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Holistic S


Livestock (cattle, buffalo, goat, & sheep) Farming Systems ... Water Bodies (Basin) Planning Systems using Watershed and Agro-Eco Region Planning Concepts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Holistic S

Holistic ST Inputs for Objective Drought
Monitoring Role of National Informatics Centre
  • Agricultural Informatics Division
  • National Informatics Centre
  • Department of Information Technology
  • Ministry of Communications and Information
  • (Government of India)
  • New Delhi

National Informatics Centre Meeting the People
  • An institution with 30 Years of Experience in
    Catalising Informatics for Development in
  • Informatics Productivity (Hypothesis
    Trustworthy Networking and Information System
    reinforces commitment on productivity)
  • NICNET gateway for Internet/Intranet Access and
    NICNET Centres for Resources Sharing In Central,
    State and District Administrations
  • State Government Informatics Development
  • District Informatics Development Programme
  • Mission Mode Projects in collaboration with
    Central and State Government Departments


Agriculture is the mainstay of sizeable
percentage of Indian people but natural disaster
like drought, shakes the backbone of theirs,
destroying acres of cropped land and pushing the
Economy to the crippled condition.
Farmer An institution Save the Farmer, Save
the Farming

Rural Indias Stakeholding
ICT Diffusion for Sustainable Grassroots
Development Assisting Indias 650 Million to
augment their earning power

Rural Indias Stakeholding
Agricultural Informatics Communication requires
Inter-Sectoral Approach

Models of e-Government (i.e. digital government)
Good Governance and institutions are
indispensable for sound agricultural and rural
development in developing countries. Models of
e-Government (i.e. digital government) are
continuously evolving and improvising to harness
the potential offered by the Information and
Communication Technologies (ICTs) and deal with
new realities in the area of governance, through
out the World.
  • Generic Models of e-Government (www. Digital
    governance.org)are relevant while discussing
    design of an e-Government for Poor
  • Broadcasting / Wider-Dissemination Model
  • Critical Flow Model
  • Comparative Analysis Model
  • e-Advocacy/ Lobbying and Pressure Group Model
  • Integrated Services Model

Geometry of Information Flows
Studying and influencing the Geometry of
Information Flows facilitates direct benefits
rather than trickle-down benefits for the
disadvantaged community (i.e. the Resource-Poor
farmer) An essential step towards identifying the
missing element Who are our Target groups that
we want to reach out to, through ICT for
Development projects? What are the key
information needs of the disadvantaged
community?    What are the existing channels by
which information reaches to the disadvantaged
community?          What is the weakest link in
the chain of information flows from source to
the disadvantaged community?
Digital Development in Rural areas A Journey
started in 1985 with the establishment of NICNET
in districts of India- ISDA 95 Informatics for
Sustainable Agricultural Development
  • Existing Digital Initiative projects for
    Agricultural development
  • AgRIS (Agricultural Resources Information System)
  • DACNET (http//dacnet.nic.in)
  • AGMARKNET (http//agmarknet.nic.in)
  • National Horticulture Mission
  • Agricultural Census Database
  • Minor Irrigation Census
  • DAIC Scheme (Development of Agricultural
    Informatics Communication)
  • SeedNet (http//SeedNet.gov.in)
  • Agricultural Datawarehosuing and Datamining
  • National Portal on Rainfed Farming
  • National Portal on Farm Mechanisation
  • National Portal on 300 Agricultural Commodities
  • DISNIC (http//disnic.nic.in) A programme for
    ICT in microlevel planning.
  • Agricultural Research Information System Network
  • Land Records Computerized Database A Joint
    Venture of NIC, DLR, and State Governments
  • eGranthalaya Moving towards Rural Digital
    Library for Literacy Mission Poverty

Agricultural Resources Information System A
Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural
Agricultural Resources Information System A
Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural
(No Transcript)
Agricultural Resources Information System A
Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural
  • Decision Technology System (DTS), built upon the
    Agricultural Resources Information System, is
    what required for undertaking
  • Crop Suitability based on factor endowment
  • Land Suitability Assessment
  • Land Productivity Assessment
  • Population Supporting Capacity
  • Land Evaluation and Land Use Planning
  • Land Degradation Risk Assessment
  • Quantification of Land Resources Constraints
  • Land Management
  • Agro-ecological Characterization for Research and

