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Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing Complexity and Uncertainty

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Title: Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing Complexity and Uncertainty


1
Context Driven Agile Leadership Managing
Complexity and Uncertainty
Todd Little Sr. Development Manager
2
Are you in the right place?
It Depends
Enjoy
Hopefully the Matrices are funny enough
Glad to have you!
Geek Humor
Sorry, just content
OK. You dont have to laugh
Hate
2x2 Matrices
Hate
Enjoy
3
Managing the Coming Storm Inside the Tornado
Project Kickoff
Team Unity
4
Were not in Kansas Anymore
Developer Hero
Reorg
Testing
5
Hurricane Rita
6
Agile Steering
Each iteration provides new information and takes
us closer to the product vision. Uncertainty
remains, and the shape of the cone is
proportional.
7
Landmark sells shrink wrap software for Oil and
Gas Exploration and Production
  • Users are Geoscientists and Engineers
  • Subsidiary of Halliburton Energy Services
  • Integrated suite of 60 Products
  • 50 Million lines of code
  • Some products 20 years old
  • 80 of project team stays on same product

Geophysics
Engineering
Geology
8
We have the challenge of integrating software
developed in Houston, Austin, Denver and Calgary
9
Landmark wanted to understand and improve our
software development process
  • Maximize our Value Delivery
  • Scaling to project conditions
  • Manage Uncertainty and Complexity
  • Organizational commonality without being overly
    prescriptive
  • Core processes
  • Adaptive processes
  • What is barely sufficient?

10
We were influenced by a number of Agile prophets
  • Highsmith
  • Adaptive Software Development
  • Cockburn
  • Crystal Methods
  • Boehm and Turner
  • Balancing Agility and Discipline

11
Agile Manifesto
  • We are uncovering better ways of developing
    software by doing it and helping others do it.
    Through this work we have come to value
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and
    tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan
  • That is, while there is value in the items on the
    right, we value the items on the left more.
  • Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum,
    Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin
    Fowler, James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew
    Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick,
    Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber,
    Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas

12
Cockburns Crystal Methodology according to
(project size, system criticality, team
priorities)
Prioritized for Legal Liability
Prioritized for Productivity Tolerance
Life (L)
Criticality (defects cause loss of...)
Essential money (E)
Discretionary money (D)
Comfort (C)
1 - 6
- 20
- 40
- 100
- 200
- 500
- 1,000
Number of people involved
20
13
Crystal family of Agile methodologies Prioritize
d for Productivity Tolerance
Common philosophy Strong on communications,
Light on deliverables. "Sw dev't is a
cooperative game, which uses markers that
remind and incite. Principles Fewer
intermediate products are needed with Short,
rich, informal communications paths Frequent
delivery. Use people's natural strengths
(talking, looking around) beware natural
weaknesses (careless, low on discipline)
14
Cockburns Crystal Methodology according to
(project size, system criticality, team
priorities)
Prioritized for Legal Liability
Prioritized for Productivity Tolerance
Life (L)
Criticality (defects cause loss of...)
Essential money (E)
Agile Sweet Spot
Discretionary money (D)
Comfort (C)
1 - 6
- 20
- 40
- 100
- 200
- 500
- 1,000
Number of people involved
20
15
Balancing Agility and DisciplineBoehm and Turner
16
Balancing Agility and DisciplineBoehm and Turner
17
Boehm and Turner Observations on Balancing
  • It is better to build your method up than to
    tailor it down
  • Methods are important, but potential silver
    bullets are more likely to be found in areas
    dealing with
  • People
  • Values
  • Communications
  • Expectations management
  • Neither agile nor plan-driven methods provide a
    silver bullet
  • Agile and plan-driven methods have home grounds
    where each clearly dominates
  • Future developments will need both agility and
    discipline
  • Some balanced methods are emerging

18
Agile Manifesto 5 Years Later Dealing with the
Right
  • Processes and tools that support agility and
    individuals and interactions (e.g. wikis,
    collaboration environments, etc.)
  • Documentation that leads to working software.  A
    focus on documentation as a consumable rather
    than as a deliverable.
  • Contracts that are written in a manner consistent
    with collaboration and agile delivery
  • Plans that anticipate and expect change

