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TEACHING TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES

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Discuss the topics outlined in the Core Curriculum for Surgical Technology, 5th Edition. ... open an instrument tray with ebonized instruments and discuss ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TEACHING TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES


1
TEACHING TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES
  • FOR THE NON-PHYSICS MAJOR

2
Margaret Rodriguez, CST,CFA, BS
  • Most definitely NOT a physics major.
  • Great believer in common sense, easy to
    conceptualize, methods of teaching difficult
    materials.

3
TEACHING TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR THE
NON-PHYSICS MAJOR
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Upon completion of this discussion, the
    participants will be able to
  • Discuss the topics outlined in the Core
    Curriculum for Surgical Technology, 5th Edition.

4
Objectives, continued
  • Discuss the impact of the subject material on the
    comprehension and performance of students in the
    clinical setting and, for the future, the success
    of entry level surgical technologists in the work
    place.

5
Objectives, continued
  • Explore ideas for teaching lessons in the physics
    of OR equipment including
  • Electricity and electrosurgery
  • Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
  • Ultrasonic energy
  • Minimally invasive procedures
  • Robotics and guided imagery

6
Objectives, continued
  • Network with other instructors
  • Identify prizes and pitfalls of subject material
    presentations
  • Acquire a reference base for development of
    individualized course content while meeting the
    requirements of the Core Curriculum

7
Why teach this type of material?
  • If it can harm the patient or kill you as an
    employee, then it might be of benefit to learn
    about the physics behind the devices and gain a
    conceptual grasp of how things work and why.

8
Everything old is new again.
  • What we knew in high school or college needs to
    be re-visited and re-tooled in order to present a
    fresh face on the subject matter to students
    deeply entrenched in the microwave, cell phone,
    digital age we live in at present.

9
Old dogs, new tricks.
  • We think we know our subject material well and we
    may..
  • Until it changes by way of new technological
    advances in medicine and the supportive
    mechanical devices.

10
Resistance is futile.
  • We may not want to teach about subjects such as
    robotics because it is not used in our geographic
    areas .
  • But, they have built them and they will come.

11
Technological Sciences for the Surgical
Technologist
  • Catalog description
  • Provides in-depth coverage of specialized
    surgical modalities. Areas covered include
    endoscopy, microsurgery, therapeutic surgical
    energies, and other integrated science
    technologies.
  • El Paso Community College,
  • SRGT 1244, 2 credits

12
UNIT TITLES
  • Electricity, Electosurgery, and Fire Safety
  • Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation
  • Ultrasonic and Hydrodissection Devices

13
UNIT TITLES contd
  • Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Surgery
  • Microscopes and Microsurgery
  • Robotics and Guided Imagery

14
MORE OF A GOOD THING
  • When this course was created six years ago, we
    needed enough content to justify a special
    needs course.

15
MORE OF A GOOD THING
  • The course was created out of a concern by
    hospital directors who wanted students to be
    better prepared with regard to minimally invasive
    procedures
  • equipment, techniques, conversions to open,
    modification to room set-ups, and the new
    technologies used in these cases

16
CORE CURRICULUM
  • BASIC COMPUTER KNOWLEDGE
  • ELECTRICITY
  • PHYSICS
  • ROBOTICS

17
BASIC COMPUTER KNOWLEDGE
  • Most students now have more computer skills than
    we do.
  • Many degree plans incorporate a course on general
    computing skills.
  • Many lectures are now presented with computer
    assistance such as Power Point or Internet
    connections.

18
BASIC COMPUTER SKILLS
  • Do you teach it in your courses?
  • Do you have them take a separate course?
  • How much classroom time is devoted to computer
    skills?

19
BASIC COMPUTER KNOWLEDGE
  • Is there anyone who currently has students who
    are completely in the dark about using a
    computer?
  • Will there be a large emphasis on specifics on
    the PAE or CST exams?

20
ELECTRICITY
  • The physics of electricity are good concepts for
    anyone to understand.
  • In the OR, it is crucial to be aware of the
    dangers of electrical current to both patients
    and personnel.