Agricultural Resources Information System A
Needed Domestic Strategy for Sustainable Rural
   Agricultural Technology Transfer   
Agricultural Inputs Recommendations    Farming
Systems Analysis and Development   
Environmental Impact Assessment    Monitoring
of Land Resources Development.    Livestock
(cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep) Farming Systems
   Water allocation in an irrigation system   
Fodder Resources Development    Water Bodies
(Basin) Planning Systems using Watershed and
Agro-Eco Region Planning Concepts
Pilot Demonstration Projects Typologies
  • A Tribal District
  • A Hill District
  • A Dry-land District
  • A Socially backward District
  • A Green Revolution District
  • A Coastal district
  • A Dairy-farming District
  • A district dominated by cash crop district
  • A district in a mining/ industrial belt
  • A district dominated by forest economy
  • A district dominated by one or two urban centers
  • A district in arid-zone
  • A district, which is flood prone but having vast
    wasteland that could be used to generate forest


DISNIC Programme Revisited
DISNIC A District level Government Informatics
Programme (1987) DISNIC-PLAN An Informatics
Blueprint that covers Villages Sustainability of
Natural Resources Endowment, Full Employment,
Empowerment of Women, Production System
Planning ICT for Social development ICT for
Economic Development


NIC envisages to establish
  • Centre for Agricultural Informatics and
  • DISNIC Programme (http//disnic.gov.in)
  • AgRIS (http//agris.nic.in)
  • DACNET (http//dacnet.nic.in)
  • DAIC (Development of Agricultural Informatics
    Communication) Scheme
  • AGMARKNET (http//agmarknet.nic.in)
  • SEEDNET (http//seednet.nic.in)
  • Digital SME SCM CRM Value Chain
  • Land Records Computerized Database
  • e-Cooperative CoopNet
  • e-Granthalaya
  • e-Governance Standards (http//egovstandards.gov.i


Agricultural Drought

Drought is a condition of moisture deficit
sufficient to have an adverse effect on
vegetation, animals and man over a sizable area.
  Countrys experience is that-        
Drought can be prevented        Drought can be
mitigated.        Hardships can be minimized.
       Sufferings can be reduced.  If we work
together at all levels,   Drought is not a
Disaster, but a Management Issue.   WE
Constitutes WHOM? When drought begins, the
agricultural sector is usually the first to be
affected because of its heavy dependence on
stored soil water.
  • Agricultural drought occurs when the rainfall and
    soil moisture are inadequate to meet the water
    requirements of crops.
  • Meteorological drought leads to a depletion of
    soil moisture and this almost always has an
    impact on crop production.
  • Agricultural drought is typically seen
    after meteorological drought (when rainfall
    decreases) but before a hydrological drought
    (when the water level in rivers, lakes and
    reservoirs decreases).


(Source http//www.drought.unl.edu/whatis/concept

Centre for Continuous and Integrated Agricultural
Drought Monitoring Mainstreaming ICT
  • Database System
  • Spatial System
  • Non-Spatial System
  • Decision Support System (DSS)
  • Workflow Systems
  • Web Services Applications
  • ICT Infrastructure at grassroots level
  • IntraNet solutions
  • Networking of Stakeholders
  • Capacity Building
  • e-Governance Standards Adoption
  • Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) System


Database System Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • General data
  • Watershed Name and its Code (given by Soil and
    Land Use Survey of India) and NSDI Code
  • Location and Boundaries,
  • Size shape,
  • Elevation slope,
  • Presence of streams, tributaries, etc.
  • Physical data
  • Geological data,
  • Soil data (soil texture, depth, soil series,
    physical and chemical properties),
  • Geomorphologic data (drainage patterns, stream
    density and order, channel profiles etc.)


