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Basic First Aid

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Basic First Aid. Tips for Everyday. Basic Rules To Remember ... is coughing or speaking, observe but do not administer first aid unless they ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic First Aid


1
Basic First Aid
  • Tips for Everyday

2
Basic Rules To Remember
  • When you respond to an incident that has resulted
    in injury always provide for your safety first
    and those in the immediate environment- you
    cannot help anyone if you secure an injury at the
    scene
  • Always carry latex disposable gloves for
    emergencies on and off the playground
  • Wash your hands after removing contaminated
    gloves
  • Dispose of any bandages or gauze with blood or
    other body fluid contamination, using the double
    bagging method

3
Inform the Parent
  • Always inform the parent or guardian of any
    injuries sustained at school, no matter how minor
    you suspect the injury might be.
  • Make a note for the nurse and place in her
    mailbox, so that she can follow up on any serious
    incidents.

4
Incident Reports
  • Many school employees fail to file an incident
    report when students sustain falls or injuries.
    These reports are essential to protect school
    personnel in case some complication develops
    later. Also, this reminds the school staff to
    inform the nurse and parents of more serious
    incidents.

5
Remember ABC
  • Remember your CPR and Heimlich Maneuver
    Training
  • A- Be sure the airway is open and not obstructed
  • B- Breathing Begin assessment and provide
    respiratory support if needed
  • C-Circulation If pulse is absent send for
    defibrillator (if one available), 9-1-1, and
    begin CPR

6
Injury to head, neck or back
  • If an individual appears to have injured the neck
    or back it is important to stabilize the head
    gently between your hands in the position that
    the person is found. If movement is allowed and
    the spinal column is involved, it can result in
    paralysis.
  • Send for emergency assistance and keep the person
    immobilized unless they have to be moved to a
    safer area

7
Choking
  • It is wise to remind all teachers to review the
    universal choking sign with all students
    annually. Placing both hands as if they are
    grasping the front of their neck is that sign.
  • If the victim is coughing or speaking, observe
    but do not administer first aid unless they are
    unable to cough or speak and it is apparent that
    something is lodged in the throat.
  • Heimlich maneuver is taught in your CPR
    certification class.

8
Possible Fractured Bones
  • If a child sustains an injury and demonstrates
    the following, they should have the area on the
    body immobilized and be referred to a physician
    for assessment
  • Swelling or excessive bruising
  • Deformity of the area
  • Unusual complaint of pain in the area, even if
    swelling is not evident
  • Remember only an x-ray can rule out a fracture

9
Cuts and Abrasions
  • Wear gloves
  • If bleeding, apply direct pressure
  • After bleeding is controlled or if a minor
    scrape, clean with water and mild soap or at
    least flush with clean water
  • If bleeding is severe, apply more gauze when
    bandage becomes soaked with blood-do not take
    original bandage off since this will tear away
    any clots that have begun to form

10
Control of Bleeding
  • If severe laceration and it is possible, raise
    the limb (or cut) above the level of the heart
    and place a cold compress on top of bandage
  • Watch any injury for infection for several days
  • Refer any serious wounds to physician
    immediately
  • Send for emergency assistance if bleeding cannot
    be controlled
  • Apply clean dry dressing and advise parent of
    injury so that he/she can apply antibiotic crème
    or seek physician assessment if necessary

11
Puncture Wounds
  • Any puncture wound is risky for infection
  • Refer any puncture wound to the doctor after
    rinsing with clean water. The doctor will
    determine if a Tetanus booster is required.
  • Any dirty item that causes a wound can cause
    Tetanus- it does not have to be a rusty object
    just dirty.

12
Nosebleeds
  • Have student pinch the nostrils together gently
    for 5 to 15 minutes. If bleeding profusely, the
    student may need to lean head slightly forward to
    avoid choking on blood going down back of
    throat.
  • Apply cool compress at nose bridge if bleeding
    does not stop
  • After 20 minutes, contact emergency personnel if
    bleeding cannot be controlled (or if all efforts
    fail to slow the bleed.
  • If fracture of the nose or face is suspected the
    child should be sent to physician immediately

13
Dental Injuries
  • If a child loses a primary (baby) tooth, gentle
    rinsing with clean water generally stops the
    bleeding larger teeth may require that the child
    bite down on a clean gauze.
  • If permanent tooth is lost, place the tooth in
    milk (preferred) or water, handling the tooth by
    the crown, not the root and send to the dentist
    immediately with the child.

14
Sprains and Strains
  • Apply ace bandage that will support area
  • Apply ice or cold compress on bandage at site of
    injury but do not ever place ice directly on bare
    skin!
  • Elevate injured area
  • If excessive swelling or discomfort continues,
    refer to physician immediately

15
Impaled Objects
  • If the individual has an object stuck into the
    body and hanging out (like a pencil, stick, etc.)
    DO NO REMOVE THE OBJECT! It is impossible to
    determine how deep the object might be and what
    type of injury has occurred.
  • Obtain assistance from 9-1-1 and refer to
    physician
  • Contact parent immediately

16
Eye Injuries
  • If a child gets some type of foreign object in
    the eye, flush gently with clean water
  • If discomfort continues, refer to physician since
    the cornea may be effected with a scratch and may
    require antibiotic treatment to prevent
    infection.
  • If a chemical splash into the eye flush eye with
    clean water thoroughly and refer to physician to
    check for burns on surface of eye
  • If person wears contacts and experiences chemical
    splash in eye flush with water while contact is
    still in eye. Contact physician for further
    follow-up immediately.
  • Contact parent and school nurse to report injury .

17
Chemical Burns
  • Flush with cool water for 15 minutes on skin
    surface
  • Contact physician if burn has occurred.

18
Fainting
  • Should always be reported to family and child
    should be seen by family physician that day,
    unless there are specific orders from the doctor
    regarding these symptoms.

19
Heat Emergencies
  • Hot and humid weather takes its toll on the
    elderly and on children much more quickly than
    other age groups
  • Keep individuals hydrated when outdoors and
    provide shaded areas for breaks

20
Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion (Can lead to Heat
Stroke)
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Excessive thirst
  • Skin is red and hot
  • Get the person to a cooler area immediately

21
If not nauseated
  • Allow the student to drink ½ glass of water every
    15 minutes drinking excessively and quickly can
    cause vomiting which can worsen the situation
  • If symptoms worsen or continue, contact 9-1-1
  • Practices for sports should be scheduled during
    the cooler time of day during extreme
    temperatures.

22
When In Doubt
  • Contact your school nurse
  • Or during an emergency
  • 9-1-1
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