19
Landmark studied its project portfolio and
identified several project and team attributes
  • Project Complexity
  • Team size
  • Mission criticality
  • Team location
  • Team capacity
  • Domain knowledge gaps
  • Dependencies
  • Uncertainty
  • Market Uncertainty
  • Technical Uncertainty
  • Project Duration
  • Dependents

20
We scored the Complexity Attributes on a scale
from 1 to 10
21
And we scored the Uncertainty Attributes
22
We cross plotted the results and divided the
chart into four quadrants
23
Refactored for Simplicity
24
This looked a lot like the Boston Matrix
25
So we named it the Houston Matrix and gave animal
names to the quadrants
26
We looked at an overall process flow and how it
would be adaptable.
Iterations
Adaptive Activities
Inputs Pre-conditions
  • Outputs
  • Post-conditions
  • Released Software

CORE Activities
Project Sanction
RTM
27
We Identified a set of Core Processes for all
projects to use
  • Aggregate Product Plan
  • A/B/C List
  • Quality Agreement
  • Continuous Integration
  • Expert User Involvement
  • Project Dashboard

28
The Aggregate Product Plan sets the high level
vision and expectations
29
The A/B/C List sets proper expectations
Only A features may be committed to customers.
A features must fit in a p90 confidence
schedule. No more than 50 of the planned effort
can be allocated to A items
30
A/B/C List
Backlog Plan
Typical Delivery
C
B
D
25
C
B
A
A
25
50
50
100
31
A/B/C List
32
We use a Quality Agreement similar to Thomsett
33
Simple, Certain projects are like Dogs
  • They can be trained to be well behaved.
  • Just the Core practices
  • Laissez FaireSimilar to Crystal Clear

34
Simple, Uncertain projects are like Colts
  • Young projects with lots of unfettered energy.
  • Landmark has had success with XP in this quadrant
  • Short iterations
  • Daily stand-up meetings
  • Automated unit tests

35
Complex, Certain projects are like Cows
  • Often are corporate Cash Cows
  • More rigorous requirements management i.e. use a
    requirements tool.
  • Requires the generation of useful documentation
    for interface definitions
  • Projects broken up into subprojects and
    coordinated by a team of leaders or a Scrum of
    Scrums.
  • Project plans with dependency and critical path
    identification

36
Complex, Uncertain projects are like Bulls
  • Large projects, hard to control.
  • Need agility to steer through the uncertainty,
    and some rigor to manage the complexity.
  • A careful union of the Colt and the Cow
  • Requires the best Project Managers
  • Warning signs
  • Project Managers sometimes act as clowns to
    provide diversion.
  • High BS factor
  • Appears that they just want to have their way
    with the Cows.

37
Dont throw novice project managers at a bull
project
38
Brooks law in action throw a developer at a
late bull project
39
Project Complexity and Uncertainty influence how
to scale our agile process
  • One size doesnt fit all
  • The assessment tool is a guide
  • Landmarks portfolio balance
  • 10 Bulls
  • 10 Cows
  • 20 Colts
  • 60 Dogs

