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ETS First Aid and Player Management 101

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Title: ETS First Aid and Player Management 101


1
ETS First Aid and Player Management 101
  • April 23, 2009

2
FIRST AID 1. Prevention
  • Prevention
  • The first line of defense in the treatment of
    athletic injuries is to prevent them. A
    well-planned program accomplishes this.
  • Proper Warm up/Cool Down
  • Proper use of equipment (shin guards, shoes,
    etc)
  • Full Rehab before injured player returns (Dr.
    note if necessary)
  • Taking certified first aid course through Red
    Cross-ask for Sport Safety course
    (www.redcross.org)
  • Follow up with parents of injured player even if
    they are there when player is hurt.

3
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Emergency Plan
  • The purpose of an emergency plan is to outline in
    writing the actions that will occur should an
    emergency arise and indicate specific
    responsibilities for certain individuals in order
    to obtain advanced medical care for an injured
    athlete or spectator.
  • Components of Emergency Plan
  • There are several components of an emergency plan
    that need to be taken into consideration. Your
    plan should address responsibilities, phone
    availability, communication, emergency training,
    scene management, first aid supplies, weather and
    more.

4
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Responsibilities
  • The emergency plan should clearly indicate the
    responsibilities of each individual involved in
    the plan. Areas to address may include
  • Who will make the call to 911?
  • Who will stay with the athlete?
  • Who will contact the parents?
  • Who will call absent parents if a child needs to
    go to the hospital?
  • Who will meet the ambulance?
  • Who will unlock the gate/door?
  • Who will get the medical records of the athlete?

  • Who will control the scene
  • Also, consider designating a person as the
    weather watcher.
  • Survey your parents to know is someone is a
    physician, nurse, athletic trainer, first
    responder or EMS. These individuals can be of
    assistance in an emergency situation.

5
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Phone Availability
  • Will a mobile phone be used? Where is the nearest
    land phone located?  
  • Program emergency phone numbers into mobile
    phones. Use 911 if available.    
  • Emergency phone numbers should be posted by the
    phone or readily available in the first aid
    kit.  
  • There should be a alternative phone plan in case
    the primary plan fails.

6
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Communication
  • To authorize emergency care, medical release
    forms for each player should be signed and kept
    on file.
  • When the call is made to EMS, the caller must be
    able to give the following information  
  • Name, address of current location and phone
    number of caller
  • Type of emergency situation
  • Number of victims
  • Suspected injury/symptoms
  • Condition of athlete
  • Current assistance being given
  • Specific venue
  • Entrance of choice
  • Other information as requested by the 911
    operator. (Be prepared to stay on the line with
    the 911 operator.)

7
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Scene Management
  • Sometimes in an emergency situation, too many
    individuals surround the scene, assign extra
    people to direct EMS. Someone must be assigned to
    control the area, so only those individuals who
    are needed are working with the injury/situation.

8
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • First Aid Kit/Supplies/Equipment
  • Medical history/information and medical release
    forms for all players should be immediately
    available for use in an emergency situation,
    especially to provide information to 911 (ex if
    a child has asthma).
  • These should be checked on a regular basis to
    make sure all supplies and equipment are
    available and in working order. Accurate health
    information on each athlete should be updated
    yearly .

9
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Weather
  • Someone should always be in charge of monitoring
    the weather with a weather radio, as weather
    conditions change rapidly, especially during the
    summer months.  
  • In the event of a tornado, or severe
    thunderstorm, suitable accommodation must be
    identified to house players and spectators.
  •  
  • Officials must decide how they will communicate
    the evacuation procedure to the spectators.
  • Precautions due to high temperature and humidity
    must be communicated. Examples include shorter
    practices, additional breaks, increasing the
    availability of fluids, practicing in less
    equipment, etc.