Database System Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Climate, Hydrology and Water Resource data
  • precipitation,
  • evaporation,
  • wind,
  • temperature,
  • humidity,
  • rainfall,
  • stream flow,
  • surface water,
  • ground water,
  • water quality, etc.


Database System Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Land Use, Land Cover, Land Capability data
  • land use by classes,
  • ownership,
  • land capability, etc.
  • Cropping pattern
  • Irrigation requirements
  • Agricultural inputs availability
  • Erosion data
  • kinds of erosion, extent, causes, etc


Database System Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Maps for developing DSS
  • base map showing boundary, sub-watersheds,
    villages, roads, etc
  • topographic map showing contours, elevations,
    land forms, streams, etc
  • soil map showing soil types and boundaries,
    depths and soil limiting properties
  • climatic map showing mainly rainfall, but
    statistics may include temperature,
    evapo-transpiration, etc.
  • geology map showing rock types, structures,
    displacement, morphology, etc.
  • slope map showing different slope classes or
  • present land use map showing major land uses and
    land cover types
  • land capability or land suitability map showing
    different land capability classes or land
    suitability classes
  • land-use adjustment map showing land being
    over-used or under-used and adjustment needs
  • erosion or sediment source maps showing sites of
    various types of erosion and sediment potential
  • hydro-meteorological network map showing the
    location of climatic and stream gauging stations
  • water resource map showing surface and
    underground sources.


Database System Non-Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Infrastructure data
  • Transportation networks,
  • Housing,
  • Public services,
  • Survey of agro-industry, etc.
  • Socio-economic/Demographic data
  • Population,
  • Rate of growth,
  • Composition,
  • Migration,
  • Employment, and
  • Other demographic factors affecting rate of
    resource use, etc.


Database System Non-Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Minimum needs of the farmers
  • more roads,
  • domestic/ irrigation water,
  • housing,
  • marketing arrangements,
  • recreation facilities.
  • Awareness of farmers about the causes and
  • problems facing the watershed


Database System Non-Spatial Component Watershed
based Development
  • Economic data
  • farms production,
  • farms income,
  • farm models,
  • farming systems,
  • land use patterns,
  • employment,
  • labour demand and supply,
  • rural enterprises,
  • marketing, etc.


Decision Support System (DSS) A partial list
  • Decision Technology System (DTS) to be built
    under AgRIS Project
  • Early Warning System (Alerts/ Forecasts based on
    indicators like market arrivals, level of
    inventory in rural Godowns, climatic factors
  • Advisory on Water (Selection of appropriate use
    of existing water potential, Scheduling of Water
    availability, etc.)
  • Animal Heath Care (Recommendations on Mix of
    Fodders Feeds for balanced diet during
  • Crop security, food security, nutrition security,
    health security and livestock security
  • .


Development of Workflow systems A Partial List
  • Input Supply Chain (Requirement from district,
    Allocation from state, distribution from Input
    Stock Centres/Godowns)
  • Public Distribution System (Requirement,
    Allocation and Distribution)
  • Relief Operations Plan (Centre/State/
  • Agricultural Extension Services
  • District Administration workflow system
  • .


Development of Web Services in regional
languages A Partial List
  • Weather and Drought Forecasting
  • Area Specific Advice on farm practices to farmers
    based on weather conditions
  • State Government requesting relief assistance
  • Drought Relief Programmes announced by the
  • Status of Drought Relief Operations at
    district/block/village level
  • ..


Mainstreaming ICT ICT Infrastructure at
grassroots level
  • ICT Infrastructure and Network Connectivity at
    district and sub-district level
  • SWAN Nodes
  • NICNET Nodes (600) of NIC
  • Common Services Centres (CSCs) of DIT
  • Community Information Centres (CICs) of DIT
  • Village Knowledge Centres of DST
  • Village Resources Centres of DOS
  • National Agricultural Research System (NARS)
    Nodes (ICAR 89, SAUs 45, Agricultural
    Colleges 300, Agricultural Research Stations
    800, KVKs 500)
  • Public Libraries (District and Village) - 57000
  • College Libraries (Rural Colleges) 12000
  • Low Cost Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at
    Block level and networked to SWAN/NICNET

Low Cost Automatic Weather Stations (AWS)
  • Automatic Weather Stations having
  • Rain
  • Temperature
  • Winds
  • Rainfall
  • Soil TemperaturesHumidity
  • Sensors at Block level can help continuous
    monitoring of the drought.