21
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22
UNIT PRESENTATION
  • Power point presentation on electricity and
    electrosurgery

23
ALTERNATING CURRENT
  • Path of least resistance can be discussed as
    break in insulation of cords.
  • Discuss importance of inspecting cords for breaks
    or exposure of wires.

24
ALTERNATING CURRENT
  • Because it is alternating, it must have a
    completed circuit.
  • Discuss what happens at home to the circuit
    breaker when too much power is drawn or
  • If you are going to work on the garbage disposal,
    trip that breaker!!

25
ALTERNATING CURRENT
  • Switches, circuits, rheostats can all be compared
    to everyday things
  • Ask for examples from students to encourage
    critical thinking and analogies.

26
ALTERNATING CURRENT
  • If you have internet connection in your
    classroom
  • www.howstuffworks.com
  • choose science stuff and then search for
    electricity and terms will be highlighted to link
    to further explanations.

27
STATIC ELECTRICITY
  • Have students blow up balloons and rub on top of
    heads (if they have hair) and then see if the
    balloon sticks to the wall
  • Discuss why we experience shocks more in dry
    weather and correlate that to the OR environment

28
ELECTRICAL PLUGS AND GROUNDING
  • Show a two-prong plug and have students discuss
    the reason why the hot wire prong is smaller than
    the neutral wire prong.
  • Show a three-prong plug and discuss the need for
    grounding, especially in the operating room.

29
ELECTROCAUTERY
  • Demonstrate a battery operated ELECTROCAUTERY PEN
    to discuss the current, use, and applications.
  • http//www.geigermedical.com/index.html for
    example of non-disposable unit

30
ELECTROSURGERY
  • If you have a working ESU in your lab, practice
    on piece of chicken, deli ham slices placed on
    ground pad.
  • Use both cutting and coagulation modes.

31
ELECTROSURGERY
  • Have students wear surgical gloves and use
    hemostat on tissue and touch ESU electrode to
    instrument to demonstrate transfer of current.

32
ELECTROSURGERY
  • Change modes to bipolar mode if you have a foot
    pedal and demonstrate delivery of current between
    tines of bipolar forceps.
  • Have students wear gloves for safety, just in
    case.

33
ELECTROSURGERY
  • If you do not have an ESU in your lab/classroom,
    try asking a company sales representative to
    bring in a unit for demonstration and practice.
  • Arrange for a field trip to the OR.

34
ELECTROSURGERY
  • www.valleylab.com/education
  • Very good tutorials on electrosurgery
  • CE and practice tests available on ESU and fires
    in the OR

35
ELECTROSURGERY
  • Videos on electrosurgery
  • Have students research Harvey Cushing and William
    Bovie and the first Bovie machines used in
    surgery.

36
FIRE SAFETY
  • Bring in a home ABC fire extinguisher and discuss
    the types of extinguishers
  • Check fill gauge
  • Discuss PASS and RACE

37
FIRE SAFETY
  • Discuss evacuation plans for school and operating
    room
  • Send students out of classroom to report back
    where fire pull stations are located and practice
    a school evacuation

38
FIRE SAFETY
  • Videos in class
  • Discussion of oxygen enriched environment
  • Have students make posters with fire triangle
    with examples of fuel and ignition sources.

39
PHYSICS
  • VERY BROAD UMBRELLA OF INFORMATION
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Radiology
  • Radiation therapy/nuclear medicine

40
IONIZING RADIATION
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Wavelengths and what they mean
  • Electromagnetic fields
  • http//www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/waves_particl
    es/return_el.html
  • http//science.howstuffworks.com/
  • http//imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/ems.html

41
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43
IONIZING RADIATION
  • X-rays
  • Show x-ray films and discuss tissue types and
    reactions to x-ray beam
  • Show dosimeter badge and discuss hazards of
    exposure
  • Have students try on a lead apron

44
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45
IONIZING RADIATION
  • If you have a radiology technology program,
    invite a faculty member or senior student in to
    discuss radiation safety
  • Arrange a tour of a local cancer treatment center

46
IONIZING RADIATION
  • http//science.howstuffworks.com/x-ray.htm
  • http//www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/radiationionizing/