10
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Lightning
  • Establish a chain of command that identifies who
    is to make the call to remove individuals from
    the field.  
  • Name a designated weather watcher. (A person who
    actively looks for the signs of threatening
    weather and notifies the chain of command if
    severe weather becomes dangerous.)      
  • Use the flash-to-bang count to determine when to
    go to safety. By the time the flash-to-bang count
    approaches thirty seconds all individuals should
    already be inside a safe structure.  
  • Once activities have been suspended, wait at
    least twenty minutes following the last flash or
    bang before resuming activity or returning
    outdoors.  
  • Avoid being the highest point in an open field,
    in contact with or in proximity to the highest
    point, or on or near water. Do not take shelter
    under or near trees, flagpoles, or light poles.  
  • For those who feel their hair standing on end,
    skin tingling, or hear crackling noises, DO NOT
    lie flat on the ground. Instead, assume the
    lightening safe position Crouch on the ground
    with weight on the balls of the feet and the feet
    together, head lowered and ears covered.

11
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Flash-to-Bang
  • This is the easiest and most convenient means for
    determining the distance to lightning flash.  
  • To use this method begin counting on the
    lightning flash, and stop counting when the
    associated clap of thunder is heard.  
  • Divide the time to thunder (in seconds) by 5 to
    determine the distance (in miles) to the
    lightning flash.  
  • For example, an obtained count of 30 seconds,
    divided by 5, equals 6 miles from where the count
    was obtained.

12
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Observe the following basic first aid procedures
    in managing victims of a lightning strike
  • Survey the scene for safety.  
  • Activate local EMS.  
  • Touch a lightening victim to see if he responds.
    The person will not carry a charge".  
  • Move the victim with care to a safer location, if
    necessary.  
  • Evaluate airway, breathing, and circulation, and
    begin CPR if necessary.

13
FIRST AID 2. Emergency Plan
  • Contamination
  • Federal Law requires the proper disposal of items
    contaminated with blood or body fluids.  
  • Gauze and gloves that have been used to treat a
    bleeding athlete should be placed in a red/bio
    hazard bag and taken to a hospital or healthcare
    facility that disposes of this type of waste.
    These items should not be placed in regular
    trash.  
  • An athletes uniform that has become soiled with
    blood should be placed in a plastic bag until it
    can be washed.
  • These precautions are taken to protect anyone who
    may unexpectedly come in contact with these items
    and is not prepared to handle them.  

14
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Introduction
  • The best way to prevent the problems associated
    with heat related illnesses is to properly
    educate coaches, athletes, and parents follow
    the guidelines for fluid consumption and
    replacement and take precautions when exercising
    in extreme environmental conditions. The same
    holds true for cold exposures.
  • Adequate fluid replacement before, during, and
    after physical activity is the most effective
    means in preventing heat related problems.
  • Temperature and Humidity
  • The body controls its temperature during exercise
    by sweating and the evaporation of sweat from the
    skin. As temperature and humidity increase, the
    bodys ability to lose heat decreases.
    Temperature and humidity should be monitored
    before and during practice and games. You may
    simply watch the local weather forecast for the
    temperature and heat index.

15
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Previous Illness
  • An athlete may be dehydrated if he has
    experienced fever, chills, vomiting, or
    diarrhea.  
  • Parents should be told to inform you of any
    sickness that has stricken an athlete.  
  • Previous illness or sickness can affect ones
    body temperature, body fluid retention, and
    performance, all in an adverse way.
  • Athletes experiencing vomiting, diarrhea, or
    fever should not engage in physical activity
    until cleared in writing by a medical
    professional. Extra caution should be taken even
    if cleared when participating in the heat and
    humidity.

16
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Dehydration Facts - It can happen faster than you
    think!
  • In less than one hour of physical activity, an
    athlete may become dehydrated and performance and
    health will surely suffer. Dehydration of just
    1-2 of body weight (only 0.6-1.2 lbs. for a 60
    lb. athlete) can negatively influence
    performance. This equates to 2.4 4.8 lbs. for a
    240 lb. athlete, not uncommon to see.
    Dehydration of greater than 3 of body weight
    substantially increases an athletes risk of heat
    illness (heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat
    stroke). During physical activity, most athletes
    only drink enough fluid to replace 50 of what
    was lost. Thirst should not be used as a
    guideline. Once an athlete is thirsty, he has
    already started to become dehydrated.
  • Basic signs of dehydration are
  • Thirst
  • Irritability
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Cramps
  • Nausea
  • Decreased performance

