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RICE PRODUCTION

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First sign of cultivation about 5500 years ago in China. ... rice stink bug are some of the most. damaging insects to rice. Control is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RICE PRODUCTION


1
Rice Production
Paul B. Francis University of
Arkansas at Monticello
Photo by J. P. McCorkle
2
RICE PRODUCTION
  • Rice Oryza sativa
  • Worlds No. 1 food cereal.
  • Nutritious.
  • Sacred grain in many regions.
  • Valuable commodity.

3
HISTORY
  • First sign of cultivation about 5500 years ago in
    China.
  • Cultivation spread to parts of India, Iran, Iraq,
    Egypt and eventually to Japan around 500 B.C.
  • First cultivated in U.S. along coastal regions
    from S. Carolina to Texas in 1685.
  • First grown in Arkansas in 1907.
  • Today, 92 of rice grown and consumed in Asia.

4
Source C. Wilson, Univ. Arkansas Coop. Ext. Ser.
5
BOTANY
  • Warm season annual, C3 grass.
  • Aerenchyma vessels.
  • Shallow root system.
  • 4-6 months growing season.
  • 50 F minimum growing temperature.
  • 8-35 in water consumption per month.
  • Growth can be predicted by DD50 model.

6
Rice Crop Growth Stages
Grain fill
Panicle initiation
Flood, 5 leaf
Source Rice Prod. Handbook. MP192, Univ. Ark.
Coop. Ext. Ser.
7
Rice at flowering stage. (P. B. Francis)
Panicle initiation (MP192 Univ.
Ark.. Coop. Ext. Ser.)
Ready for harvest!
8
DD50 Growth Model.
  • Predicts days to certain growth stages based on
    1) variety, 2) date emerged and 3) location.
  • Used to help in management. Reminds growers when
    to do such things as apply fertilizers and
    pesticides, scout for certain diseases and
    insects and when to drain and expect to harvest.

9
TYPES OF RICE.
ECOSYSTEM TYPES
DEEPWATER
UPLAND
LOWLAND
10
TYPES OF RICE
GENOTYPES OF RICE
  • Oryza sativa var. indica. Mostly long
  • grain types grown in Arkansas and the
  • southeast.
  • 2. Oryza sativa var. japonica. Mostly short
  • and medium grain types grown in Asia
  • and California, preferred types in the
  • Asian markets.
  • 3. Red rice. Oryza sativa - 1 WEED!

11
TYPES OF RICE
KERNEL SIZE
WILD RICE THIS IS NOT RICE!
LONG GRAIN
MEDIUM GRAIN
SHORT GRAIN
Source USA Rice Federation
12
Rice milling.
  • Milling involves husk removal and separation.
  • Four main products
  • 1. whole seed (75)
  • 2. broken seeds
  • 3. hulls or husks
  • 4. bran, oil, flour etc.

(USA Rice Federation)
13
TYPES OF RICE
MILLED PRODUCTS
ROUGH RICE
RICE HULLS
BROWN RICE
RICE BROKENS
POLISHED RICE
RICE FLOUR
RICE BRAN
PAR BOILED RICE
(U.S.A. Rice Federation)
14
Rice Milling Yields
Rice milling yields are related to the economic
value of the crop. The analysis gives the
percent of whole grain (75 length) and whole
grain broken grain. For example
55/65
whole grains brokens
whole grains
brokens 65-55 10
hulls 100-65 35
15
Rice Production planting.
  • Dry seeding with drill.
  • Dry seeding by broadcast or air.
  • Water seeding with pre-germinated seed.
  • By hand transplant.
  • Ideal stand 20 plants/square ft. Sow
  • about 40 seeds/square ft.
  • Flushing fields to aid in germination if
    needed..

16
Rice Production Fertilization.
  • N urea fertilizer of choice. Rates range
  • from 60 180 lbs N/acre depending upon
  • variety and soil history.
  • N applied in a 2 or 3-way split first time just
  • before flooding, then again at about 1 cm
  • internode elongation.
  • P,K applied pre-plant according to soil tests.
  • Zn sometimes applied in high pH soils.

17
Rice Production - weed control.
  • Four main weed problems
  • 1. red rice 1.
  • 2. grasses ie., barnyardgrass.
  • 3. broadleaf weeds, ie., coffeebean.
  • 4. aquadic weeds, ie., ducksalad.
  • Control programs vary, but flooding rice
  • is the 1 method, then herbicides and/or a
  • herbicide resistant variety (Clearfield rice).

18
Insect problems
www.aragriculture.org/insects/rice
The immature rice water weevil and the rice
stink bug are some of the most damaging insects
to rice. Control is accomplished by scouting,
draining fields and timely use of approved
insecticides when necessary.
19
Disease management.
Sheath blight and blast are two of the
most damaging diseases in rice. Control
involves resistant varieties, scouting and timely
use of approved fungicides when needed.
BLAST
SHEATH BLIGHT
www.aragriculture.org/diseases/rice
20
Rice Water Management
  • Levees surveyed in 0.2 ft increments.
  • Zero grade fields.
  • Flood at about 5-6 leaf.
  • Maintain a 2-4 inch flood until grain fills.
  • Be able to drain and flood in a timely
  • manner.
  • Water sources include surface and groundwater.

21
Typical seasonal water needs.(l.g. rice in
Arkansas environment)
Soil cm water silt loam with pan
61 silt loam no pan 76 clay
91 fine sandy loam 122
Source Rice Prod. Handbook, MP192. Univ. Ark.
Coop. Ext. Ser.
22
Multiple inlet delivery. (P. Tacker)
Mid-season N fertilization study at U of A
SE Branch Expt. Sta., Rohwer, AR. (Paul B.
Francis)
Pulling a rice levee. (J.P. McCorkle)
23
Rice harvesting.
  • Ideal moisture 19-22 for better milling
    yields.
  • Grain dried to 12 or so.
  • Care during harvest needed.
  • Leave some grain in the field for the
  • ducks!

(J.P. McCorkle)
24
Sometimes, mud happens!Questions or comments?
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