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Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment Galloway T'S', 2006

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Title: Biomarkers in environmental and human health risk assessment Galloway T'S', 2006


1
Biomarkers in environmental and human health
risk assessment(Galloway T.S., 2006)
M1 Oceanography UE 39, 2008
Leila Rezazgui Marta Tomaszkiewicz
2
(No Transcript)
3
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
4
1.1. Definition
  • Risk Hazard x Exposure
  • Qualitative or quantitative
  • At individual or population level
  • spatial and temporal scales

5
1.1. Definition
1. Risk assessment
1.2. The aim of risk assessment
6
Prediction
1.2. The aim risk assessment
Early warning
  • Determine limits of exposure

Ecosystem health!
Human health
7
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
8
RESEARCH
1.3 Procedure Risk assessment
/risk management
RISK ASSESSMENT
RISK MANAGEMENT
Development of regulatory options
Observations (laboratory, field)
Hazard identification
Extrapolation methods
Evaluation of Public, health, economic, social,
political consequences of regulatory options
EDRA
Risk-A
Measures, Characteristics of populations
Exposure assessment
Agency decisions and actions
EDRA Exposure-Dose- Response Assessment
Risk-A Risk characterization
NAS/NRC, 1983
9
320 Toxic chemicals 60
carcinogens
1.2. The aim of the risk assessment
In the USA
700 Organic chemicals
40 carcinogens
NIEHSsFY Budget,1998
10
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
11
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
Integration

combine the process of risk estimation for
humans, biota and natural resources in one
assessment
WHO, 2001
12
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
Suter, et al. 2005
13
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
The Two fundamental reasons for integration
  • improve the quality of assessment through
    exchanging information between Human health and
    environment risk assessors.
  • provide more coherent inputs to the
    decision-making

14
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
2. Biomarkers
2.1. Definition
15
BIOMARKER
2.1. Definition
ENVIRONMENT HEALTH
HUMAN HEALTH
  • indicator of normal biological processes,
    pathogenic processes
  • or pharmacological
  • responses to a therapeutic intervention
  • any biological response to an environmental
    chemical at the individual level or below
    demonstrating a departure from normal status

Peakall,1994
B.D.W.G, 2001
16
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim of risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
2. Biomarkers
2.1. Definition
2.2 Types and role of biomarkers
17
2.2 Types and role of biomarkers
Moore, et al. 2004
  • BIOMARKERS ALWAYS EXPRESSED
  • at the sub-organismal level
  • cellular, physiological or behavioural

18
CATEGORIES OF BIOMARKERS
2.2 Types and role of biomarkers
internal dose
susceptibility
early biological effects
  • biologically effective dose

Hulka et al.,1990
19
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim of risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
2. Biomarkers
2.1. Definition
2.2 Types and role of biomarkers
2.3 Examples
20
Urinary PAH metabolites (biomarker of internal
dose)
2.3 Examples
  • Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene - sensitive biomarker
  • in humans from 1985
  • biomarker in invertebrates?

Ariese et al., 2005
the profile of PAH metabolites is species specific
21
Biomarker of OP pesticides susceptibility
2.3 Examples
  • complicated and changing pattern of
    susceptibility

tolerance induction
different source and composition of pollution in
environment
HUMANS
INVERTEBRATES
22
1. Risk assessment
1.1. Definition
1.2. The aim of risk assessment
1.3. Procedure
1.4. Integration of human and environment risk
assessment
2. Biomarkers
2.1. Definition
2.2 Types and role in risk assessment
2.3 Examples
3. Conclusion
23

3. Conclusion
Focusing on a single media, a single source, and
a single toxic endpoint (paramétres)
Not enough
Need integrated, holistic approach, with
multichemical, multimedia, multiroute, and
multispecies exposures
24
3. Conclusion
Integration
Appealing (séduisante) and really important
But
  • Protection of humans isn't inevitably a result
    of protection of nonhuman organisms and
    ecosystems
  • Nonhuman may be more exposed or more sensitive
    than humans .

25
3. Conclusion
  • Radical selection of biomarkers
  • Exchange with different disciplines
  • Cooperation between the human and
  • environmental risk assessments

Owen et al, 2008
26
3. Conclusion
  • complexity of ecosystems
  • unique biology of the
  • individual
  • Honesty transparency
  • and communication

27
REFERENCES
Aas E., Beyer J., Jonsson G., Reichert W.L.,
Andersen O.K., 2001, Evidence of uptake,
biotransformation and DNA binding of polyaromatic
hydrocarbons in Atlantic cod and corkwing wrasse
caught in the vicinity of an aluminium works,
Marine Environmental Research, 52
213-229 Ariese F., Beyer J., Wells D, 2005, Two
fish bile reference materials certified for PAH
metabolites. Journal of environmental Monitoring,
7 869 876 Eason C., OHalloran K., 2002,,
Biomarkers in toxicology versus ecological risk
assessment, Toxicology 181-182 517-521
Galloway T.S., Brown R.J., Browne M.A.,
Dissanayake A., Lowe D., Jones M.B., Depledge
M.H., 2004, Ecosystem management bioindicators
the ECOMAN project a multi-biomarker approach
to ecosystem management. Marine Environmental
Research 58 233237 Galloway T.S., Millward N.,
Browne M.A., Depledge M.H., 2002, Rapid
assessment of organophosphorous/carbamate
exposure in the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis
using combined esterase activities as biomarkers,
Aquatic Toxicology 61 169180 Hyne R.V., Maher
W.A., 2003, Invertebrate biomarkers links to
toxicosis that predict population decline,
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 54
366374 Jongeneelen F., J., 1997, Methods for
routine biological monitoring of carcinogenic
PAH-mixtures, The Science of the Total
Environment 199 141-149 Moore M. N., Depledge
M. H., Readman J. W., Leonard D.R.P., 2004, An
integrated biomarker-based strategy for
ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in
environmental management. Mutation Research, 552
247268
28
REFERENCES
  • Omenn G.S., M.D. 2006. PUBLIC COMMENT ON OMB
    DRAFT RISK ASSESSMENT BULLETIN. National Research
    Council Public Meeting.
  • Owen R., Galloway T.S, Hagger J.A., Jones M.B.,
    Depledge M.H.2008. Biomarkers and environmental
    risk assessment Guiding principles from the
    human health field. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56
    613619
  • Schlenk D., 1999, Necessity of defining
    Biomarkers for Use in Ecological Risk
    Assessments, Marine Pollution Bulletin 39 48-53
  • Suter G.W., Vermeire T., Munns W.R., Jun Sekizaw,
    2005,, An integrated framework for health and
    ecological risk assessment, Toxicology and
    Applied Pharmacology 207 S611 S616
  • Vainio H., 2001, Use of biomarkers in risk
    assessment, International Journal of Hygiene and
    Environmental Health
  • Van Leeuwen, C.J. and J.L.M. Hermens, Eds. 1995.
    Risk Assessment of Chemicals AnIntroduction.
    Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • http//books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id11811
    page13
  • http//oaspub.epa.gov/eims/xmlreport.display?deid
    15200z_chk63298
  • http//www.who.int/ipcs/publications/new_issues/ir
    a/en/print.html
  • http//www.who.int/ipcs/publications/new_issues/ir
    a/en/print.html
  • www.google.com
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