17
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Risk Factors--The following are risk factors for
    heat illness. An athlete experiencing one or more
    of these should be closely monitored while
    engaged in physical activity in high heat and
    humidity.
  • Dehydration or previous heat problems  
  • Physical barriers to evaporation - (includes
    athletic equipment or wearing excessive or dark
    colored clothing)  
  • History of Illness - (Sickness involving
    sweating, vomiting, and diarrhea increases
    susceptibility to heat related illnesses.)  
  • Overweight
  • Poor physical conditioning    
  • Medications and drugs - (Some medications result
    in a dehydrating effect. Also, alcohol and
    caffeine can cause an increased loss of body
    fluids.)  
  • Fluid imbalance - (This can result from not
    replacing fluids from a previous exercise session
    or from vomiting or diarrhea.)  
  • Increased temperature and humidity during
    participation  
  • Not fully hydrated when returning to the next
    practice session (two-a-days)

18
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • What to Drink During Exercise
  • Water is adequate for 45-50 minutes of physical
    activity. However, if activity lasts longer or is
    particularly intense, sports drinks are more
    effective in replacing fluids and nutrients.
    Through sweat, the body loses essential nutrients
    that must be replaced to ensure peak athletic
    performance.
  • If exercise lasts longer than 45-50 minutes and
    you are unable to provide a sports drink, cold
    water (50-55 degrees F) should be provided in
    order to replace the fluid that has been lost.
  • What NOT to Drink During Exercise
  • Fruit juices, carbohydrate gels, sodas energy
    drinks and those sports drinks that have
    carbohydrate levels greater than 8 are not
    recommended as the sole beverage during exercise.
    Drinks with a carbohydrate level this high can
    take away from muscle performance and instead
    require the body to work harder to digest the
    drink contents. The use of beverages comprising
    caffeine, alcohol, and carbonation is discouraged
    because they may cause dehydration by stimulating
    urine production and decreasing voluntary fluid
    intake.
  • Hydration Tips
  • Drink according to a schedule based on individual
    fluid needs. By the time you become thirsty,
    youre already dehydrated.  
  • Drink before, during and after practices and
    games.  
  • Avoid soft drinks, energy drinks, and juices
    during play. Drinks with high carbohydrate
    content may cause stomach problems.

19
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Fluid Replacement Guidelines
  • Before Exercise
  • Drink 17-20 oz. of water or a sports drink 2-3
    hours before exercise.  
  • Drink an additional 7-10 oz. of water or sports
    drink 10-20 minutes before exercise.
  • During Exercise
  • Begin drinking early during the sporting event -
    even minimal dehydration compromises
    performance.  
  • In general, drink at least 7-10 oz. of water or a
    sports drink every 10-20 minutes. Remember to
    drink beyond your thirst to maintain hydration.
    Optimally, drink fluids based on the amount of
    sweat and urine loss.  
  • Athletes should be given unlimited access to
    fluids.  
  • Signs of Adequate Hydration 
  • Lighter urine. (Darker urine indicates
    dehydration.)  
  • Thirst is satisfied or lightened. However,
    remember, if you wait until you are thirsty, you
    are already dehydrated!

20
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Four Heat Conditions
  • Heat Cramps
  • Cause Excessive loss of bodily fluids from
    sweating. Signs Symptoms Involuntary muscle
    contractions or cramping, usually in the calf but
    may occur elsewhere. In severe cases, cramping
    will occur in multiple places due to excessive
    loss of fluid and sodium. Treatment
  • Replacement of fluids  
  • Stretching of the involved muscle
  • Application of ice over cramping muscle(s) in
    conjunction with stretching
  • Replace sodium

21
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Four Heat Conditions
  • Heat Collaspe
  • Cause Rapid fatigue when exercising in high
    temperatures.
  • Signs Symptoms Weakness, faintness, especially
    after exercising or standing in the heat.
  • Treatment
  • Activate the emergency plan  
  • Place athlete in a cool and shaded area  
  • Elevate the legs above the head  
  • Monitor vital signs  
  • Replenish athletes fluids if the athlete is
    conscious and coherent