Improved Scenario
  • Detailed records of observations for further
    analysis at local and regional level
  • Can help in early detection of drought tendency
    by analysing prevailing high temperature and
    winds for longer periods
  • Development of Expert systems for Decision Makers.


Mainstreaming ICT Utilization of State owned
e-Governance Delivery Systems
  • NEMMADI Kendras of Karnataka
  • e-SEVA of Andhra Pradesh
  • KAMADHENU of Rajasthan
  • e-JAN SAMPARK of Chandigarh
  • SUVIDHA of Punjab
  • RASI MAIYAMS of Tamilnadu
  • INFOGRAM of Goa
  • FRIENDS of Kerala
  • GYAN DARSHAN of Gujarat
  • LOKVANI of Uttar Pradesh
  • JAN MITRA of Himachal Pradesh
  • JAIKISAN of Uttrakhand
  • e-Gram Suvidha of Madhya Pradesh
  • e-SUVIDHA of CICs in North Eastern States
  • NAIDISHA of Haryana
  • SUCHNA MITRA Kendra of Chhattisgarh


Mainstreaming ICT Capacity Building through HRD
  • Awareness for Drought Preparedness and Control
  • Extension and advisory services
  • ICT usage for access of information, Workflow and
  • Business Process Re-engineering
  • Expert Systems/ Datamining/ Knowledge Systems
  • Internet/Web Technology
  • GIS RS Technology
  • Database Technology
  • Office Productivity Tools
  • e-Office (e-Form, e-Document, Workflow, Web
    services etc)
  • (Same methodology adopted for the DACNET Project)


e-Governance Standards Working Groups to
facilitate implementation of National eGovernance
Programme (NeGP)
  • Enterprise Architecture
  • Government Process Re-engineering
  • Network Security
  • Information Security
  • Meta Data Data Description
  • Localization Language Computing
  • Legal Enablement of ICT Systems
  • Documentation Quality Control


Enterprise Architecture Framework for Agriculture
Drought Monitoring System


Government Process Re-engineering
  • Stakeholders
  • Types of customers and other stakeholders
  • Relationships of stakeholders to the enterprise
  • Exchanges between stakeholders and the enterprise
    form the inputs -to and outputs-from
    Government processes
  • As-is Government processes
  • Target Government processes
  • Performance measures for Government processes
  • Cross-reference of Government processes to the
    objectives they support (From EAs perspective
    relationship among architecture artefacts is the
    key to generate analysis or actionable
  • Review relationship of the organizational units
    to the processes they carry out


Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) System
  • Institutionalization of Monitoring and Evaluation
    (ME) Systems to improve Agricultural Drought
    Management (AgDM)
  • To provide a regular flow of information on the
    performance of government policies, programs and
  • To provide invaluable support for policy-making,
    budget decision-making, ongoing management of
    government activities
  • To enable stakeholders to evaluate their actions
    in a critical way and address the challenges
  • To strengthen accountability relationships
  • To identify the 'leakage' of government funds
    using public expenditure tracking surveys (PETS).
  •    How to build an ME System to support better


To conclude,
  • The idea of establishing of a Centre for
    Continuous and Integrated Drought Monitoring is
  • Lessons may be learnt from National Centre for
    Crop Forecasting, Krishi Bhavan
  • Leverage of ongoing Programmes/Projects of
    Agricultural Informatics Communication
  • AgRIS
  • DAIC
  • NHM
  • Agricultural Census Input Survey
    Computerisation programme
  • Minor Irrigation Census Computerisation Programme
  • If demanded, NIC can roll out for the proposed
    Centre for Continuous and Integrated Agricultural
    Drought Monitoring, in collaboration with DAC.


Madaswamy Moni Deputy Director General National
Informatics Centre Department of Information
Technology Government of India eMail moni_at_nic.in
Thank You for your kind attention
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