations competing for same or neighboring
    frequencies
  • Interference
  • Powerful transmitters drown out less powerful

31
What FRC did
  • Revoked thousands of licenses
  • Instituted system favoring fewer, higher-powered
    stations over smaller (but more numerous)
    lower-powered stations
  • Benefited large commercial broadcasting companies
    over educational or small/ private broadcasters

32
Key principles of Radio Act of 1927
  • Airwaves are a limited resource
  • Airwaves are PUBLIC property
  • Companies using the airwaves have a duty to act
    responsibly toward the public
  • Broadcasters must operate in the public
    interest, convenience, and necessity (sometimes
    abbreviated as PICON)

33
Wait a minute!
  • What about First Amendment?
  • What about freedom of the press?
  • Why is it OK for government to restrict freedom
    of radio?

34
Why its OK
  • Radio broadcasters use PUBLICs airwaves
  • Newspaper publishers dont use public resources
  • Spectrum scarcity
  • Only so much electromagnetic space on which you
    can broadcast radio signal
  • Pervasiveness and power
  • Especially over children

35
In 1934
  • Congress establishes FCC
  • Makes FCC a separate agency, no longer division
    of Department of Commerce
  • 7 commissioners appointed by President

36
Meanwhile, the networks grow
  • 1935 58 of 62 stations nationwide are either NBC
    or CBS affiliates
  • 97 of nighttime broadcasts are NBC or CBS
  • Smaller stations off the air at night

37
Third network
  • Doesnt appear until 1946
  • ABC
  • Which had originally been one of two NBC networks
    (Blue)
  • FCC in 1941 had required NBC to sell off a network

38
The influence of advertising (and advertising
agencies)
  • Ad agencies developed programs for their
    sponsors sold them to networks
  • The Eveready Hour (variety shows)
  • But also dramas, literary adaptations
  • And, especially, soap operas!!
  • Responsible for moving center of radio production
    to Hollywood
  • Where radio could become movie-like

39
Advertising and early radio (ctd.)
  • Ad agencies prided themselves on the high
    entertainment value of the shows they produced
  • They didnt have pressures the networks had
  • Serve the public interest
  • Uphold culture
  • Battled with networks for control over program
    content

40
Golden Age of Radio mid 1930s- late 40s
  • Radio sets command central position in US living
    rooms
  • Network news analysis
  • Recorded music
  • Live orchestras
  • Programs Amos Andy, Lone Ranger, Green Hornet,
    presidential addresses (FDR), variety shows (Ed
    Sullivan), quiz shows, Truth or Consequences,
    soap operas (thanks to Colgate-Palmolive!)

41
War of the Worlds
  • Halloween Eve 1938 Orson Welles airs radio
    adaptation of H.G. Wellss 1898 novel
  • Only one disclaimer, at beginning of broadcast
  • People tuning in later thought it was real!
  • Led FCC to call for stricter warnings
  • Shows power of radio to compel

42
Radio and popular commercial culture
  • 1930s reinvention of social/cultural role of
    radio
  • Radio new type of popular culture
  • Filled air
  • percolated into the structures of everyday life
    (Hilmes, p. 92)
  • Gathering around radio communal experience

43
Tonights screening
  • Radio Days (1987 dir. Woody Allen)
  • Sentimental, quasi-autobiographical look at
    golden age radio programs and personalities
  • And roles that radio played in the lives of
    everyday Americans during the late 1930s and
    early 1940s
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