22
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Four Heat Conditions
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Cause--Inadequate replacement of fluids. Signs
    Symptoms An athlete will have these symptoms
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Confusion/disorientation
  • Profuse sweating
  • Nausea
  • Pale skin
  • Cool, clammy skin
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid weak pulse
  • Core body temperature of 98-104 degrees F
  • Treatment
  • Activate emergency plan.  
  • Remove excess clothing from athlete  
  • Move athlete to a cool and shaded area and reduce
    body temperature by fanning and placing ice or
    ice bags in contact with her body  
  • Replace the fluid in the athlete if they are able
    to drink  
  • Monitor core temperature

23
FIRST AID 3. Heat Illness
  • Four Heat Conditions
  • Heat Stroke
  • Cause Severe rise in temperature caused by
    failure of the bodys cooling mechanisms. THIS IS
    A LIFE THREATENING CONDITION! Signs Symptoms
  • Altered mental function with possible collapse
    and loss of consciousness
  • Hot red skin
  • Not sweating or no longer sweating
  • Rapid strong pulse
  • Shallow breathing
  • Core body temperature approximately 104 degrees F

  • Treatment
  • Activate emergency plan
  • Lower body temperature as quickly as possible by
    fanning and placing ice towels or ice bags in the
    groin, neck, and armpitareas where major blood
    vessels are located
  • Move athlete to a cool and shaded area, remove
    equipment and clothing, ensure proper breathing
  • Immerse athlete in ice water, a particularly
    effective means to lower body temperature and
    save lives
  • Monitor vital signs

24
FIRST AID 4. Medical Considerations
  • Special Medical Considerations
  • Coaches should be aware of athletes with known
    medical conditions such as seizures, asthma,
    allergies, or diabetes.  
  • Coaches should have medical history cards for
    each athlete readily available at every practice
    or game.  
  • Seizures (Convulsions)
  • Although controllable by medication, seizures may
    still occur in athletes with epilepsy.  
  • Seizures may last a few seconds or a few minutes
    for major episodes.  
  • The most important action to take in response to
    an athlete suffering a seizure is to protect the
    athlete from a self inflicted injury.
  • Asthma
  • Asthma is a condition in which the air passages
    in the lungs get smaller, thus interfering with
    normal breathing.  
  • An athlete should only use his own prescribed
    inhaler.  
  • Athletes with asthma should bring their inhalers
    to all practices and games.  
  • As exercise becomes more strenuous, the
    likelihood of an asthma attack increases for
    athletes with exercise induced asthma (EIA).

25
FIRST AID 4. Medical Considerations
  • Allergic Reactions
  • The most common allergic reactions in athletes
    are caused by insect bites or stings.  
  • Allergic reactions range from minor skin
    irritation to breathing problems.
  • Diabetes
  • Two types of diabetic conditions exist and
    management is different for each.  
  • A diabetic coma is caused by too little insulin,
    or high blood sugar.  
  • Insulin shock can be caused by low blood sugar.  

  • Give sugar to a diabetic athlete when in doubt of
    his condition.  
  • Call 911 and activate your emergency plan if
    there is no response.
  • Returning to Play
  • Specific signs and symptoms exist that enable you
    to determine if an athlete should be seen by a
    physician before returning to play.

26
FIRST AID 5. Principles of First Aid
  • Wound Care
  • Personal protective equipment should be worn as a
    safeguard against blood and body fluids.  
  • Signs of wound infection are tenderness,
    swelling, redness, heat and oozing fluid from the
    wound that may be whitish or yellowish in
    color.  
  • The inability to control bleeding through direct
    pressure and elevation is a medical emergency.  

