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Artificial Intelligence : An Introduction for CS570 Artificial Intelligence

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Automation of activities that we associate with human ... Ostrich flys ? Plausible Reasoning. Information fusion under uncertainty. Case-based Reasoning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Artificial Intelligence : An Introduction for CS570 Artificial Intelligence


1
Artificial Intelligence An Introduction for
CS570 Artificial Intelligence
  • Jin Hyung Kim
  • KAIST Computer Science Dept.

2
Definition of AI
  • Automation of activities that we associate with
    human thinking, activities such as
    decision-making, problem solving, learning,
    (Bellman, 1978)
  • Study of how to make computers do things at
    which, at the moment, people are better (Rich
    Knight, 1991)
  • A Branch of Computer Science that is concerned
    with the automation of intelligent behavior
    (Luger Stubblefield, 1993)
  • The study of mental faculties through the use of
    computational models (Charniak McDormott, 1995)

3
Computer Science Body of Knowledge
31
43
16
10
38
10
Total 280 Core Hours
3
8
21
31
15
18
36
Source IEEE/ACM Computing Curricula 2001
Computer Science
4
Computing Disciplines, before and after 1990s
5
AI Engineering Definition
  • Study of how to make machine do things which
    require intelligence when human do
  • things requiring intelligence ?
  • Making computer MORE smart
  • Making thinking computer
  • Can machine think ?
  • Focus on how good it performs

6
AI Cognitive Scientific Definition
  • Studying intelligence by computational means
  • Programmed Human intelligence
  • Artificial Mind
  • Focus on how similar it works as human

7
Intelligent System
Perception, Recognition, Understanding Making
decisions, Acting
Flexibility Automation Optimization
Aims
via
8
Examples of AI systems
  • Language Translation systems
  • Natural Language Question answering systems
  • Diagnosis Expert systems
  • Avionic Expert systems vs. fly-by-wire
  • Space shuttle mission planning
  • Robots in factory, Auto-navigation robots
  • Intelligent Traffic control system
  • OCR, Handwriting Recognition System
  • Speech Recognition System

9
Categorization of AI definitions
10
Go Playing Programs
  • Selecting next move
  • By analysis of all alternative moves
  • By Analysis of Board Pattern (rule-based)
  • Which one is better ?
  • Which one can be better ?
  • Engineering (mathematical)
  • How well does it perform ?
  • Performance is the key concern. Dont care of
    what method used
  • Cognitive Scientific
  • How similarly does it do as human ?
  • Simulation of Behavior

11
Acting Humanly Turing Test
  • Turing (1950) Computing Machinery and
    Intelligence
  • Can machine think ? ? Can machine behave
    intelligently ?
  • Operational test of intelligent behavior
    imitation game
  • Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have 30
    chance of fooling a lay person in 5 minutes

12
Imitation Game
13
Issues on Turing Test
  • Intelligent as much as Human
  • Is dog intelligent ?
  • Searles Chinese Room argument
  • Strong AI and Weak AI
  • ELIZA - a friend you could never have before
  • http//www-ai.ijs.si/eliza-cgi-bin/eliza_script
  • Imitation of Client-centered Rogerian Therapy
  • Suggested major component of AI knowledge,
    reasoning, language, understanding, learning
  • Any man-made system passed Turing Test ?

14
Thinking Rationally Laws of Thought
  • Normative (or prescriptive ) rather than
    descriptive
  • Several school of Greek schools developed various
    forms of logic, notation and rules of derivation
    of thoughts
  • Mathematics and Philosophies of modern AI
  • Problems
  • Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by
    logical deliberation
  • What is purpose of thinking ? What thought
    should I have ?
  • Rational Behavior doing the right thing
  • right expected to maximize goal achievement
    given available information

15
Hype Cycle (Boom-Bust-Build)
Science Fiction
Hangover
Productivity
Curiosity
16
The Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies
? ?? Gartner, 2002
? ?? Gartner, 2002
17
Approaches to Intelligent system development
  • u
  • Knowledge-based Approach
  • u
  • Data Driven Approach
  • u

18
Knowledge-base Systems
  • u
  • Represent Human knowledge as symbol combination
  • u
  • Knowledge Acquisition and Representation
  • u
  • Logic, Expert System, Fuzzy Logic
  • u

19
Data Driven Approach
  • u
  • Extract common characteristics from collected
    examples
  • u
  • Training
  • u
  • Statistical Methods, Artificial Neural Network

