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Pesticides: Uses and Types Benefits

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90% of all pesticides worldwide are used in agriculture or food storage and shipping. ... Stop rodent or insect infestation of grain supplies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pesticides: Uses and Types Benefits


1
Pesticides Uses and TypesBenefits
  • Chapter 12
  • APES January 2007

2
General Facts about Pesticides
  • Went from zero sales in the 1950s to 33 billion
    for 2.6 million metric tons 1999.
  • 90 of all pesticides worldwide are used in
    agriculture or food storage and shipping.

3
General Facts about Pesticides
  • Wealthy countries consume ¾ of the pesticides.
  • Developing countries 7-9 growth a year
  • Developed countries 2-4 growth a year

4
Pesticide Types
  • Inorganic pesticides
  • Natural organic pesticides
  • Fumigants
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates
  • Microbial Agents and Biological Controls

5
Inorganic pesticides
  • Contains arsenic, copper, lead, or mercury.
  • Highly toxic
  • They may be leached out of the system by water,
    wind and erosion...
  • Essentially indestructible
  • neurotoxins

6
Natural organic pesticides
  • Have a narrow target range and a very specific
    mode of action
  • Are slow acting
  • Have relatively critical application times
  • Suppress, rather than eliminate, a pest
    population
  • Have limited field persistence and a short shelf
    life
  • Are safer to humans and the environment than
    conventional pesticides
  • Present no residue problems

7
Natural organic pesticides
  • Extracted from plants
  • Nicotine from tobacco
  • Turpentine
  • Phenols
  • Rotenone from the roots of deris and cube plants
  • Aromatic oils from conifers

8
Fumigants
  • Small molecules
  • Gasify easily
  • Penetrate rapidly
  • Used to sterilize soil
  • Prevent decay
  • Stop rodent or insect infestation of grain
    supplies
  • Extremely dangerous for workers who apply them.

9
Fumigants
  • Dibromochloropropane

10
Fumigants
  • Carbon tetrachloride

11
Fumigants
  • Carbon disulfide

12
Fumigants
  • Ethylene dichloride

13
Fumigants
  • Ethylene dibromide

14
Fumigants
  • Methylene bromide

15
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Organochloride is another name for them
  • Synthetic organic insecticides
  • Inhibit nerve membrane ion transport
  • Block nerve signal transmission

16
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Fast acting
  • Highly toxic
  • Persist in the soil for decades
  • Bioaccumulate in the food chain
  • Stored in the fatty tissues of some organisms

17
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • DDT
  • Chlorodane
  • Aldrin
  • Dieldrin
  • Toxaphene
  • Pradichlorobenzene
  • lindane

18
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • DDT

19
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Chlorodane

20
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Aldrin

21
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Dieldrin

22
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Toxaphene

23
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Pardichlorobenzene

24
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • lindane

25
Organophosphates
  • Outgrowth of nerve gas used in WWII.
  • They inhibit an enzyme called cholinesterase,
    essential for removing excess neurotransmitter
    from synapses in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Extremely toxic to birds, mammals, and
    fishsingle drop is lethal.
  • Only last hours or days in the environs.
  • Dangerous for workers to apply them

26
Organophosphates
  • Parathion
  • Malathion
  • Dichlorvos
  • Dimethyldichlorovinlyphosphate
  • tetraethylpyrophosphate

27
Organophosphates
  • Parathion

28
Organophosphates
  • Malathion

29
Organophosphates
  • Dichlorvos

30
Organophosphates
  • Dimethyldichlorovinylphosphate

31
Organophosphates
  • tetraethylpyrophosphate

32
Carbamates
  • Share organiphosphate properties of
  • mode of action
  • Toxicity
  • lack of environmental persistence
  • low bioaccumulation
  • Extremely toxic to bees

33
Carbamates
  • Sevin

34
Carbamates
  • Aldicarb

35
Carbamates
  • Amniocarb

36
Carbamates
  • Carbofuran

37
Carbamates
  • mirex

38
Microbial Agents and Biological Controls
  • Living organisms used in the place of pesticides.
  • Link to cornell

39
Pesticide Use and Types
  • EPA Data
  • World Data EPA
  • 10 years of data EPA
  • Look up use of each pesticide
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