  • Do not remove embedded foreign objects.  
  • Do not puncture a blister to drain the fluid.
  • Fractures and Dislocations
  • Fractures and dislocations can be medical
    emergencies, particularly if there is obvious
    deformity, loss of feeling, the skin is cold to
    the touch or bluish, or it is an open fracture.  
  • There is no difference between a fracture and a
    broken bone. Fractures can range from a simple
    crack in the bone to multiple broken pieces of a
    bone.  
  • An x-ray is required to determine if a bone is
    fractured and the extent of damage.

27
FIRST AID 5. Principles of First Aid
  • Acute and Chronic Injuries
  • Injuries can be classified as either acute or
    chronic.
  • Acute injuries have a rapid onset and short
    duration.  
  • Chronic injuries develop slowly over a period of
    time. Poorly treated acute injuries can become
    chronic.  
  • The severity of an acute injury is determined by
    the amount of tissue damaged from the injury. The
    more tissue damaged, the longer the recovery
    time.  
  • Chronic injuries can be more difficult to treat
    because of the gradual nature of their
    development.
  • Use of Ice and Heat
  • Ice should be used on all acute injuries until
    there is no swelling present.  
  • Heat can be used on chronic injuries when there
    is no swelling present.  
  • The application of ice should be used in
    conjunction with rest, compression, and
    elevation.  
  • You should apply ice directly to the skin. When
    using frozen gel packs, a wet elastic wrap or
    towel should be placed between the skin and the
    gel pack.

28
FIRST AID 6. Head and Neck Injuries
  • Head Injury
  • An athlete with any of the following signs needs
    to be seen immediately by a physician.
  • Confusion/disorientation
  • Loss of memory
  • Decreasing level of consciousness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Blood or clear fluid flowing from the nose,
    mouth, or ears
  • Blurred vision
  • Bump or deformity and/or bleeding at site of blow

  • Pupils not responsive to light
  • Seizure
  • Slurred speech
  • Breathing and pulse irregularities
  • An unconscious athlete is assumed to have a head
    and neck injury and should be treated as such
    until determined otherwise.
  • Neck Injury
  • Signs of a neck injury include
  • Inability to move arms, legs, fingers or toes
  • Loss of feeling
  • Possible breathing difficulties

29
FIRST AID 6. Head and Neck Injuries
  • Nine Rules for Suspected Neck Injury
  • Do not move the athlete.
  • Without removing equipment, assess ABCs in the
    position in which the athlete is found.
  • Activate emergency plan if a problem with the
    ABCs exists, if the athlete is unconscious, or if
    a neck injury is suspected based upon the signs
    and symptoms listed above.
  • An unconscious athlete with properly functioning
    ABCs should be left in the position found and
    closely monitored until the arrival of EMS.
  • An athlete who is face down and not breathing
    must be rolled onto her back with the neck and
    spine in alignment. The airway must then be
    opened and rescue breathing begun. During the
    rehearsal of the emergency plan, rolling an
    athlete must be practiced. It should be noted
    that rolling an athlete wearing equipment is
    quite different than rolling an athlete without
    equipment. This maneuver should be supervised by
    a trained professional.
  • A head or neck injury is always suspected when
    there is unconsciousness. It is necessary, then,
    to always stabilize the head and neck of an
    unconscious athlete
  • Maintain the airway by using modified jaw thrust,
    a method that protects the neck. Remove the face
    mask to perform rescue breathing (a technique
    learned in a CPR class or from a local EMS or
    physician).

30
FIRST AID 6. Head and Neck Injuries
  • Facial Injury
  • Prohibit the rubbing of an eye that has in it a
    foreign body
  • Most facial lacerations should be seen
    immediately by a physician to determine if
    stitches are needed to reduce the severity of
    scarring
  • Nose bleeds are managed by having the athlete
    lean forward, pinching shut the upper portion of
    the nose
  • A chipped tooth should be seen by a dentist as
    soon as possible
  • A dislodged tooth should be seen immediately by a
    dentist (tooth may be saved if a dentist treats
    the athlete within an hour of injury)
  • Place a dislodged tooth in milk or saline
    solution (if unavailable, use cold water or have
    the athlete hold the tooth in his mouth)