20
Generality vs Power
  • Aims Powerful and general solutions
  • General Problem Solver
  • Early attempt failed
  • Complexity Toy Problems Only
  • Specialized Approach to get Power
  • Knowledge Based Approach
  • Practical Expert Systems

21
State of the Art
  • Which of the following can be done at present ?
  • Play a decent game of table tennis
  • Drive along a curvy mountain road
  • Drive in the center of Seoul city
  • Play decent game of Go
  • Discover and prove a new mathematical theorem
  • Write an intentionally funny story
  • Give competent legal advice in a specialized area
    of law
  • Translate spoken Korean into spoken Japanese in
    real time

22
Axes of AI Research
Theory
Methodology
System
Application
23
Major research areas (Methodology)
  • Symbolic Programming
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Search Planning
  • Automated Reasoning
  • Machine Learning, knowledge Discovery
  • Artificial Neural Net
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • ...

24
Major research areas (Applications)
  • Natural Language Understanding
  • Image, Speech and pattern recognition
  • Uncertainty Modeling
  • Expert systems
  • Virtual Reality
  • ..

25
Symbolic Programming
  • Program as Representation of world
  • Symbol as basic element of representation
  • atom, property, relationship
  • Symbolic Expression as method of combination
  • LISP for Symbolic programming
  • PROLOG for logic programming
  • Object-Oriented Concept

26
Knowledge Representation
  • What kind of Knowledge needed for Problem solving
    ?
  • Structure of knowledge ?
  • declarative vs procedural
  • Representation techniques ?
  • explicit vs (implicit inference)
  • logic, frame, object-oriented, semantic net,
    script
  • Knowledge acquisition and update

27
Search Theory
  • An Optimization method
  • Analyze alternative cases and select one
  • Cope with Exponential complexity, NP classes
  • Try likely one first (Heuristic Search)
  • Utilize local information (Hill Climbing Method)
  • Optimal solution vs good solution
  • Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing
  • Stochastic search

28
Automated Reasoning
  • Qualitative Reasoning
  • Utilization of qualitative knowledge such as
  • Non-monotonic Reasoning
  • Ostrich flys ?
  • Plausible Reasoning
  • Information fusion under uncertainty
  • Case-based Reasoning
  • Utilization of Experience

29
Machine Learning
  • Performance improvement by experience
  • How much of knowledge required to start learning
    ?
  • Method of acquiring new knowledge and merging it
    to existing knowledge-base
  • Role of teacher
  • Role of examples and experience
  • Parameter Adjustment
  • Inductive learning
  • Computational Learning Theory
  • Quality of generalization capability in terms of
    Training data
  • Used in Practice such as Data Mining

30
Data Mining
Knowlegre extraction for decision making
Data
Decision Making
Information / knowledge
  • ????
  • Point of Sale
  • ATM
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??????
  • A?? ???? 80? B??? ????
  • ????? ??? ???? 6??? ??
  • A??? ?? ??? B??? 2?
  • ?? ??? ??? ??
  • ????? ?
  • ??? ??
  • ??? ?? ??? ?
  • ????? ????? ?
  • ??? ?? ???? ?
  • ??? ?

31
Neural Network
  • Computational model of Neurons
  • Power comes from Connection of simple processing
    element - connectionism

X1
w1
w2
X2
F(X1, X2, , Xn)
S
. . .
wn
Xn
32
Neural Network
  • learning link weigh adjustment
  • Error-back-propagation supervised learning
  • Any Functional Mapping is learnable
  • Strong at Sensory Data Processing
  • Symbolic Grounding
  • Old Horse on the race again
  • Massive parallelism, graceful degradation

33
Neural Network Classifier
Input layer
Hidden layer
Output layer
34
Genetic Algorithm
  • Computational model of life evolution
  • Stochastic optimization technique
  • Initial chromosome creation
  • New generations are made (cross over, mutation)
  • survival of the fittest
  • Base of artificial life research
  • study evolution of life, by simulation

35
History of AI
  • 50 years of rise and fall of New technologies
    after invention of computer
  • Logic
  • Optimization
  • Proabilistic Modeling
  • Search theory
  • Rule-based system
  • Expert systems
  • Fuzzy Theory
  • Neural Netwrok
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Chaos theory
  • Artificial life
  • .....

