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Soil Fertility Management for Organic Farming Systems and Potential Disease Control Benefits

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USDA National Organic Program Standards 7 CFR PART 205 ... compost mixed with or without cover crops reduced root-lesion nematode incidence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil Fertility Management for Organic Farming Systems and Potential Disease Control Benefits


1
Soil Fertility Management for Organic Farming
Systems and Potential Disease Control Benefits
Dr. Sajeemas Mint Pasakdee, Soil
Scientist/Agronomist College of Agricultural
Sciences Tech., Fresno State
2
Outline
  • Definition--Organic Production
  • Soil Fertility Management for Organic Crops
  • Soil Organic Matter Plant Nutrition
  • Nutrient and Water Management
  • Organic Sources of Nutrients
  • Potential Disease Control Benefits

3
Organic Production
  • USDA National Organic Program Standards 7 CFR
    PART 205
  • A production system that is managed in accordance
    with the Act and regulations in this part to
    respond to site-specific conditions by
    integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical
    practices that foster cycling of resources,
    promote ecological balance, and conserve
    biodiversity.

4
Soil Fertility Management
  • Feed the soil to feed the plant
  • Holistic approach
  • Soil and plant interactions
  • Soil properties
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Soil Organic Matter (nutrient reservoir)
  • Soil quality
  • Soil health

5
Soil Organic Matter
  • Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Reservoirs
  • Agricultural top soil 1-6
  • In CA, 1-3 SOM

6
Soil Fertility Management
  • Nutrient and Irrigation Management
  • Crop residue, Fertilizers
  • Nutrient availability
  • Biotic factors microbial activities, earthworm,
    etc.
  • Abiotic factors water, soil temperature, O2
  • Timing and Nutrient Availability
  • Max. Nutrient Use Efficiency and Min. Nutrient
    Loss (N P)
  • Soil Plant Tissue Testing

7
Ranges of Total Soil C
  • Locations Total Soil C ()
  • (0-6 depth) Yr 1 Yr 3
  • Santa Cruz 1.36 1.45 1.22 1.32
  • (new org land)
  • Five Points 6.78 8.36 7.32 8.72
  • (gt5 yrs. org land)
  • Compost applications at 5 tons/A annually
  • S. Pasakdee (2006)

8
Plant Nutrition
  • Macronutrients C, H,
  • O, N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg
  • Micronutrients
  • Trace elements
  • B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn,
  • Mo, and Zn

Plant Nutrition Manual by J. B. Jones (1998)
9
Soil pH Nutrient Availability
10
N Availability
  • Mineralization
  • Organic N to mineral N (NH4, NO3-)
  • Nitrification (need O2)
  • NH3 (Nitrosomonas) ?NO2- (Nitrobacter) ? NO3-
  • Denitrification (depleted O2)
  • NO3- ? NO2- ? NO ? N2O ? N2 gas
  • Biological N Fixation
  • Legume family (when N limit)
  • N2 ? NH3 ? NH4

11
Maximize Nutrient Uptake
Cool season vegetables (broccoli)
N (100-200 lbsN/A) Crop N Uptake
Side-dress N
Additive effects
Compost
Time (days)
12
Interactions (Additive Effects)
  • Compost only
  • Compost mixed with Guano
  • S. Pasakdee (2006)

13
Improve Water Use Efficiency
  • Crop evapotranspiration (ETc)EToKc
  • Reference evapotranspiration (ETo)
  • Crop coefficient (Kc)

CIMIS weather station
FAO, 1999
14
Soil and Plant Tissue Testing
  • Organic vs. Inorganic forms
  • Organic N vs. NO3-, NH4
  • Farm scale nutrient management plan (NMP)
  • Input, Output, Nutrient Carry Over (residues)
  • Soil test
  • Plant tissue test
  • Petiole nitrate
  • Whole leaf total N (tomato-UCD,
    broccoli-Pasakdee, 2006)

15
Leaf Total N vs. Yield Petiole Nitrate vs. Yield
UCSC farm
S. Pasakdee (2006)
16
(Organic) Nutrient Budget
  • Crop nutrient requirement
  • Crop uptake, removal, and residue
  • 10 to 15 of total N from manure will be
    available during the first year
  • Recognize the nutrient accumulation over time
    from slow release nutrient sources
  • Issue of P accumulation and water quality

