The Medieval European Synthesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Medieval European Synthesis PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 71097-NjM3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Medieval European Synthesis

Description:

... to check the Muslims in Northern Spain --deliberately persecuted non-Christians ... CARDINALS. BISHOPS ABBOTS. PRIESTS MONKS. SUMMONERS FRIARS. PARDONERS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:176
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: janej7
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Medieval European Synthesis


1
The Medieval European Synthesis
2
Fusion of the Early Middle Ages5th-11th centuries
  • Fall of Rome
  • Celtic Influences
  • Norse-Germanic Influences
  • Spread of Christianity throughout Europe
  • Islamic Influences
  • Feudalism
  • Empires and Kingdoms

3
The Celts
  • Called Galatai or Keltoi by Greeks, Galli
    (Gauls) by Romans
  • Omnia Galli tres partes divisus est Julius
    Caesar
  • Migrated throughout Europe from 1st millenium
    bce-1st c. bce
  • Fierce warriors
  • went naked, painted blue, into battle
  • known for wild challenges Furor battle fury
  • used war chariots, javelins and lancia battle
    lances
  • head-hunters
  • believed in re-incarnation

4
Celtic Migrations
Hallstatt
5
Celtic Influences
  • Decorative
  • Animal motifs
  • Arabesques
  • Religious
  • Scholarship
  • Monasticism
  • Literary
  • Epics and folklore
  • Sovranty Love-Political Triangle
  • King-Queen-Suitor/Challenger
  • Arthur-Guinevere-Lancelot

6
Gundestrup Cauldron1st c. bcesilver overlaid
with gold
Cernunnos God of the Beasts
7
Celtic Christianity
  • Christianity was introduced into the British
    Isles in late 1st century or early 2nd c. with
    Roman soldiers
  • Cultic religion existing alongside other cults
    both indigenous and brought in by the Romans,
    such as the cult of Mithras.
  • The new faith rapidly gained adherents

8
St. Patrick (389?-461?)
  • Apostle of Ireland, Christian prelate.
  • Born in Scotland -- kidnapped at 16 by Irish
    pirates and sold in Ireland as a slave. He passed
    his captivity as a herdsman
  • Saw visions in which he was urged to escape, and
    after six years of slavery he did so,
  • Ordained as a deacon, then priest and finally as
    a bishop.
  • Pope Celestine then sent him back to Ireland to
    preach the gospel.

9
Syncretism St. Bridgit
  • Patrick carried Christianity to the Irish by
    transforming their sacred groves, wells, and
    mounds into centers of worship for the new faith.
  • He also adopted the ancient Celtic deities into
    the new faith, demoting them to saints
  • Brigit,the goddess of healing and fertility
    became St. Bridgit in the new faith.

10
The Irish Church
  • Elements of Eastern Christianity
  • emphasis on monasticism
  • organizational structure of abbots and
    monasteries versus bishops and parish churches
  • ascetic holiness and pilgrimage
  • The abbeys' and monasteries' success in
    teaching
  • Generations of scholars who not only copied
    Christian material but also transcribed the myths
    of the Ulster and Finian cycles, the Brehon laws,
    and other Celtic documents
  • Survival of Christianity in the British Isles
    despite conquest by the pagan Angles and Saxons.
  • Sent missionaries to England and scholars to
    courts, such as Charlemagnes, throughout Europe

11
The Book of Kells
12
Fall of Rome Rise of Germanic Tribes
  • 330 Constantine moved the capitol of the Roman
    Empire to Constantinople
  • 402 Honorius moved capitol of the Western
    Empire from Rome to Ravenna
  • 410 Visigoths sacked Rome
  • 455 Vandals sacked Rome and took control of N.
    Africa and Spain
  • 5th c. Waves of Angles, Saxons and Jutes
    invaded Britain and Burgundians controlled much
    of France
  • 476 Goths seized Rome Odoacer became Emperor

13
VölkerwanderrungGermanic Migrations
14
Germanic Comitatus or Kinship Groups
  • König, eorlas und thanes kings, nobles and
    warriors
  • Mutual loyalty -- warriors fight for king, king
    is generous to warriors
  • Originally a socially egalitarian setup, during
    the third and fourth centuries AD, became
    socially stratified
  • Basis for feudal loyalty
  • Ideal and philosophy expressed in oral epics
    like Beowulf and The Song of Roland