47
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49
INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
  • Patient education information
  • Gamma Knife for Neurosurgery
  • http//www.elekta.com/patientus.nsf
  • Need to choose method of download then watch
    video presentation

50
INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
  • Patient education information
  • Stereotactic breast biopsy
  • http//www.radiologyinfo.org/content/intervention
    al/breast_biopsy_xr.htm
  • Radiation treatment options
  • http//www.radiologyinfo.org/content/therapy/radi
    ation_therapy.htm

51
NON-IONIZING RADIATION
  • LASERS
  • Properties of light
  • Types of laser media (gas, solid, liquid)
  • Tissue effects from laser energy
  • Laser safety issues
  • http//science.howstuffworks.com/laser.htm

52
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56
LASER SAFETY
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/laserhazards/
  • http//www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/ lasers/

57
LASER TRAINING
  • If possible, take a field trip to your hospital
    and ask your laser safety officer to prepare a
    hands-on inservice with whichever lasers they
    use.

58
LASER TRAINING
  • Point out laser signage and security systems
  • Review a laser log for types of documentation
    required
  • Inspect various wavelength coatings on laser
    goggles.

59
LASER TRAINING
  • Show a smoke evacuator and discuss need for
    control of smoke plume
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/laserelectrosurgeryplume/

60
LASER TRAINING
  • Borrow or open an instrument tray with ebonized
    instruments and discuss rationale behind use
  • Point a flashlight at the wall or ceiling and
    then a laser pointer then both together to
    demonstrate light properties

61
LASER TRAINING
  • Videos on lasers in the OR
  • Review of AORN Standards and Recommended Practices

62
SOUND, VIBRATIONS,WAVES
  • Ultrasonic scalpel
  • Harmonic scalpel/Ultracision
  • http//www.jnjgateway.com then link to various
    surgical procedures, product specifications,
    general information and online videos of
    technology and surgical procedures

63
http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/s
tring.html
64
ULTRASONIC SCALPEL
  • If your hospitals use Harmonic scalpel or other
    version, ask sales rep to bring in a unit for
    demonstration and practice.
  • Chicken works nicely

65
ULTRASONIC SCALPEL
  • If rep cannot bring unit to you, try trip to OR
    and ask a staff member to demonstrate as part of
    peer teaching credit
  • Ask a surgeon who uses the Harmonic scalpel to
    explain the benefits over use of ESU or lasers

66
ULTRASONIC SCALPEL
  • Have students research to compare and contrast
    between ESU and ultrasonic scalpel regarding
    tissue effects, mechanism of action
  • Tissue welding, denaturing of proteins, no char,
    no plume, no electrical current through patient,
    no grounding, slower, but generally safer,
    surgical procedures, types of tips, hand pieces,
    55,500 cycles/sec

67
CUSA
  • Cavitronic Ultrasonic Suction Aspirator
  • Have students research difference between CUSA
    and Harmonic Scalpel
  • Surgical applications of CUSA

68
ULTRASONIC ENERGY
  • See if anyone has a portable home jewelry
    ultrasonic cleaner and fill and demonstrate.
  • Ask an ultrasound tech to visit and explain the
    mechanism of action used for imaging internal
    structures without radiation.

69
VIBRATIONS
  • http//hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/s
    tring.html
  • String theory
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/resonance.htm
    l

70
Impact on surgery??
71
MECHANICS
  • Motion and Newtons Laws
  • http//www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/newton.h
    tml
  • http//www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/new
    tltoc.html

72
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73
Newtons First Law
74
Newtons Second Law
75
Newtons Third Law
76
MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
  • Videos
  • Practice with trainers for holding the camera
  • Visit an endoscopy suite
  • Assign research items from
  • www.laparoscopy.com

77
MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
  • Discuss variations on room set-up for different
    procedures
  • Outline steps for placement of Veress needle and
    for open laparoscopy

78
MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
  • Power point presentation on Laparoscopy

79
STATES OF MATTER
  • SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, PLASMA
  • http//www.chemtutor.com/sta.htm
  • http//www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewe
    r.php?mid49lc3

