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Baitfish Culture and Research

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Title: Baitfish Culture and Research


1
Baitfish Culture and Research
  • Shawn McWhorter
  • Aquaculture Specialist
  • Bowling Green Satellite Aquaculture Center

2
Back Ground
  • Baitfish support a billion dollar per year
    fishery on Lake Erie as well as other sport
    fisheries throughout the state
  • At this time, nearly all baitfish are imported
    from out of state
  • Some supplies are wild caught

3
Back ground continued
  • Arkansas leads the nation in baitfish production
  • In 1992, there were approximately 25,000 acres
    dedicated to growing bait
  • Value of this production was 40 million dollars
    (US)

4
Marketing
  • It is ESSENTIAL to a prospective producer to
    research markets before ever starting
  • Grow it and they will come Is not recommended
  • Large interstate markets are dominated by large
    producers with experience and established
    distribution networks

5
Marketing Continued
  • A good place to search for markets are locations
    isolated from these networks
  • Another possibility are fee fishing lakes and
    ponds
  • Grouping of small producers is also suggested to
    be able to pool supplies to meet demand

6
Marketing Contin.
  • Small niche markets may allow the producer to
    earn a higher price
  • University of Floridas IFAS Extension Service
    reports farmers getting 15 more over FOB pond
    bank prices
  • Economic Considerations of Golden Shiner
    Production in Florida, Lazur and Zimet 1996
    CIR1167 Florida cooperative Extension Service,
    Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
    University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611

7
Why Ohio ?
  • Many parts of the state have the water resources
    needed for pond culture
  • We also have good clay soils needed to build
    ponds
  • Reduced transportation costs
  • Reduced stress on product

8
Why here contin.
  • Disease problems inhibiting the transport of live
    fish from other states
  • Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)
  • APHIS has banned importation and exportation of
    live fish in eight Great Lakes States and two
    Canadian Provinces

9
Infrastructure requirements
  • WATER May seem a no brainer but you must have it
    to raise fish
  • 25 Gallons per minute per surface acre of water
    recommended
  • i.e. 5 acre pond, 125 gpm well

10
Water Sources
  • Well water superior
  • Quality and Quantity consistent
  • Spring water nearly as good
  • Surface waters not recommended
  • Quantity and quality variable
  • Possible vector of unwanted species and diseases

11
Second most important need
  • Good clay soils
  • 30 clay content required
  • Lining of ponds usually cost prohibitive
  • Existing ponds not conducive to proper management

12
Pond and Farm Design
  • This is as important as market research
  • Critical for proper management and good culture
    techniques
  • PLEASE CONSULT US BEFORE BUILDING
  • Designs parameters are well defined
  • Currently the Mississippi Delta region has
    145,000 acres of ponds utilizing this design
    philosophy for fish culture. Lets not reinvent
    the wheel

13
Experimental Design OSU
14
Bait Fish Production Techniques Extensive Method
  • Wild Spawn
  • Wild spawn is the extensive method of production.
    (less management)
  • With this method egg laying, hatching and
    grow-out occur in the same pond

15
Methods continued Intensive methods
  • Egg Transfer
  • Brood stock maintained in a separate pond
  • A substrate is provided for eggs to be laid on
  • Substrate is then moved to a grow out pond

16
Feeding Extensive
  • Prior to stocking ponds with eggs a food source
    must be provide
  • Liquid fertilizers are applied at a specific rate
    to initiate and sustain a planktonic bloom
  • Phytoplankton are the basis of the food chain
  • This stimulates zooplankton growth which provide
    another food source later in the fishes
    development

17
Feeding Intensive
  • Ponds are fertilized to initiate a bloom as in
    extensive methods
  • Providing feeds small enough for larval fish
  • After a certain amount of growth, fish are fed a
    prepared diet

18
Intensive Feeding Cont.
  • Allows for the customizing of a diet
  • De-couples the feed from the weather conditions
  • Allows for better condition of the product
  • Allows for increased stocking densities

19
Water Quality Monitoring Feed (extensive and
intensive)
  • Secchi Disc
  • Used daily until plankton bloom is well
    established
  • Then as needed to maintain plankton bloom

20
Oxygen (O2) (intensive extensive)
  • Hand held meter
  • Taken twice per day
  • Early morning
  • Evening

21
Ammonia (NH3), pH Nitrite(NO2-), Nitrate
(NO3-) (intensive extensive)
  • Chemical Kit
  • Once weekly or as needed

22
Water Sampling Notes
  • A standardized sampling regime should be
    implemented
  • Same location and time
  • Preferably the same personal should do testing

23
Record Keeping
  • Records should be kept on all aspects of the
    operation
  • Establishes a track record of pond performance
  • Allows for back tracking should a problem
    present itself
  • Allows for future management decisions

24
Aeration
25
Why aerate?
  • Oxygen is the first limiting factor in all forms
    of aquaculture
  • During daylight hours phytoplankton
    photosynthesize to meet their energy requirements
  • This process contributes the lion share of oxygen
    in the pond

26
Aeration continued
  • At night the plankton respire, using oxygen in
    their metabolic process, instead of producing it
  • In heavily fed ponds, this respiration can use up
    all the oxygen in the pond
  • Mechanical aeration is used to address this
    deficit

27
Aeration Equipment
  • Paddle wheel aerators are the industry standard
  • Provide Oxygen
  • Also furnish circulation within the pond

28
Research at Bowling Green
29
Effect of Baitfish and Freshwater Prawn
Polyculture on Production Efficiency
30
Development of culture techniques alternative
baitfish species Spotfin Shiners (Cyprinella
spiloptera)
31
Controlled Breeding System Brood System
  • Temperature and photoperiod control
  • Allows for the timing of breeding cycle

32
Hatching System
  • Two troughs allow for two (or more) size classes
    of minnows
  • After hatching Hester/Dendys are replaced into
    brood system

33
Other Projects
  • Comparisons of commercially available diets in
    the grow out of Spotfin Shiners
  • Identify market potential of Ohio cultured Golden
    Shiners

34
Sources of Information
  • http//aquanic.org
  • Shawn McWhorter
  • mcwhorter31_at_ag.osu.edu
  • 419-823-1807
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