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Large Rivers

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Large Rivers. Rivers of the World: Perspective. Case Study: Columbia River. Topography ... Like a dancing, prancing stallion down her seaway to the sea, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Large Rivers


1
Large Rivers
  • Case Study Columbia River
  • Topography
  • Flow regime
  • Development
  • Flow regime
  • Sedimentation
  • Temperature
  • Rivers of the World Perspective

2
Large Rivers
  • What is the Largest River in the World?

Favorite et al. 1976 INPFC 33)
3
Large Rivers
  • Rivers of the World

Favorite et al. 1976 INPFC 33)
4
Large Rivers
  • Rivers of the World

Favorite et al. 1976 INPFC 33)
5
Large Rivers
  • Rivers of the World

Favorite et al. 1976 INPFC 33)
6
Large Rivers
  • Rivers of the World

132,930
Favorite et al. 1976 INPFC 33)
7
Large Rivers
8
Colombia River
9
Columbia River basin landcover
Source http//www.iucn.org/themes/wani/eatlas/ht
ml/na5.html
10
Columbia River development
  • Agriculture
  • Early settlers were farmers
  • About 12 of Columbia basin is cropland
  • 5 million ha irrigated
  • Irrigation 4 of annual runoff, in summer
  • Forestry
  • Logging began in 1827 and by 1850 there were 32
    sawmills
  • Mining
  • Gold in 1850s-1960s, Idaho and E. Oregon
  • Dams
  • Hydroelectric, Storage, Irrigation, Flood Control

11
Columbia River dams and access to habitat
  • Development of the Columbia River
  • Pre-development 1850 63 of Columbia basin
    was accessible to anadromous fishes
  • Post-development 1970 About 30 of the basin
    blocked by dams
  • Are losses of populations proportional to
    drainage area? Length of stream? Etc.

12
Columbia River
  • Physical changes from development
  • Flow
  • Change timing, peak
  • Sediment
  • Decrease estuary sedimentation
  • Habitat
  • River changed to a series of lakes (reservoirs)
  • Temperature
  • Increase temperature
  • Nitrogen supersaturation
  • Spill increases supersaturation

13
Columbia River Dams
http//www.nwd-wc.usace.army.mil/report/colmap.htm
14
Rock Island Dam
15
Columbia River flow
Cumulative volume of water impounded by dams in
Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Northern
California.
Volume (acre-feet) (Millions)
16
Columbia River flow
Average Annual Columbia River Flow at the Dalles
in m3/sec
1880 1900 1920 1940 1960
1980 2000
17
Columbia River flow
18
Reduction in peak Columbia River flow
Mean June-July Flows of the Columbia River
19
  • Juvenile salmon and trout normally migrate to sea
    in spring and early summer, when natural river
    flows would be high. Reduced discharge and
    increased cross-sectional area (river changed to
    reservoir) combine to slow the travel rate of
    water, and of fish.

20
Columbia River flow and sediment
Daily mean flow in Snake River at Ice Harbor Dam
during the migration of chinook salmon smolts (15
April 15 June) versus water clarity
Water clarity can affect primary production,
predator prey interactions, etc.
Water clarity
River discharge
21
Columbia River sedimentation
  • Long term trends in flow and sediment transport
    in the Columbia River at the Dalles

22
Columbia River temperature
23
Average temperatures (e.g., Bonneville Dam in
August) have been getting warmer
Degrees C
24
The warm period has been getting longer
25
Species that migrate before temperatures reach
their peak now migrate earlier than they did
before species that migrate after temperatures
peak now migrate later.
temperature
sockeye
chinook
Temp. or Number of salmon
26
The warming of the Columbia River seems to
reflect both the effects of flow and storage and
regional climate trends. Over the same period
the undammed Fraser River has also been getting
warmer.
Mean August water temperatures at Bonneville Dam
and Hells Gate
27
Nitrogen supersaturation(gas bubble disease)
  • Water is streams is typically saturated with
    atmospheric gases but water spilling over dams
    can become supersaturated. The nitrogen goes
    into the blood and is later released as a gas.
    The bubbles can kill or cripple the fish, just as
    scuba divers can get the bends when nitrogen in
    their blood is released upon rapid ascent to the
    surface.

28
Columbia River flow and gas bubble disease
29
Nitrogen supersaturation
  • Nitrogen supersaturation was a very serious issue
    for fishes, especially seaward migrating juvenile
    salmon, during decades when storage capacity was
    insufficient and significant volumes of water
    were spilled. With increased storage less was
    spilled and so the problem decreased. However,
    reduced travel time related to the increased
    storage have caused pressure to release (i.e.,
    spill) more water, so the problem returned.
    Engineering fixes have been developed to reduce
    the problem (Flip-lips).

30
Columbia River smolt mortality
Flow deflector Flip Lip
http//www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/final_fseis/stud
y_kit/main_report/chap2.htm
31
Columbia river smolt mortality
Turbine from Bonneville Dam
McNary Dam
32
Columbia River What are the options?
Pre-development state
Rehabilitation
Substitution
Restoration
Present
Degradation
33
Columbia River dams
  • Woody Guthrie Grand Coulee Dam
  • She winds down the granite canyon and she bends
    across the lea
  • Like a dancing, prancing stallion down her seaway
    to the sea,
  • Cast your eyes upon the biggest thing yet built
    by human hands
  • On the King Columbia River, its the big Grand
    Coulee dam.
  • In the misty crystal glitter of the wild and
    windward spray
  • Mean have fought the pounding waters and met a
    watery grave. Well she tore their boats to
    splinters and she grave men dreams to dream.
  • Well she tore their boats to splinters and she
    gave men dreams to dream.
  • Of the day the Coulee Dam would cross that wild
    and wasted stream.
  • Uncle Sam took up the challenge in the year of
    thirty-three
  • For the farmer and the worker and all of you and
    me.
  • He said, roll along Columbia, you can ramble to
    the sea
  • But river while youre rambling, you can do some
    work for me.

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40
Columbia River temperature
Date of half run American Shad, Columbia River
Bonnevile Dam
Year
41
Amazon River
42
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43
Columbia River flow
Total Snake Middle Columbia Lower Columbia
Volume Acre-feet (Millions)
0 2 4 6 8
10 12 14
1940 1950 1960 1970
1980 1990
Irrigation withdrawals from Federal (Bureau of
Reclamation) Projects only
44
Columbia River hydropower system effects on fish
  • Grand Coulee Dam and other total blockages
  • Turbine Mortality
  • Gas Bubble Disease
  • Delay (ecological effects)
  • Temperature
  • Sediment Budget
  • River to lake habitats
  • Predators (native and introduced)
  • Disease
  • Fishing
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