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81
ROBOTICS AND GUIDED IMAGERY
  • Currently, mainly large research/teaching
    hospitals are using robotics
  • Nearly every hospital has some sort of guided
    imagery for various specialties, i.e. neuro, ENT

82
Guided Imagery
  • Electromagnetic navigation technology
  • http//www.gehealthcare.com/rad/savi/education/edu
    cation_index2.htmlgallery

83
Guided Imagery
  • 21st Century Medicine 3-D imaging and
    Cyberspace
  • http//www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguides/p
    guide_605/4565_cyber.html

84
Guided Imagery
  • Explanations of building 3 dimensional images for
    surgical planning
  • http//groups.csail.mit.edu/vision/medical-vision/
    surgery/surgical_navigation.html

85
Guided Imagery
  • Archived internet broadcast treating chronic
    sinus problems with guided imagery Thomas
    Jefferson University Hospital
  • http//slp3d2.com/thj_1004/broadcast.html

86
Guided Imagery
  • Stereotaxis and 3 dimensions in space
  • Surgical planning lab Brigham and Womens
    Hospital
  • http//splweb.bwh.harvard.edu8000

87
Guided Imagery
  • Spinal procedure articles online
  • http//www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/ar
    ticle105.html
  • UfluoroNav Virtual Fluoroscopy System

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91
Guided Imagery
  • Image-Guided Surgery Space Age Technology
    Enters the Operating Room
  • http//www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/ar
    ticle756.html

92
Guided Imagery
  • Institute for Biomedical Engineering The George
    Washington University
  • Topics include surgical simulation, guided
    imagery techniques for breast cancer diagnosis,
    and Informatics for Disasters
  • http//www.ibe.gwu.edu/sub7.html

93
ROBOTICS
  • Solving Theoretical and Practical Problems in
    Robotics Robotics, Dynamics, and Control
  • Research group of Boston University
  • http//robotics.bu.edu/dupont/research.htm

94
ROBOTICS
  • Robotics and Computers in Minimally Invasive
    Spine Surgery
  • http//www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/ar
    ticle1511.html

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97
TELESURGERY
  • Distance delivery of surgical care by use of
    robotics, computers, and satellite communications
  • Have students discuss implications of technology
    in war, disaster areas, and eventually deep space

98
TELEPRESENCE distance consultation
99
ROBOTICS
  • Ability to move in more degrees of freedom than
    human extremities
  • Elimination of tremor and/or fatigue
  • Future capabilities for tactile feedback

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103
ROBOTICS - Training
104
ROBODOC?
105
RESOURCES
  • VARIOUS OPTIONS
  • Utilize those on the reference list for the
    LCC-ST CST exam
  • Dont be afraid to use as many visual aides as
    possible
  • Satisfy as many learning styles as you can, i.e.
    auditory, visual, kinesthetic, etc

106
RESOURCES
  • Show and Tell with everything available
  • Utilize the industry representatives
  • Get hospital staff (former students) involved in
    teaching

107
RESOURCES
  • Request mini-lectures or hands-on demonstrations
    from local surgeons giving them a sense of
    ownership of your program
  • Share expertise between other allied health
    programs by inviting speakers or senior students

108
RESOURCES
  • Distribute copies of articles from The Surgical
    Technologist journal on relevant subjects
  • Check out teacher stores for charts, posters,
    or other learning aids.

109
RESOURCES
  • Of course, surf the world wide web to your
    hearts content
  • Google.com is an enormous search engine
  • Whats your preference?

110
WHEN IS IT ENOUGH ?
  • There is almost TOO much information available to
    demonstrate concepts, ideas, procedures, and
    technology.
  • We must sift through and find what is most
    relevant to our students currently and what they
    will need in the near future.

111
WHEN IS IT ENOUGH ?
  • We, as instructors however, do not have the
    luxury of resting on our laurels
  • When the technology changes we must reflect it
    in our lesson plans

112
WHEN IS IT ENOUGH ?
  • Remaining current in the future is the
    responsibility of graduates as they become more
    seasoned professionals
  • We all need to continue learning

113
THE ONLY CONSTANT IS CHANGE
114
Thank you so much
  • I wish you great luck and happy hunting!
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