15
(No Transcript)
16
Charlemagne 768-814
  • Otherwise known as Charles the Great, or Charles
    the First
  • Eldest son born of Pepin the Short and his wife
    Bertrada
  • Possessed many qualities of greatness imposing
    physical stature, warrior prowess, piety,
    generosity, intelligence, devotion to family and
    friends, and joy for life.
  • A hero in his own time who became a legendary
    figure

17
CHARLEMAGNE
  • Expanded the Frankish empire by fighting more
    than 50 campaigns defeated the Lombards Moors
    Saxons, Slavs Danes Avars in Bavaria, etc.
  • By 805 the Frankish kingdom included all of
    continental Europe except Spain, Scandinavia,
    southern Italy, and Slavic fringes in the East
  • Established marches (strongly fortified areas)
    mainly to check the Muslims in Northern Spain
    --deliberately persecuted non-Christians
  • 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Holy
    Roman Emperor, Charlemagne's motto becomes
    Renavatio romani imperi (Revival of the Roman
    Empire)

18
Charlemagnes Empire
19
CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE
  • Charlemagne was a strong supporter of education
  • Assembled scholars and learned men at court in
    Aachen
  • Most noted was Alcuin (c. 735-804) who was
    Charlemagne's chief advisor on religious and
    educational matters prepared official documents
    and exempla
  • The scholars copied books and built up libraries
    used "Carolingian minuscule" saved the thoughts
    and writings of the ancients
  • Worked on educating priests
  • Limited illiteracy
  • Preserved Latin culture
    in West

Carolingian MS.
20
Aachen Cathedralearly Romanesque
architectureca. 792-805
21
Illuminated Manuscripts
  • . The word illuminated' comes from a usage of
    the Latin word illuminare -- adorn'.
  • The decorations are of three main types
  • miniatures or small pictures, into the text or
    occupying the whole page or part of the border
  • initial letters either containing scenes
    (historiated initials) or with elaborate
    decoration
  • Books written by hand, decorated with paintings
  • borders, which may consist of miniatures,
    occasionally illustrative, or more often are
    composed of decorative motifs.

Sacramentary--Use of Saint-Denis,9thc.
22
Coronation Ordinal of 1250 Paris
  • The oldest known iconographic cycle showing the
    coronation of a French king in the cathedral of
    Rheims, virtually as it would be staged until
    1825.
  • The archbishop of Rheims, assisted by the abbots
    of Saint-Remi of Rheims and of Saint-Denis,
    officiated in the presence of the peers of the
    realm.

23
Viking Conquests
24
  • I've been with sword and,spearslippery with
    bright bloodwhere kites wheeled. And how wellwe
    violent Vikings clashed!Redflames ate up men's
    roofs,raging we killed and killedand skewered
    bodies sprawledsleepy in town gateways.

25
Viking Runes
26
Viking Art
Scene taken from the stone Smiss I, found in
Stenkyrka parish. Dated 700-800 AD.
8th c. Bronze keys
27
Sigurd the Dragon-Slayer12th c. door carvings
Sigurd slays the dragon Fafnir and grills and
eats his heart
28
The Normans
  • Vikings, or Norsemen, who settled in northern
    France (or the Frankish kingdom), together with
    their descendants
  • A Viking named Rollo emerged as the leader among
    the new settlers.
  • 911 the Frankish king Charles III the Simple
    ceded Rollo the land around the mouth of the
    Seine and what is now the city of Rouen
  • The Normans founded the duchy of Normandy and
    sent out expeditions of conquest and colonization
    to southern Italy and Sicily and to England,
    Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

29
Feudalism
  • Social system of rights and duties based on land
    tenure and personal relationships
  • land is held in fief by vassals who owe military
    services to
  • lords to whom they are bound by personal loyalty.
  • Feudalism is a form of civilization that
    flourishes especially in a closed agricultural
    economy
  • Those who fulfill official duties, whether civil
    or military, do so because of personal and freely
    accepted links with their overlord not because
    of patriotism
  • Public authority becomes fragmented and
    decentralized.

