GEOL 240 The Dinosaurs: Cladistics and Systematics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title:

GEOL 240 The Dinosaurs: Cladistics and Systematics

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Triceratops. Chasmosaurus and Triceratops share a more recent ... Centrosaurus is a sister group with Chasmosaurus plus Triceratops. Phylogenetic Systematics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GEOL 240 The Dinosaurs: Cladistics and Systematics


1
GEOL 240 The DinosaursCladistics and Systematics
2
Systematics
  • the scientific study of the diversity of
    organisms within and among clades (genetically
    related groups of organisms)
  • Taxonomy naming organisms / groups
  • Systematics identifying evolutionary
    significant groups

3
Evolutionary Systematics
  • a system of classification based on morphological
    similarity and the Linnaean taxonomic hierarchy
    (K,P,C,O,F,G,S)
  • It turns out that to classify organisms there
    need to be an unmanageable number of sub- and
    super- groups (superorder, suborder )

4
Phylogenetic Systematics
  • Also known as Cladistics
  • Phylogeny a "family tree" of taxa
  • Designed to show closeness of ancestry between
    groups

5
Descendants
Ancestors
6
Phylogenetic Systematics
  • Chasmosaurus and Triceratops share a more recent
    common ancestor with each other than either does
    with Centrosaurus

Centrosaurus
Chasmosaurus
Triceratops
Common Ancestor
7
Phylogenetic Systematics
  • Sister Taxon - taxon which share a splitting
    event, like Chasmosaurus and Triceratops.
  • Centrosaurus is a sister group with Chasmosaurus
    plus Triceratops.

Centrosaurus
Chasmosaurus
Triceratops
8
Phylogenetic Systematics
9
Phylogenetic Systematics
10
  • Monophyletic ("single branch") all descendants
    of a common ancestor
  • Most recent common ancestor of the members of a
    monophyletic group is also a member of that group
  • Represents a complete branch of the tree of life

C
B
A
D
11
  • Paraphyletic ("nearly a branch") some, but not
    all, descendants of a common ancestor
  • Most recent common ancestor of the members of a
    paraphyletic group is also a member of that group
  • Represents a branch of the tree of life with one
    or more buds or stems clipped off

C
B
A
D
12
  • Polyphyletic ("many branch") two groups that do
    not share a direct common ancestor which is also
    part of the group
  • Most recent common ancestor of the members of a
    polyphyletic group is not also a member of that
    group
  • Represents two or more separate branches of the
    tree of life

B
A
C
D
13
  • Stem-based taxon - Taxon X and all organisms
    sharing a more recent ancestor with Taxon X than
    with Taxon Y

Y
X
This one does not include the splitting ancestor
14
  • Node-based taxon - The most common recent
    ancestor of Taxon X and Taxon Y, and all
    descendants of that ancestor

X
Y
This one does include the splitting ancestor
15
Sauropodomorphs
16
Saurischia ("lizard-hipped" or "reptile-hipped")
Ornithischia
("bird-hipped")
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