31
FIRST AID 7. Warm Up/Cool Down
  • Warm-Up
  • The warm-up period should last approximately 10
    to 15 minutes. In hot and humid conditions, this
    time may need to be reduced. In cold conditions,
    this time may need to be increased.  
  • The benefits of a warm-up include reducing the
    risk of injury, preparing the body for physical
    activity, preparing the heart for physical
    exercise, rehearsal of sport-specific movement
    and skills, and mental preparation for the
    event.  
  • The four stages of a warm-up are gentle loosening
    exercises, jogging, stretching, and
    event-specific exercises.
  • Cool-Down
  • The cool-down period allows the body to return to
    a resting state.  
  • The cool-down period should last 5 to 10 minutes
    and each stretch should be held 10 seconds with
    no bouncing.  
  • Stretching during the cool-down period will help
    flush-out the waste products that have
    accumulated in the muscles during exercise.

32
FIRST AID 7. Warm Up/Cool Down
  • Exercises
  • The following muscle groups should be targeted
    during the warm-up and cool-down periods
  • Neck
  • Shoulder
  • Lower back
  • Hip and groin
  • Hamstring
  • Quadriceps
  • Calf

33
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • Control the Controllables-
  • Never as bad as it seems, never as good as it
    seems, it is what it is

34
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • Concentration-Stay Positive in the Face of
    Challenge and Pressure
  • Competition is a continuous presentation of
    challenges and problems

35
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • High Level of Self Belief
  • Ability to refocus and come back strongAttitude,
    composure, consistency

36
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • Positive Body Language
  • Non-verbal messages are 16 times more powerful
    than verbal ones.

37
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • Strong Desire to Succeed
  • Do I know where I am going and how I am going to
    get there?
  • SMART Goals

38
Psychology of Coaching 101
  • Mental Toughness Attributes
  • High Commitment with a Balanced Attitude
  • Demand more of yourself than others demand of you.

39
Recommended Reading
  • Vull, S.J., Albinson,J.G., Shambrook, C.J
    (1996). The Mental Game Plan. Eastbourne, UK
    Sports Dynamics. ISBN 0951954326
  • Martens, R. (1987) Coaches Guide to Sport
    Psychology. Champaign, IL Human Kinetics. ISBN
    0873220226
  • Miner, J.M., Shelley, G.A., Henschen, K.P.
    (1999). Moving toward your Potential The
    Athletes Guide to Peak Performance. Farmington,
    Utah Performance Publications.
    ISBN1-887476-01-6
  • Orlick, T. (1998). Psyching for Sport. Champaign,
    IL Human Kinetics.

40
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS FOR U9-U10
  • Keep it FUN and ENJOYABLE to foster a desire to
    play
  • (Intrinsic Motivation). Demonstrate increased
    self responsibility for preparation, and
    discipline. Let them initiate play and learn
    through self discovery/ self expression. Enjoy
    competition, all activities should have
    objectives/ method of scoring. Have ability to
    work in groups, incorporate cooperative game and
    activities.
  • Age Group Characteristics
  • Are better in a group.
  • Still a limited attention span.
  • Will pick up new skills rather quick.
  • Will learn when coached properly.
  • Practices should still be built around fun
    games.

41
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS FOR U11-U12
  • Keep it FUN and ENJOYABLE to foster a desire to
    play (Intrinsic motivation).
  • Encourage decision-making
  • Imagination / Creativity
  • Increase demands
  • Discipline
  • Encourage players/teams to watch professional and
    national team games on tv.
  • Age Group Characteristics Focus on technical
    fundamentals.
  • 1 vs 1 Offense and defense.
  • Possession games 3 vs 1, 4 vs 2, 5 vs 2.
  • Game situations in which the emphasis is on good
    soccer. On offense Control the ball, pass and
    support. On defense contain and mark ball-side
    and goal-side.
  • Players should gain an understanding of the
    different positions and responsibilities on the
    field.
  • Concentrate on overall body movement and
    athleticism

42
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS FOR U13-U14
  • The game should remain fun and enjoyable. Players
    should have a passion for the game.
  • Imagination/creativity
  • Increase demands
  • Establish training targets
  • Maintain discipline
  • Encourage players/teams to watch professional and
    national teams games on tv.
  • Age Group Characteristics
  • Players need to practice the technical
    fundamentals under game pressure. The players
    need to be able to perform with more speed and
    under greater pressure.
  • Focus on individual deficiencies.
  • Possession games 4 vs 2 5 vs 2 5 vs 3.
  • Players should understand the various positions
    on the field.
  • Players should gain an understanding of the style
    of play.
  • Players should gain a deeper understanding of
    re-starts.

