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Jails: Detention and ShortTerm Incarceration


Jails: Detention and Short-Term Incarceration. Clear & Cole, American ... some jails are experimenting with directly charging inmates (who can afford it) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jails: Detention and ShortTerm Incarceration

Chapter 7
  • Jails Detention and Short-Term Incarceration

American jails by the numbers...
number of jails in U.S.
Americans jailed annually
number (in millions)
adult jail inmates conviction status
More than 1/2 of adult jail inmates have NOT
been convicted of a crime.
adult jail inmates gender
9/10 of adult jail inmates are men.
adult jail inmates race
2/5 of adult jail inmates are African-American.
note hispanics are considered separate of
african-americans and whites
adult jail inmates ethnicity
1/6 of adult jail inmates are Hispanic.
adult jail inmates race ethnicity
1/3 of adult jail inmates are White.
getting out of jail -- free?
methods of release
(ROR) release on recognizance
pretrial release granted on the defendants
promise to appear in court, based on defendants
ties to the community
sum of money specified by judge to be posted by
the accused as condition of pretrial release, to
ensure defendants appearance in court
bondsman independent businessperson who charges
fee, usu. 5-10 for bail money
10 cash bail (reform) D. deposits 10 of bail
amount with court 90 returned at trial
preventive detention
  • detention of an accused in jail to protect the
    community from crimes the accused is considered
    likely to commit if released from jail while he
    awaits trial
  • authorized by Comprehensive Crime Control Act,
  • upheld in US v. Salerno, 1987

pretrial diversion
  • an alternative to adjudication in which the
    defendant agrees to abide with conditions set by
    the prosecutor in exchange for the withdrawal of
    charges (eg, counseling, drug treatment)
  • reasons for diversion programs
  • criminal justice system is not well equipped to
    handle some problems -- vagrancy, alcoholism,
  • keep less dangerous offenders from being labeled
    treated as hard-core criminals
  • diversion costs are less

danger! widening the net
widening the net
  • increasing the scope (ie, reach) of corrections
    CJS by creating diversionary program then
    sending people to that program for offenses that
    are much less serious than those the program was
    originally intended for.
  • diversion programs thereby ensnare persons who
    would otherwise not have come under the
    jurisdiction of the justice system (except for
    availability of the diversion program)

new-generation jail
  • a facility of podular architectural design and
    with management policies that emphasize
    staff-inmate interaction and the provision of
    services to inmates

podular unit
  • self-contained living area for from 12 to 24
    inmates, composed of private, individual cells
    open areas for social interaction
  • each jail has two or more pods

direct supervision
  • a method of correctional supervision in which
    staff have direct physical interaction with
    inmates throughout the day

regional jail
  • facility operated under a joint agreement by two
    or more governmental units (eg, city county),
    with a jail board made up of representatives from
    participating jurisdictions and having authority
    over policy, budget, operations, and personnel

fee system
  • a system in which jail operations are to be paid
    on the basis of a flat allocation per prisoner
    per day
  • problem creates an incentive for poor jails
    inadequate services, since the allocation remains
    the same, irrespective of the level of service

pay as you go jails (user fees)
some jails are experimenting with directly
charging inmates (who can afford it) at least
some of the costs of their keep
daily room and board
co-pay for nurse sick call
co-pay for medical specialist
special problems of jail detainees
jail issues
mental health problems
rights of pretrial detainees
substance dependency
legal needs
medical needs
problems of jail administration
jail management issues
jail facilities (outmoded expensive)
legal liability 42 USC 1983
jail crowding (crisis in 90s)
jail standards (ACA)
personnel matters (, training, conditions)
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