36
AI Prehistory
  • Philosophy
  • Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical
    system, foundations of learning, language,
    rationality
  • Mathematics
  • Formal representation of proof, algorithms,
    computation, decidability, tractability,
    probability
  • Psychology
  • Adaption, phenomena of perception and motor
    control, experimental techniques
  • Linguistics
  • Knowledge representation, grammar
  • Neurosicence Physical substrate for mental
    activity
  • Control Theory homeostatic systems, stability,
    optimal designs

37
Potted History of AI (I)
  • 1943 McCulloch Pitts Boolean Circuit model
    of Brain
  • 1950 Turings Computing Machinery and
    Intelligence
  • 1950s Early AI programs Samuels checker
    program, Newell Simons Logic Theorist
  • 1956 Dartmouth meeting Artificial
    Intelligence adopted
  • 1965 Robinsons algorithm for logical reasoning

38
Potted History of AI (II)
  • 1966-74 AI discovers computational complexity
  • 1969-79 Early development of knowledge-based
    systems
  • 1980-88 Expert systems industry booms, AI
    Programming Machine
  • 1983 1993 Japan initiated 5th generation
    computer project
  • 1988-93 Expert systems industry burst AI
    Winter
  • 1985-95 Neural Network back to the race
  • 1988 Resurgence of probabilistic and
    decision-theoretic methods,
  • Rapid increase of technical depth of mainstrean
    AI
  • Nouville AI Alife, Genetic Algorithm, Soft
    computing

39
AI Success Story
  • Evans ANOLOGY
  • Symbolic Algebra
  • Macsyma (http//www.macsyma.com/)
  • Chess Program DEEP BLUE defeat Gary Kasparov
    (1996)
  • Automatic Theorem Proving contest (1999)

40
AI Success Story (Planning)
  • MARVEL (Schwuttke, 1992)
  • Real-time Space shuttle Mission planning
  • Berth assignment (KAL, 1997)
  • Unmanned Vehicle
  • Ground and air
  • Pathfinder Rover, 1996
  • Asimo a walking robot

41
Autonomous Land Vehicle (DARPAs GrandChallenge
contest)
42
AI Success Story (Language Processing)
  • PEGASUS (Zue, 1994)
  • Spoken Natural language for airline reservation
  • Limited context, free representation
  • Japanese-Korea Hotel reservation(KT, 1995)
  • Chatter Bot
  • ????? ?? (typing)?? ???? ???? ?
  • Many machine translation
  • ?? ??? ??, ?? - ???

43
AI Success Story Medical expert systems
Programs listed by Special Field
  • Gynecology
  • Imaging Analysis
  • Internal Medicine
  • Intensive Care
  • Laboratory Systems
  • Orthopedics
  • Pediatrics
  • Pulmonology Ventilation
  • Surgery Post-Operative Care
  • Trauma Management
  • Antibiotics Infectious Diseases
  • Cancer
  • Chest pain
  • Dentistry
  • Dermatology
  • Drugs Toxicology
  • Emergency
  • Epilepsy
  • Family Practice
  • Genetics
  • Geriatrics

44
Pattern Recognition Applications
  • Handwriting and document recognition
  • forms, postal mail, historic documents
  • PDA pen recognition
  • Signature, biometrics (finger, face, iris, etc.)
  • Gesture, facial expression
  • As a Human computer intertraction
  • EEG, EKG, X-ray
  • Trafic monitoring, Remote Sensing
  • Smart Weapon guided missile, target homing

45
Automatic Target Recognizer
46
Postal Address Recognition
47
Handwriting Understanding
48
??? PC e-Book, Tablet PC, PDA, M-phone
49
Ubiquitous ????
50
BioInformatics / Protein Structure Analysis
51
Contribution of AI
  • Practical AI OCR, ICR, Symbolic Algebra, Machine
    Translation, Many Expert systems, Planning
    systems
  • New concepts and Ideas to other fields of
    computer sciences
  • Programming Language OO, functional language,
    logic-based
  • DataBase
  • Operating System

52
Future of AI
  • Making AI Easy to use
  • Easy-to-use Expert system building tools
  • Web auto translation system
  • Recognition-based Interface Packages
  • Integrated Paradigm
  • Symbolic Processing Neural Processing
  • AI in everywhere, AI in nowhere
  • AI embedded in all products
  • Ubiquitous Computing, Pervasive Computing
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