43
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS FOR U15-U16
  • Increased concentration
  • Leadership / player responsibilities
  • Discipline
  • Respect for the game
  • Goal setting
  • Vary program- Satisfy players urge for
    competition
  • Establish pre practice and pre game routine (as
    individuals and team).
  • Encourage players/teams to watch professional and
    national team soccer on tv.
  • Age Group Characteristics
  • Improving the technical aspects of the game under
    increased pressure.
  • Players should gain a deeper understanding of
    tactical concepts Offensive and defensive
    principles, high vs low pressure, counter attack,
    off-side trap, etc.
  • Improving the quality of play.
  • Players need to continue their overall body
    development.
  • Players need to gain a deeper understanding of
    their specific roles within the team.
  • Players need to be able to recognize and make
    tactical adjustments within the game.

44
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS FOR U17-U19
  • Increased concentration
  • Leadership / increased player responsibility
  • Discipline
  • Accountability
  • Goal Setting
  • Respect for the game
  • Self confidence, self motivation - goal setting.

  • Vary program - satisfy players urge for
    competition.
  • Will to win. Mental Toughness/Competitive
    Mentality
  • Age Group Characteristics
  • Continue fine-tuning the technical aspects of the
    game.
  • Players should be getting familiar with pattern
    play.
  • Players should train on individual technical and
    tactical functions of the game.
  • Game analysis and game specific training.
  • Continue to develop the strength, speed and
    fitness aspects of the game

45
Sports Nutrition Tips for Fueling Athletes
  • Your Fueling Plan
  • Superior athletic ability comes from genetics and
    training. However, without good food choices and
    the correct timing of meals, your training an
    performance will suffer. You need a fueling plan
    that includes the right balance of carbohydrates,
    protein, and fat, enough vitamins and minerals,
    and the correct amount of fluids.

46
Sports Nutrition Tips for Fueling Athletes
  • Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are the best fuel for working
    muscles.
  • Plan to include carbohydrates in all your meals
    and snacks.
  • Protein
  • You need protein for muscle growth and repair
    muscle damage after exercise.
  • You also need protein to make red blood cells,
    which move oxygen to muscles, and white blood
    cells, which help fight infection.
  • Your body uses protein to make hormones and
    enzymes, which help regulate metabolism
  • Fat
  • You need fat for energy.
  • Fat also helps your body to use some vitamins as
    well as plant chemicals known as
    phytochemicals
  • Fat helps move substances in and out of cells and
    it helps keep your brain and nervous system
    healthy.

47
Sports Nutrition Tips for Fueling Athletes
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Vitamins and minerals do not give you more
    energy, but they help to unlock the energy stored
    in food so your body can use it as fuel.
  • Your body needs calcium, magnesium, fluoride, and
    vitamin D to keep bones strong.
  • Fluid
  • Water is the most important nutrient. If your
    body weight drops just 1 from losing fluids,
    your performance will suffer.
  • Be sure to replace the fluids you lose through
    sweat when you are active
  • Strategies
  • Breaking Your Fast
  • Eat breakfast every morning. The level of
    glycogen in your liver can be substantially lower
    in the morning, so you need to refuel your body
    to replace the energy it used while you slept.
  • Eating breakfast will also help you to think.
    Student-athletes who eat breakfast perform better
    in the classroom than those who skip breakfast.
  • Here are some traditional choices you can enjoy
  • Fruit or yogurt smoothie
  • Breakfast sandwich with egg and cheese
  • Frozen waffles with fruit
  • Banana dipped in peanut butter
  • Hard-boiled eggs
  • Instant oatmeal or cereal
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