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Outlining a Chapter

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The main outline headings follow the section divisions of a chapter ... b. Example: trout. 3. Population. a. Groups of like organisms. that live in the same area ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Outlining a Chapter


1
Outlining a Chapter
  • An outline breaks down the parts of a chapter
    into clear phrases
  • The main outline headings follow the section
    divisions of a chapter
  • Each section includes several points indent the
    outline to include notes on these points
  • Alternate parts of the outline using numbers and
    letters

2
Standard Outline Format
  • Roman numerals are used for the section divisions
    of a chapter
  • A. Using a capital letter, write the first
    point of the section
  • B. These are notes you do not have to use
    complete sentences
  • C. Indent each new point found in the section,
    using a new letter

3
  • Outlines should have enough information to help
    on a test
  • A. Vocabulary words
  • 1. Definition
  • 2. Example of the term
  • 3. Connection to biology
  • Outlines can assist with organizing information
    for research and writing
  • A. Important dates, people, events
  • B. Planning and revising

4
Chapter 3 - The Biosphere
  • Ecology
  • A. Scientific study of interactions of
    organisms within their environment
  • 1. Term first used by Ernst Haeckel in
    1866
  • a. German biographer
  • 2. Living world as a household
  • a. Biosphere
  • b. Combined parts of planet where life
    exists
  • c. Includes land, water, and air

5
  • B. Levels of Organization
  • 1. Individual
  • 2. Species
  • a. Group of like organisms
  • b. Example trout
  • 3. Population
  • a. Groups of like organisms
  • that live in the same area
  • b. Example school of fish
  • 4. Community
  • a. Different populations living
  • in the same area

6
  • 5. Ecosystem
  • a. All organisms in one place including
    all other living and non-living things
  • b. Example coral reef
  • 6. Biome
  • a. Group of ecosystems with the same
    climate
  • b. Example southern Pacific Ocean

7
  • C. Ecological methods
  • 1. Observing
  • a. Simple
  • b. complex
  • 2. Experimenting
  • a. Testing in artificial or natural
    conditions
  • 3. Modeling
  • a. To study more complex, long term events
    in nature like global warming

8
  • Energy flow
  • Producers
  • Sunlight is the main energy source
  • Some organisms use stored energy
  • Autotroph
  • a. Uses sunlight to produce food
  • b. Example photosynthesis
  • c. Chemosynthesis use of chemical energy to
    produce food
  • d. Example bacteria

9
  • Consumers
  • 1. Organisms that get energy from other
    organisms Heterotrophs
  • 2. Herbivores
  • a. Plant eaters
  • b. Example cows, deer
  • 3. Carnivores
  • a. Meat eaters
  • b. Example snakes, owls
  • 4. Omnivores
  • a. Plant and animal eaters
  • b. Example humans, bears

10
  • 5. Detrivores
  • a. Feed on dead plant and animal material
  • b. Example earthworms, crabs
  • 6. Decomposers
  • a. Break down organic matter
  • b. Example bacteria, fungi
  • Feeding relationships
  • 1. Food chains
  • 2. Food webs
  • 3. Trophic levels
  • Ecological pyramids
  • 1. Energy pyramid
  • 2. Biomass pyramid
  • 3. Pyramid of numbers

11
  • Cycles of matter
  • A. Recycling in the biosphere
  • B. Water cycle
  • 1. Evaporation
  • 2. Transpiration
  • C. Nutrient cycles
  • 1. Carbon cycle
  • 2. Nitrogen cycle
  • 3. Phosphorus cycle
  • D. Nutrient limitation
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