When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning' - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning'

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Cloning started back in 1952 when scientist cloned the first animal, a tadpole. The first successful clone was the famous sheep 'Dolly' who was cloned in 1996 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning'


1
  • When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or
    cloning.
  • What typically comes to your mind?

2
Cloning
  • is an umbrella term used by scientists to
    describe different processes for duplicating
    biological material.
  • Cloning started back in 1952 when scientist
    cloned the first animal, a tadpole
  • The first successful clone was the famous sheep
    Dolly who was cloned in 1996

3
Three types of cloning
  • DNA cloning or Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Reproductive Cloning
  • Therapeutic Cloning

4
  • Reproductive cloning is the type of cloning one
    thinks of, that is usually in the media.
  • What are your views on cloning? Is it right to be
    against one but not the other?

5
DNA cloning or Recombinant DNA Technology
  • DNA cloning technology has been around since the
    early 1970s
  • This process involves taking DNA fragments of
    interest from an organism and in turn place it
    into a host cell.
  • Scientist after studying a gene use bacterial
    plasmids to generate multiple copies of the same
    gene.

6
DNA cloning, cont.
  • Scientist are able to clone a gene by isolating
    it from chromosomal DNA using restriction
    enzymes.
  • The purpose of this type of cloning is to isolate
    a certain gene or create duplicates of a gene
    that seems to be perfect.

7
Some Radicals
  • Rael claimed he was abducted by Aliens in the
    early 70s who practiced cloning
  • Since 1973 he has preached cloning, and was able
    to get many followers called the Raellians.
  • He formed a company in the Bahamas and started
    Clonaid, a project to clone humans.

8
Radicals, cont.
  • One hundred couples signed up immediately, the
    first were couples who were unable to conceive
    children together, some infertile, some gay.
  • Parents that wanted to clone their dying children
  • Rael charged 200,000 per clone in addition to
    that the company would charge 50,000 for a
    service called Insuraclone, just in case a child
    was later lost to an incurable disease or
    accident.
  • Rael soon had over 20 million, enough to hire
    scientists to begin developing the procedure.
    Scary!

9
Radicals, cont.
  • There was also Randolfe Wicker who ran a
    incorporated clones rights center.
  • Two days after the New York Times announced the
    cloning of Dolly, he began organizing a Clones
    Rights United Front.
  • Demonstrations were led, they were also known for
    carrying signs with slogans that read
  • DOLLY LAMA- OUR NEW SPIRITUAL LEADER
  • CLONING REPRODUCTION WITHOUT COMPROMISE.
  • CLONE DIANA! ONE GOOD LIFETIME DESERVES
    ANOTHER!

10
Reproductive Cloning
  • Reproductive cloning is a technology used to
    create an animal with the same nuclear DNA as
    another currently or previously existing animal.
  • Dolly was created using this technology the
    process is called somatic cell nuclear transfer
    or SCNT.
  • The egg containing DNA from the donor cell must
    then be treated with chemicals or electric
    current in order for the cells to split or
    stimulate cell division.
  • Once the embryo has reached the perfect stage it
    is transferred to the uterus of a female host
    where it continues to develop until birth.

11
Repro. Cloning, cont.
  • Using this technology doesnt mean that you are
    going to get an identical clone of the donor
    animal only the clones chromosomal or nuclear
    DNA is the same as the donor.
  • Dolly the first animal to ever be cloned actually
    died at age 6, February 14, 2003

12
Reflections on reproductive cloning
  • Now can I see a show of hands?
  • How many people would choose one of these two
    methods to create the perfect baby?
  • How many wouldnt?

13
Therapeutic Cloning
  • This type of cloning also known as embryo cloning
    is the production of human embryos used for
    research
  • Goal is to harvest stem cells acquired from
    embryos
  • These stem cells can be used to treat certain
    behaviors or research them and can also be used
    for curing diseases
  • Stem cell research is important because maybe
    one day it could be used to treat cells in the
    human body that cause cancer, heart disease,
    Alzheimers, and other diseases.

14
Therapeutic Cloning, cont.
  • November 2001 in Massachusetts, scientists were
    able to clone the first human embryos for the
    purpose of therapeutic cloning. They collected
    eight eggs from a womans ovaries, only three
    were able to divide and only one was able to
    divide into six cells before it stopped.

15
Positive aspects of cloning
  • Recombinant DNA technology is very important when
    it comes to learning about gene therapy, genetic
    engineering of organisms, and sequencing genomes.
  • Reproductive cloning technology can be used to
    clone animals with certain qualities to treat and
    study different diseases. It also can be used to
    repopulate certain endangered animals, even some
    animals that are almost extinct and some animals
    that are hard to breed
  • Therapeutic cloning technology may some day be
    used on humans to produce whole organs from
    single cells, or to replace damaged cells in
    people with Alzheimers or Parkinsons disease.

16
Negative aspects of cloning
  • Cloning can be very expensive and highly
    inefficient
  • Cloning has a low success rate
  • Cloned animals tend to have more compromised
    immune function and higher rates of infection,
    tumor growth, and other disorders.
  • It took 276 attempts at cloning, Dolly was the
    only success!
  • Looking at these factors it would be totally and
    completely unethical to even make an attempt to
    clone a human being!
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