17
Organic Sources of Nutrients
  • Natural-based fertilizers
  • Compost
  • Cover crops/Green manure/Catch crop
  • Raw-Fresh-Aged manure
  • Biosolids (composted sewage sludge)
  • Urea (1st organic compound to be artificially
    synthesized from inorganic starting materials)

18
USDA-NOP National List
  • Approved materials by…
  • USDA-NOP
  • Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)
  • Washington State Dept. of Agri. (WSDA)
  • International Federation of Organic Agriculture
    Movements (IFOAM)

19
Which materials are approved?
  • All aspects of agricultural practices, harvest,
    processing, and retails
  • Fertilizers Soil Amendments
  • Check up-to-date list before making decision
  • Formulation and Manufacturing processes
  • Not all organic materials are allowed
    (urea.GMOs).
  • Some synthetic materials are allowed, e.g.,
  • K2SO4 from mining is allowed.
  • Humic Acid only natural ones not synthetic ones
  • NaNO3 _at_20 of total N application (only for
    USDA but not for IFOAM label)

20
Chilean Nitrate (NaNO3) Soil EC
2004
2002
21
Manure vs. Compost
22
Raw/Fresh/Aged Manure Application
  • Food safety issues
  • at least 120 days prior to the harvest of a
    product whose edible portion touches the soil or
    soil particle
  • at least 90 days prior to the harvest of a
    product whose edible portion does not touch the
    soil or soil particles

23
Cover Crops
  • Crop rotation
  • Biological control
  • Green manure
  • Biological N fixation
  • Soil organic matter
  • Catch crop (root depth)
  • Minimize nutrient leaching

UC SAREP Cover Crop Database http//www.sarep.ucda
vis.edu/ccrop/
24
Integrated Pest Management
Biological Control
Chemical Control
Cultural Control
Physical Control
25
General IPM Guidelines for Weeds, Diseases, and
Insects
  • Monitor populations
  • Rotate crops
  • Edge effect
  • Alternate hosts
  • Plant debris
  • Barriers
  • Mechanical traps
  • Clean seeds
  • Windbreaks
  • Plant spacing
  • Colors of crops
  • Cover crops
  • Trap crops

26
Economic Thresholds
Maine Pest Management Dower, Dill, and Carter
27
Potential Disease Control Benefits
  • The American Phytopathological Society
  • Compost (P.D. Miller, 2006)
  • Raised-bed
  • Alternative to fumigation
  • Control of strawberry black root rot
  • Compost (Abbasi et al., 2002)
  • Conv. Org. tomato production system
  • Reduction of fruit bacterial spot
  • Reduction of anthracnose fruit spot

28
Potential Disease Control Benefits
  • Compost water extracts (Al-Dahmani et al., 2003)
  • Reduction of bacterial spot (Xanthomonas
    vesicatoria) on tomato fruits and infected leaves
  • Extracts performed better than direct soil
    application
  • Notes Efficacy of the water extracts was not
    affected by oxygen conc. in the suspension during
    extraction, compost maturity, or sterilization by
    filtration or autoclaving.

29
Potential Disease Control Benefits
  • Poultry litter, Poultry compost, and Cover crops
    (Everts et al., 2006)
  • Rotations potato, soybean, cucumber, grain
    sorghum, sorghum sudangrass
  • Poultry litter and compost mixed with or without
    cover crops reduced root-lesion nematode
    incidence

30
Potential Disease Control Benefits
  • Hairy vetch (Zhou et al., 2006)
  • Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon
  • Paper mill residuals (Stone et al., 2003)
  • Compost and Non-composted PMR
  • Suppressed cucumber damping-off, Pythium blight,
    foliar brown spot of snap bean

31
Further Questions
  • Dr. Sajeemas Mint Pasakdee
  • spasakdee_at_csufresno.edu
  • Tel. 559-278-2828

32
References
  • Pasakdee, S. (2006) NITROGEN AND WATER MANAGEMENT
    IN ORGANIC VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIA
    IMPLICATIONS FOR SOIL PROPERTIES, PLANT NUTRIENT,
    AND FARM BUDGET ANALYSIS. PhD Dissertation. UC
    Santa Cruz.
  • Images
  • Earth worm http//www.edupic.net/animals.htm
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