40
Complexity is like Amplitude and Uncertainty is
like Frequency
41
Product Innovation Flow
Hot Items
Flexible Scope Backlog
Idea Filter
Iteration Backlog
Newly Discovered Items
Product Backlog
Project Sanction
RTM
Sales Services Customer Support
B C Release Backlog
Adaptive Activities
A Items
CORE Activities
Most Items for consideration in next release
B/C/D
Backlog Burnup
A
42
Nickoliasen Model for Idea Filter(Executive
Summit ADC 2004)
High
A
Focus and Allocate Resources
Partner Or convert To Mission Critical
Market Differentiating
Achieve Parity
Who Cares?
Low
High
Low
Mission Critical
43
Products Tend to follow a Lifecycle path
44
An Example Lifecycle path
45
Business Process Value Chain
Market
Product Development
Sales
Product Company
Specifications
Development
Delivery
Contract Model
Business Need
Development
Delivery
Internal IT
46
Business Process Value Chain
Market
Product Development
Sales
Product Company
Specifications
Development
Delivery
Contract Model
Business Need
Development
Delivery
Internal IT
47
Business Process Value Chain
48
Business Process Value Chain
49
Portfolio Management and Dealing with Darwin (G.
Moore)
High
Invent
Deploy
Market Differentiating
Offload
Manage
Low
High
Low
Mission Critical
50
Follow the Yellow Brick Road
Oz never did give nothing to the tin man, that he
didnt, didnt already have
51
Portfolio Management and Dealing with Darwin
High
Create Change
Embrace Change
Market Differentiating
Ad Hoc
Agile
Eliminate Change
Control Change
Low
Outsource
Structured
High
Low
Mission Critical
52
Early Release of Bull Project
53
Tools for dealing with Bulls
54
Bull Program, Dog Project
55
Dont mistreat your cows
56
Dont over stereotypee.g. Not all dogs are the
same
57
Long Ago
58
Longer Ago
59
Long Ago and Far Away
60
Long Ago and Far Away
61
Long Ago and Far Away
62
Long Ago and Far Away
63
The Agile Project Leadership Network Declaration
of Interdependence (www.apln.org)
  • We increase return on investment by making
    continuous flow of value our focus.
  • We deliver reliable results by engaging customers
    in frequent interactions and shared ownership.
  • We expect uncertainty and manage for it through
    iterations, anticipation and adaptation.
  • We unleash creativity and innovation by
    recognizing that individuals are the ultimate
    source of value, and creating an environment
    where they can make a difference.
  • We boost performance through group accountability
    for results and shared responsibility for team
    effectiveness.
  • We improve effectiveness and reliability through
    situationally specific strategies, processes and
    practices.

David Anderson, Sanjiv Augustine, Christopher
Avery, Alistair Cockburn, Mike Cohn, Doug
DeCarlo, Donna Fitzgerald, Jim Highsmith, Ole
Jepsen, Lowell Lindstrom, Todd Little, Kent
McDonald, Pollyanna Pixton, Preston Smith and
Robert Wysocki
64
Declaration of Independence from Bureaucratic
Project Management
  • When in the Course of project events it becomes
    necessary for Project Teams to dissolve the
    political bureaucracies which have burdened them,
    a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
    requires that they should declare the causes
    which impel them to the separation.We hold
    these truths to be self-evident, that all
    projects are not created equal, that they are
    endowed by their creation with uncertain and
    complex characteristics. That project teams are
    most effective when they value Life, Liberty and
    the pursuit of Happiness.

65
Logos
66
Penal Management Institute
Now that I am a Penal Management Professional I
can show them how to improve these Convicts
Maturity Model
67
Barely Sufficient? Or not sufficient enough
68
Relationship of the APLN to the AgileAlliance
Pair Programming Continuous Build TDD
Project Execution

APLN
Project Leadership
Collaboration Change Empowerment
Software
Beyond Software
69
Oil and Gas Drilling
70
Geosteering for Uncertainty
71
Depth vs. Time
72
Agility Beyond Software
73
Real Options Value of Information and Value of
Flexibility
74
Interdependence and Leadership
  • Context
  • Uncertainty
  • Value
  • Customers
  • Individuals
  • Teams

75
Boehm and Turner Observations on Balancing
  • It is better to build your method up than to
    tailor it down
  • Methods are important, but potential silver
    bullets are more likely to be found in areas
    dealing with
  • People
  • Values
  • Communications
  • Expectations management
  • Neither agile nor plan-driven methods provide a
    silver bullet
  • Agile and plan-driven methods have home grounds
    where each clearly dominates
  • Future developments will need both agility and
    discipline
  • Some balanced methods are emerging

76
Individuals and Teams
77
Security
78
Value
79
Tribal Leadership
  • Focus on increasing
  • Individual Security
  • Tribal Value
  • Individual Value
  • Do not make the tribe too secure
  • Never ending goal

80
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