Mid-America Fruit Growers Conference - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Mid-America Fruit Growers Conference

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MidAmerica Fruit Growers Conference – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mid-America Fruit Growers Conference


1
Mid-America Fruit Growers Conference
2
Calibration, Coverage, and Drift Issues for
Spraying Fruit Trees
  • Robert E. Wolf
  • Extension Specialist Application Technology

Biological and Agricultural Engineering
3
Why apply chemicals?
  • Control the pest!!!
  • Insects and diseases
  • Weeds
  • Mitigate Drift!!!!
  • Select the proper equipment for the task
  • Hand held, boom, air-carrier (air-blast), tower
  • Equipment Considerations
  • tank, pump, agitation, pressure gauge, pressure
    relief valve, fan
  • Must be adjustable

4
Calibration
  • Placing the correct amount of product in the
    desired location.
  • High volume by hand or with air - dilute
  • Low volume with air
  • Amount of delivered air is important.
  • Displace 2X the tree volume cfm
  • 150 MPH air stream?
  • Location of delivered air is important
  • Coverage uniformly throughout the tree
  • Minimize spray drift away from the orchard
  • Knowing the travel speed is essential
  • Air replacement and spray coverage speed

5
Measuring Ground Speed
  • Where 1 MPH
  • traveling 88 feet in 60 seconds

6
Ground Speed Measurement
Example You drive along a 150-foot measured
course and discover that 30 seconds are required
to complete the course. Determine the MPH.
Speed 150 x 60 9,000 3.4 MPH
30 x 88 2,640
7
Know your trees! Know your application parameters!
  • Tree size
  • Diameter canopy width
  • Height
  • Density or spacing
  • spacing between trees in row
  • Spacing between rows
  • Row length per acre
  • Application parameters
  • Carrier volume gallons of water (GPA)
  • Product volume
  • product per 100 gallons of water?
  • Product per acre?

8
Air Delivery Calculation
2650 cfm per tree
9
Required Air Capacity
23,320 cfm
1 mph 88 ft. per minute
10
Application Rates
  • Product per 100 gallons of water
  • Based on standard trees
  • Point of run-off (dilute)
  • _at_ 400 gal/acre
  • Product per acre
  • Based on modern air carrier sprayers
  • Speed sprayers
  • More efficient
  • Point of run-off not necessary
  • Low volume (40 80 gal/acre)
  • Also referred to as concentrate spraying

11
Dilute Spraying
  • Dilute volume the amount of spray liquid to
    cover one acre of trees to point of run-off.
  • Determined by experience or using a formula
  • Tree-row volume method for smaller trees
  • Determine dilute volume
  • Determine the concentrate rate of pesticide/acre

12
Tree-Row Volume (Dilute)
  • Based on tree size and spacing
  • Table (Ohio State Extension Bulletin 892-01)
  • Rule of thumb based on tree density
  • 0.7 to 1.0 gal/1000 cu. ft.
  • Row length per acre 43,560 sq. ft. in an acre
    divided by the distance between rows in feet.
  • http//ohioline.osu.edu/b892/b892_5.html

13
Determining Tree-row Volume
  • Tree-row volume
  • (canopy width) x (tree height) x (row length per
    acre)

14
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15
Determining Amount of Water-Dilute
  • Minimum/Maximum dilute volume (GPA)
  • (tree-row volume (cu. ft./acre) x min/max gal/cu.
    Ft.

16
Determining Amount of Water-Dilute
  • Minimum/Maximum dilute volume (GPA)
  • (tree-row volume (cu. ft./acre) x min/max gal/cu.
    Ft.

17
Determining Amount of Pesticide for Dilute
Applications
18
Concentrate Spraying
  • As water amount decreases the pesticide amount
    increases proportionately BUT NOT BY ADDING
    MORE PESTICIDE TO THE TANK!!!
  • Example
  • 1/3 less water means 3X pesticide

19
Determining the Amount of Pesticide for
Concentrate Applications
20
(No Transcript)
21
Calculations for Concentrate Applications
  • Using the per acre rate level
  • No calculations needed
  • Take rate directly from the label
  • Example (Assail 70WP)
  • Pome Fruits
  • Codling Moth 1.7 3.4 ounces per acre
  • Apply in at least 80 gallons per acre
  • Acres based on the tree spacing

22
Selecting Nozzle Size
  • Based on gallons/acre sprayer discharge rate

14.84/2 7.42 gpm / side / 7 nozzles 1.06
23
Selecting Correct Orifice
  • Chart TeeJet (hollow cone tips)
  • Select a pressure along top (80 psi)
  • Move down column to locate 1.07 gpm
  • Move left to 1st and 2nd column
  • D10 disc with a DC25 core/whirl plate
  • Select 60 psi
  • Follow same routine
  • D8 disc with a DC45 core/whirl plate

24
Page 14
25
Why Interest in Drift?
  • Spotty pest control
  • Wasted chemicals
  • Off-target damage
  • More high value specialty crops
  • Urban sprawl and.....
  • Less tolerant neighbors
  • Litigious Society
  • More wind?? (Timing)
  • Environmental impact
  • Water and Air Quality
  • Public more aware of pesticide
  • concerns! (Negative) (Perceptions)
  • Result-higher costs-

26
Definition of Drift
  • Movement of spray particles and vapors
    off-target causing less effective control and
    possible injury to susceptible vegetation,
    wildlife, and people.
  • Adapted from National Coalition on Drift
    Minimization 1997 as adopted from the AAPCO
    Pesticide Drift Enforcement Policy - March 1991

27
Factors Affecting Drift
  • Spray Characteristics
  • chemical
  • formulation
  • drop size
  • evaporation
  • Equipment Application
  • nozzle type
  • nozzle size
  • nozzle pressure
  • height of release
  • Weather
  • air movement (direction and velocity)
  • temperature and humidity
  • air stability/inversions
  • topography

28
Determining wind direction
  • Compass
  • Provide magnetic description
  • Direction blowing from
  • Into your face!

29
Handheld windmeters
30
www.ambientweather.com
31
Record keeping
  • Why am I keeping all of this information?
  • Refresh your memory
  • Safety
  • Better performance
  • Demonstrate care and concern
  • Stay ahead of the competition
  • Defend yourself!

32
Coverage and Drift Trials
Wildhorse Orchards McLouth, Ks
ATM 500 Project Ben Hesse and Jason Seeger - 2003
33
Coverage Trials
  • Compared working pressures of 50, 100, 150, 200
    psi
  • Rears Pull-type Air Blast Sprayer
  • 4, 7, 8, 4 orifices
  • Operated at 2,150 rpms
  • Sprayer speed 2.9 MPH
  • PVC Pipe Collector
  • Water Sensitive Paper
  • 2-foot intervals (4-14 feet)
  • Wind speed 10.7 14 mph
  • Crosswind to the tree rows
  • 70 F and 65 Humidity

34
Coverage Trials Walters Farm
ATM 500 Project Hesse and Seeger - 2003
35
Drift Trials
  • Compared working pressures of 50, 100, 150, 200
    psi
  • Drift tower 2 rows downwind
  • Water Sensitive Paper
  • 5-foot intervals (0-35 feet)
  • Wind speed 10.7 14 mph
  • Crosswind to the tree rows
  • 70 F and 65 Humidity

36
Drift Trials Walters Farm
Tree Height
ATM 500 Project Hesse and Seeger - 2003
37
For more information contact
rewolf_at_ksu.edu
www.bae.ksu.edu/faculty/wolf
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