30
(No Transcript)
31
Social Classes
SECULAR KING NOBLES KNIGHTS MERCHANTSPROFESSI
ONALSCRAFTSMEN PEASANTS freemen serfs
ECCLESIASTICAL POPE CARDINALS BISHOPS
ABBOTS PRIESTS MONKS SUMMONERS
FRIARS PARDONERS NUNS PEASANTS lay brothers
and sisters serfs
32
Norman Conquest
  • 1066 Contest for the English crown
  • Harold, Earl of Wessex Anglo-Saxon claimant
  • Harald Hardrada of Norway
  • William Duke of Normandy
  • Battle of Stamford Bridge Harold defeated
    Hardrada's army which invaded using over 300
    ships so many were killed that only 25 ships
    were needed to transport the survivors home.
  • Battle of Hastings William led Norman forces
    against the English. Harold Killed in battle
    William seized the throne
  • William the Conqueror

33
(No Transcript)
34
Norman Castles
Tower of London
Motte and Bailey Castle
35
Crusades 1095-15th c.
  • Holy Wars"-- against various enemies of the
    Church
  • Initially non-Christians Moslems and pagans
  • At first the object of the Crusades was to
    recover the Holy Places (in what are now Israel
    and Jordan) from the Moslems, who had seized them
    in the 7th Century.
  • Later Crusades were preached against Christian
    heretics, and even against orthodox Christians
    who happened to have political disputes with the
    current pope.

36
Crusade Period
37
Chivalry
  • Chivalry was a peculiarity of the practice of
    war in medieval Europe.
  • The feudal knight was supposed to be devout,
    honest, selfless, just, brave, honorable,
    obedient, kind, charitable, generous, and kind to
    women.
  • complex rituals and rules

38
European Universities
  • Evolved from medieval schools known as studia
    generalia
  • Places of study open to students throughout
    Europe.
  • Efforts to educate clerks and monks beyond the
    level of the cathedral and monastic schools.
  • Earliest Western universities
  • Salerno, Italy-- 9th c. -- famous medical school
    that drew students from all over Europe
  • Bologna, Italy-- 11thc. --a widely respected
    school of canon and civil law
  • University of Paris --mid 12th c.-- noted for
    its teaching of theology and as a model for other
    universities in N. Europe
  • Oxford University in England--end of the 12th
    century.

39
Course of Study
  • Core curriculum based on the seven liberal arts
  • Trivium grammar, logic, rhetoric,
  • Quadrivium geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and
    music.
  • Students then proceeded to study under one of the
    professional faculties of medicine, law, and
    theology.
  • Final examinations were grueling, and many
    students failed.

40
Christian Mysticism
  • Visionary literature
  • Visions
  • Dreams
  • Reflection of an individuals intuitive and
    direct knowledge of God autobiographical
  • Subject to review and confirmation by Church
    authorities
  • Those who did not adhere to Church doctrine were
    considered heretics and often prosecuted.

41
Discipline of Christian Mysticism
  • Mystics typically received visions or knowledge
    of God by practicing
  • Prayer oral praying, meditation, contemplation
  • Self denial asceticism, fasting, etc.
  • Charity almsgiving, service to others
  • Visions often came in times of personal crisis or
    illness

42
Major Medieval Christian Mystics
  • St. Symeon the New Theologian (9491022)
  • Saint Anselm (10331109)
  • Hugh of Saint Victor (10961141)
  • Richard of St. Victor (? 1173)
  • Hildegard of Bingen (10981179)
  • St. Francis of Assisi (11811226)
  • St. Clare of Assisi (11941253)
  • St. Anthony of Padua (11951231)
  • Beatrice of Nazareth (1200-1268)
  • Mechthild of Magdeburg (12101279)
  • St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (12211274)
  • Angela of Foligno (12481309)
  • Gertrude the Great (12561301)
  • Marguerite Porete (?1310)
  • Meister Eckhart (c. 12601327/8)
  • John of Ruysbroeck (12931381)
  • St. Gregory Palamas (12961359)
  • Johannes Tauler (13001361)
  • Henry Suso (13001366)
  • St. Bridget of Sweden (13021373)
  • St. Julian of Norwich (1342c.1416)
  • St. Catherine of Sienna (13471380)
  • William Langland (?1385/6)
  • Margery Kempe (c.13731438)
  • Thomas à Kempis (13801471)
  • St. Ignatius of Loyola (14911556)
About PowerShow.com